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Controlled clinical trial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231607/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-with-epidural-anaesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour prolongs the second stage of labour and results in more instrumental deliveries. It has been suggested that a more upright position of the mother during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright and recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on important maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231605/endonasal-versus-external-dacryocystorhinostomy-for-nasolacrimal-duct-obstruction
#2
REVIEW
Lona Jawaheer, Caroline J MacEwen, Deepa Anijeet
BACKGROUND: A dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) procedure aims to restore drainage of tears by bypassing a blockage in the nasolacrimal duct, through the creation of a bony ostium that allows communication between the lacrimal sac and the nasal cavity. It can be performed using endonasal or external approaches. The comparative success rates of these two approaches have not yet been established and this review aims to evaluate the relevant up-to-date research. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review is to compare the success rates of endonasal DCR with that of external DCR...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231440/effects-of-acupressure-on-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analyses-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
REVIEW
Jing Miao, Xinyou Liu, Chaojun Wu, Hui Kong, Weiping Xie, Kouying Liu
BACKGROUND: Acupressure has been used as an effective way in treating with stomach upset. However the efficacy of acupressure in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of acupressure on three categories of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. DATA SOURCES: Databases had been retrieved from inception through February 2016 for the randomized controlled trials in accordance with the inclusion criteria, including PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, EMBASE, Science Direct, CINAHL, China Biology Medicine, Chinese National Knowledge infrastructure, Wan Fang and Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231380/perioperative-medications-for-preventing-temporarily-increased-intraocular-pressure-after-laser-trabeculoplasty
#4
REVIEW
Linda Zhang, Jennifer S Weizer, David C Musch
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is the international leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only currently known modifiable risk factor; it can be reduced by medications, incisional surgery, or laser trabeculoplasty (LTP). LTP reduces IOP by 25% to 30% from baseline, but early acute IOP elevation after LTP is a common adverse effect. Most of these IOP elevations are transient, but temporarily elevated IOP may cause further optic nerve damage, worsening of glaucoma requiring additional therapy, and permanent vision loss...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231371/efficacy-of-intralipid-infusion-in-reducing-amphotericin-b-associated-nephrotoxicity-in-head-and-neck-invasive-fungal-infection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Mehrdad Hasibi, Sirous Jafari, Seyyed Ali Manshadi, Marjan Asadollahi, Mohammadreza Salehi, Varasteh Vakili Zarch, Ali Kouhi
Amphotericin B deoxycholate (ABD) is the best therapeutic agent available for the treatment of most systemic fungal infections. However, some untoward adverse effects such as nephrotoxicity may limit its appropriate therapeutic use. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial ofthe infusion of fat emulsion (Intralipid) shortly after the infusion of ABD to evaluate its effects on reducing ABD-associated nephrotoxicity. Our patient population was made up of 31 patients who were randomized into two groups: an intervention group (n = 16) and a control group (15 patients)...
February 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231274/early-skin-to-skin-contact-after-cesarean-section-a-randomized-clinical-pilot-study
#6
Martina Kollmann, Lisa Aldrian, Anna Scheuchenegger, Eva Mautner, Sereina A Herzog, Berndt Urlesberger, Reinhard B Raggam, Uwe Lang, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Philipp Klaritsch
OBJECTIVE: Early bonding by skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has been demonstrated to be beneficial for mothers and newborns following vaginal delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of intraoperative bonding (early SSC) after cesarean section on neonatal adaptation, maternal pain and stress response. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective, randomized-controlled pilot study was performed at a single academic tertiary hospital (Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Graz, Austria) between September 2013 and January 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230910/adhesives-for-bonded-molar-tubes-during-fixed-brace-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Declan T Millett, Nicky A Mandall, Rye Cr Mattick, Joy Hickman, Anne-Marie Glenny
BACKGROUND: Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. The success of a fixed appliance depends partly on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being glued to the teeth so that they do not become detached during treatment. Brackets (metal squares) are usually attached to teeth other than molars, where bands (metal rings that go round each tooth) are more commonly used. Orthodontic tubes (stainless steel tubes that allow wires to pass through them), are typically welded to bands but they may also be glued directly (bonded) to molars...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230908/probiotics-for-people-with-hepatic-encephalopathy
