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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224232/physical-activity-and-family-based-obesity-treatment-a-review-of-expert-recommendations-on-physical-activity-in-youth
#1
REVIEW
C Foster, J B Moore, C R Singletary, J A Skelton
Targeting physical inactivity in children is pertinent to aiding in the decrease of childhood obesity rates. Only 33% of adolescents are obtaining the recommended goal of at least 60 min of physical activity per day. The objectives of this review are to summarize professional recommendations for physical activity and exercise in children and adolescents, and identify family-centred strategies that can be implemented by weight management clinicians. Clinically oriented recommendations and policy statements from professional organizations were identified through literature and internet searches, summarized using rubrics of aerobic, muscle strengthening and bone strengthening exercise, then examined for details on family-based focus, inclusion of child developmental stage and age, and application to the prevention and treatment of obesity...
December 10, 2017: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224116/chemical-shift-assignments-of-the-partially-deuterated-fyn-sh2-sh3-domain
#2
Fabien Kieken, Karine Loth, Nico van Nuland, Peter Tompa, Tom Lenaerts
Src Homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) are two key protein interaction modules involved in regulating the activity of many proteins such as tyrosine kinases and phosphatases by respective recognition of phosphotyrosine and proline-rich regions. In the Src family kinases, the inactive state of the protein is the direct result of the interaction of the SH2 and the SH3 domain with intra-molecular regions, leading to a closed structure incompetent with substrate modification. Here, we report the 1H, 15N and 13C backbone- and side-chain chemical shift assignments of the partially deuterated Fyn SH3-SH2 domain and structural differences between tandem and single domains...
December 9, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224107/sex-dependent-role-of-estrogen-sulfotransferase-and-steroid-sulfatase-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#3
Wojciech G Garbacz, Mengxi Jiang, Wen Xie
Sulfonation and desulfation are two opposing processes that represent an important layer of regulation of estrogenic activity via ligand supplies. Enzymatic activities of families of enzymes, known as sulfotransferases and sulfatases, lead to structural and functional changes of the steroids, thyroids, xenobiotics, and neurotransmitters. Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and steroid sulfatase (STS) represent negative and positive regulation of the estrogen activity, respectively. This is because EST-mediated sulfation deactivates estrogens, whereas STS-mediated desulfation converts the inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223879/internalization-of-a-sunflower-mannose-binding-lectin-into-phytopathogenic-fungal-cells-induces-cytotoxicity
#4
Marianela Del Rio, Laura de la Canal, Marcela Pinedo, Mariana Regente
Lectins are carbohydrate-affinity proteins with the ability to recognize and reversibly bind specific glycoconjugates. We have previously isolated a bioactive sunflower mannose-binding lectin belonging to the jacalin-related family called Helja. Despite of the significant number of plant lectins described in the literature, only a small group exhibits antifungal activity and the mechanism by which they kill fungi is still not understood. The aim of this work was to explore Helja activity on plant pathogenic fungi, and provide insights into its mechanism of action...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223140/collagen-induced-arthritis-analysis-in-rhbdf2-knockout-mouse
#5
Min-Young Lee, Ju-Seong Kang, Ryeo-Eun Go, Yong-Sub Byun, Young Jin Wi, Kyung-A Hwang, Jae-Hoon Choi, Hyoung-Chin Kim, Kyung-Chul Choi, Ki-Hoan Nam
Rhomboid family member 2 gene (Rhbdf2) is an inactive homologue lacking essential catalytic residues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases. The protein is necessary for maturation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) converting enzyme, which is the molecule responsible for the release of TNF-α. In this study, Rhbdf2 knockout (KO) mice were produced by CRISPR/CAS9. To see the effects of the failure of TNF-α release induced by Rhbdf2 gene KO, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is the representative TNF-α related disease, was induced in the Rhbdf2 mutant mouse using chicken collagen type II...
December 8, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222438/new-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-nickel-superoxide-degradation-from-studies-of-model-peptides
#6
Daniel Tietze, Jana Sartorius, Banabithi Koley Seth, Kevin Herr, Pascal Heimer, Diana Imhof, Doreen Mollenhauer, Gerd Buntkowsky
A series of small, catalytically active metallopeptides, which were derived from the nickel superoxide dismutase (NiSOD) active site were employed to study the mechanism of superoxide degradation especially focusing on the role of the axial imidazole ligand. In the literature, there are contradicting propositions about the catalytic importance of the N-terminal histidine. Therefore, we studied the stability and activity of a set of eight NiSOD model peptides, which represent the major model systems discussed in the literature to date, yet differing in their length and their Ni-coordination...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222086/genome-wide-dna-methylation-profiling-using-the-methylation-dependent-restriction-enzyme-lpnpi
#7
Ruben Boers, Joachim Boers, Bas de Hoon, Christel Kockx, Zeliha Ozgur, Anco Molijn, Wilfred van IJcken, Joop Laven, Joost Gribnau
DNA methylation is a well-known epigenetic modification that plays a crucial role in gene regulation, but genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation remains technically challenging and costly. DNA methylation-dependent restriction enzymes can be used to restrict CpG methylation analysis to methylated regions of the genome only, which significantly reduces the required sequencing depth and simplifies subsequent bioinformatics analysis. Unfortunately, this approach has been hampered by complete digestion of DNA in CpG methylation-dense regions, resulting in fragments that are too small for accurate mapping...