#8
REVIEW
Rohan Dalal, Richard G McGee, Stephen M Riordan, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a disorder of brain function as a result of liver failure or portosystemic shunt or both. Both hepatic encephalopathy (clinically overt) and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (not clinically overt) significantly impair patient's quality of life and daily functioning, and represent a significant burden on healthcare resources. Probiotics are live micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, may confer a health benefit on the host. OBJECTIVES: To determine the beneficial and harmful effects of probiotics in any dosage, compared with placebo or no intervention, or with any other treatment for people with any grade of acute or chronic hepatic encephalopathy...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230899/shared-care-across-the-interface-between-primary-and-specialty-care-in-management-of-long-term-conditions
#9
REVIEW
Susan M Smith, Gráinne Cousins, Barbara Clyne, Shane Allwright, Tom O'Dowd
BACKGROUND: Shared care has been used in the management of many chronic conditions with the assumption that it delivers better care than primary or specialty care alone; however, little is known about the effectiveness of shared care. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of shared care health service interventions designed to improve the management of chronic disease across the primary/specialty care interface. This is an update of a previously published review...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230858/ngs-based-transcriptome-profiling-reveals-biomarkers-for-companion-diagnostics-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-blocker-galunisertib-in-hcc
#10
Yuan Cao, Rahul Agarwal, Francesco Dituri, Luigi Lupo, Paolo Trerotoli, Serena Mancarella, Peter Winter, Gianluigi Giannelli
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling has gained extensive interest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The small molecule kinase inhibitor galunisertib, targeting the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), blocks HCC progression in preclinical models and shows promising effects in ongoing clinical trials. As the drug is not similarly effective in all patients, this study was aimed at identifying new companion diagnostics biomarkers for patient stratification. Next-generation sequencing-based massive analysis of cDNA ends was used to investigate the transcriptome of an invasive HCC cell line responses to TGF-β1 and galunisertib...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230715/a-multireferral-centre-retrospective-cohort-analysis-on-the-experience-in-treatment-of-metastatic-uveal-melanoma-and-utilization-of-sequential-liver-directed-treatment-and-immunotherapy
#11
Malinda Itchins, Paolo A Ascierto, Alexander M Menzies, Meredith Oatley, Serigne Lo, Dariush Douraghi-Zadeh, Timmothy Harrington, Richard Maher, Antonio M Grimaldi, Alexander Guminski
Metastatic uveal melanoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. To date, systemic therapy has been ineffective; however, there are few data on the benefits of anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD-1 antibodies in sequence with liver-directed therapy. A retrospective cohort analysis was carried out on 37 consecutive patients managed in a tertiary referral centre examining the safety and efficacy of treatment; patterns of care; and impact on survival. The sequential treatment with transarterial chemotherapy (TAC), systemic immunotherapy (IT) and systemic chemotherapy was reviewed...
February 22, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230712/updating-evidence-for-using-hypothermia-in-pediatric-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-conventional-and-bayesian-meta-analytic-perspectives
#12
Robert C Tasker, Frederick W Vonberg, Elizabeth D Ulano, Alireza Akhondi-Asl
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical trials of hypothermia management on outcome in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury using conventional and Bayesian meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Screening of PubMed and other databases to identify randomized controlled trials of hypothermia for pediatric severe traumatic brain injury published before September 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Four investigators assessed and reviewed randomized controlled trial data...
February 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230637/mtor-inhibition-and-cardiovascular-diseases-cardiac-hypertrophy
#13
Ernesto Paoletti
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is highly prevalent in kidney transplant recipients, and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Immunosuppressive agents might affect LVH behavior after kidney transplantation. This review is an appraisal of available data regarding LVH in renal transplantation and especially of studies that evaluated LVH response to treatment. In particular, the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors adopted as immunosuppressive agents in kidney transplantation is reviewed in the light of recent studies that have shown LVH regression induced by this class of medications in kidney transplant recipients with posttransplant cardiomyopathy...
February 23, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230597/histomorphometric-evaluation-of-two-different-bone-substitutes-in-sinus-floor-augmentation-procedures
#14
Marco Portelli, Marco Cicciù, Floriana Lauritano, Gabriele Cervino, Maurizio Manuelli, Enrico Felice Gherlone, Alessandra Lucchese
The aim of this study is to compare the histomorphometric data of deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) and a fully synthetic bone substitute, poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid/hydroxyapatite (PLGA/HA) applied for sinus floor augmentation technique. Twelve maxillary atrophic ridges of 8 patients requiring major maxillary sinus floor augmentation were studied; the sites were randomly assigned to the study groups and reexamined at 6 months after grafting using cone beam computed tomography scans and biopsy samples harvested during dental implant placement...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230450/characteristics-and-medication-use-of-psoriasis-patients-who-may-or-may-not-qualify-for-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
William Malatestinic, Beth Nordstrom, Jashin J Wu, Orin Goldblum, Kathleen Solotkin, Chen-Yen Lin, Kristin Kistler, Kathy Fraeman, Joseph Johnston, Lcdr Lesley Hawley, Nicholas Sicignano, Andre Araujo
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials impose exclusion criteria that may limit the generalizability of results. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine the percentage of real-world patients who would qualify for psoriasis randomized controlled trials; (b) ascertain differences between moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients who would be eligible, ineligible, or potentially eligible for clinical trials; and (c) compare their biologic treatment patterns. METHODS: Moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients were identified from the U...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230324/effects-of-short-term-energy-restriction-on-liver-lipid-content-and-inflammatory-status-in-severely-obese-adults-results-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-rct-using-two-dietary-approaches
#16
Emma L Baldry, Guruprasad P Aithal, Philip Kaye, Iskandar R Idris, Andrew Bennett, Paul C Leeder, Ian A Macdonald
Short-term very low energy diets (VLED) are used in clinical practice prior to bariatric surgery, however, regimens vary and outcomes for a short intervention are unclear. We examined the effect of two VLEDs; a food-based diet (FD) and meal replacement plan (MRP) (LighterLife) over two weeks in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). We collected clinical and anthropometric data, fasting blood samples, and dietary evaluation questionnaires. Surgeons took liver biopsies and made a visual assessment of the liver...
February 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230252/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-2-study-of-ganaxolone-as-add-on-therapy-in-adults-with-uncontrolled-partial-onset-seizures
#17
Michael R Sperling, Pavel Klein, Julia Tsai
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ganaxolone as adjunctive therapy in adults with uncontrolled partial-onset seizures despite taking up to three concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: Adults aged 18-69 years and refractory to conventional AEDs were enrolled in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After an 8-week baseline period, patients were randomized 2:1 to ganaxolone 1,500 mg/day or placebo for a 10-week treatment period (2-week forced titration and 8-week maintenance) followed by either tapering or entry into an open-label extension study...
February 23, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230244/topical-anaesthetics-for-pain-control-during-repair-of-dermal-laceration
#18
REVIEW
Baraa O Tayeb, Anthony Eidelman, Cristy L Eidelman, Ewan D McNicol, Daniel B Carr
BACKGROUND: Topical local anaesthetics provide effective analgesia for patients undergoing numerous superficial procedures, including repair of dermal lacerations. The need for cocaine in topical anaesthetic formulations has been questioned because of concern about adverse effects, thus novel preparations of cocaine-free anaesthetics have been developed. This review was originally published in 2011 and has been updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether benefits of non-invasive topical anaesthetic application occur at the expense of decreased analgesic efficacy...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230230/bronchoscopic-lung-volume-reduction-procedures-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
REVIEW
Joseph Em van Agteren, Khin Hnin, Dion Grosser, Kristin V Carson, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: In the recent years, a variety of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) procedures have emerged that may provide a treatment option to participants suffering from moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of BLVR on the short- and long-term health outcomes in participants with moderate to severe COPD and determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of each individual technique. SEARCH METHODS: Studies were identified from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR) and by handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts...
February 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230008/analysis-of-therapeutic-effectiveness-and-prognostic-factor-on-argon-helium-cryoablation-combined-with-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Chen Huang, Weizhao Zhuang, Huigang Feng, Huizhuang Guo, Yukuan Tang, Hanwei Chen, Yi Huang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness on argon-helium cryoablation combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its influence factor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This trial was approved by the Guangzhou Panyu Central Hospital Ethics Committee. This was a prospective, single-center study conducted in Guangzhou Panyu Central Hospital. After informed consent was obtained, the prospective randomized clinical data of 120 patients with advanced HCC were collected...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
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