December 8, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221919/impact-of-lifestyle-interventions-targeting-healthy-diet-physical-activity-and-weight-loss-on-asthma-in-adults-what-is-the-evidence
#8
Sharmilee M Nyenhuis, Anne E Dixon, Jun Ma
Unhealthy lifestyle factors such as poor diet quality, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity are associated with negative health consequences in asthma including poor asthma control, impaired quality of life, and greater health care utilization. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of behavioral treatments and has been effective in chronic diseases such as atherothrombotic vascular disease and diabetes. There is a critical need for lifestyle interventions in asthma care that address obesity and its intimately linked risk behaviors in terms of poor diet and physical inactivity...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221757/an-international-multicenter-cohort-study-comparing-6-shoulder-clinical-scores-in-an-asymptomatic-population
#9
James M McLean, Daniel Awwad, Ryan Lisle, James Besanko, Donald Shivakkumar, Jordan Leith
HYPOTHESIS: The study purpose was to assess 6 shoulder patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) values in asymptomatic, healthy, pathology-free individuals. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in PROM values in pathology-free individuals when considering sex, age, ethnicity, and geographical location. METHODS: Electronic questionnaires were completed by 635 individuals (323 Australians and 312 Canadians) without dominant shoulder pathology for the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score; Constant-Murley Shoulder Score (CSS); Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS); University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder score; Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI); and Stanmore Percentage of Normal Shoulder Assessment (SPONSA)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221316/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-pulmonary-tuberculoma-with-focus-on-the-use-of-tubeless-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Zhaohua Xia, Kun Qiao, Jianxing He
Pulmonary tuberculoma are benign solitary pulmonary nodules representing up to 25% of all resected solitary pulmonary nodules. However, the differentiation between pulmonary tuberculoma and lung cancer, as well as between active tuberculoma and inactive tuberculoma remains a clinical challenge. The present review summarizes the recent advances in the management of pulmonary tuberculoma, including radiological findings, the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment and surgical treatments. Application of the novel tubeless video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) technique in both the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculoma has been found to be safe and feasible and leads to less surgical trauma, which results in reduced length of hospitalization and better post-operative quality of life...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220797/primaquine-hybrids-as-promising-antimycobacterial-and-antimalarial-agents
#11
Kristina Pavić, Ivana Perković, Šárka Pospíšilová, Marta Machado, Diana Fontinha, Miguel Prudêncio, Josef Jampilek, Aidan Coffey, Lorraine Endersen, Hrvoje Rimac, Branka Zorc
Four series of primaquine (PQ) derivatives were screened for antitubercular and antiplasmodial activity: amides 1a-k, ureas 2a-s, semicarbazides 3a-c and bis-ureas 4a-u. Antimycobacterial activity of PQ derivatives against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), M. avium complex (MAC) and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) were evaluated in vitro and compared with PQ and the standard antitubercular drugs. In general, the PQ derivatives showed higher potency than the parent compound. Most of the compounds of series 1 and 2 showed high activity against MAP, comparable or even higher than the relevant drug ciprofloxacin, and weak or no activity against MTB and MAC...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220653/a-poly-adp-ribose-trigger-releases-the-auto-inhibition-of-a-chromatin-remodeling-oncogene
#12
Hari R Singh, Aurelio P Nardozza, Ingvar R Möller, Gunnar Knobloch, Hans A V Kistemaker, Markus Hassler, Nadine Harrer, Charlotte Blessing, Sebastian Eustermann, Christiane Kotthoff, Sébastien Huet, Felix Mueller-Planitz, Dmitri V Filippov, Gyula Timinszky, Kasper D Rand, Andreas G Ladurner
DNA damage triggers chromatin remodeling by mechanisms that are poorly understood. The oncogene and chromatin remodeler ALC1/CHD1L massively decompacts chromatin in vivo yet is inactive prior to DNA-damage-mediated PARP1 induction. We show that the interaction of the ALC1 macrodomain with the ATPase module mediates auto-inhibition. PARP1 activation suppresses this inhibitory interaction. Crucially, release from auto-inhibition requires a poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) binding macrodomain. We identify tri-ADP-ribose as a potent PAR-mimic and synthetic allosteric effector that abrogates ATPase-macrodomain interactions, promotes an ungated conformation, and activates the remodeler's ATPase...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220652/mechanistic-insights-into-autoinhibition-of-the-oncogenic-chromatin-remodeler-alc1
#13
Laura C Lehmann, Graeme Hewitt, Shintaro Aibara, Alexander Leitner, Emil Marklund, Sarah L Maslen, Varun Maturi, Yang Chen, David van der Spoel, J Mark Skehel, Aristidis Moustakas, Simon J Boulton, Sebastian Deindl
Human ALC1 is an oncogene-encoded chromatin-remodeling enzyme required for DNA repair that possesses a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-binding macro domain. Its engagement with PARylated PARP1 activates ALC1 at sites of DNA damage, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we establish a dual role for the macro domain in autoinhibition of ALC1 ATPase activity and coupling to nucleosome mobilization. In the absence of DNA damage, an inactive conformation of the ATPase is maintained by juxtaposition of the macro domain against predominantly the C-terminal ATPase lobe through conserved electrostatic interactions...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220112/multispectral-image-analysis-in-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#14
Guo Huang, Junchao Peng, Zi Ye, Aize Kijlstra, Donglei Zhang, Peizeng Yang
PURPOSE: To investigate fundus abnormalities in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease by a noninvasive tool, multispectral imaging (MSI). METHODS: A total of 77 patients with VKH and 163 healthy controls were enrolled between January and April 2015. The MSI findings were evaluated in combination with fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), optical coherent tomography (OCT) and fundus photography (FP). Additionally, we compared extent of exposure of choroidal blood vessels between patients with VKH and healthy controls to evaluate retinal transmission function...
December 8, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219220/heart-rate-recovery-fast-to-slow-phase-transition-influence-of-physical-fitness-and-exercise-intensity
#15
Rhenan Bartels, Eliza Prodel, Mateus C Laterza, Jorge Roberto P de Lima, Tiago Peçanha
BACKGROUND: Postexercise heart rate (HR) recovery presents an exponential decay, with two distinct phases: a fast phase, characterized by abrupt decay of HR, and determined by parasympathetic reactivation; and a slow phase, characterized by gradual decay of HR, and predominantly determined by sympathetic withdrawal. Although several methods have been proposed to assess postexercise HR recovery, none of those methods selectively assesses the time of transition from the fast to the slow phase of the HR recovery curve (HRRPT ), and the magnitude of decay prior to (HRRFP ) and after this point (HRRSP )...
December 8, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219216/knockdown-of-long-non-coding-rna-xist-suppresses-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-progression-by-activating-mir-491-5p
#16
Qiang Cheng, Xiuyin Xu, Hui Jiang, Lingen Xu, Qiang Li
Dysregulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the development and progression of human cancers. X-inactive specific transcript (XIST), an lncRNA, is known as an oncogene in multiple tumors. However, the roles of XIST and its related miRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are poorly understood. In this study, we found that XIST expression was significantly upregulated in NPC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of XIST inhibited NPC cell proliferation and invasion and induced apoptosis in vitro, as well as suppressed NPC tumor growth in vivo...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218869/chemical-reaction-vector-embeddings-towards-predicting-drug-metabolism-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#17
Emily K Mallory, Ambika Acharya, Stefano E Rensi, Peter J Turnbaugh, Roselie A Bright, Russ B Altman
Bacteria in the human gut have the ability to activate, inactivate, and reactivate drugs with both intended and unintended effects. For example, the drug digoxin is reduced to the inactive metabolite dihydrodigoxin by the gut Actinobacterium E. lenta, and patients colonized with high levels of drug metabolizing strains may have limited response to the drug. Understanding the complete space of drugs that are metabolized by the human gut microbiome is critical for predicting bacteria-drug relationships and their effects on individual patient response...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217926/the-association-between-physical-activity-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-among-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-gaza-strip-palestine
#18
Abdel Hamid El Bilbeisi, Saeed Hosseini, Kurosh Djafarian
Background: Metabolic syndrome is a major health problem worldwide. Globally, the World Health Organization identified physical inactivity as the fourth leading risk factor for mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the association between physical activities and metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications among type 2 diabetes patients in Gaza Strip, Palestine. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1200 previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (from both genders, aged 20 to 64 years) receiving care in the primary health care centers...
May 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217329/-the-changing-profile-of-caregivers-of-persons-aged-65-years-and-over-with-disabilities-within-a-persisting-family-care-model
#19
Pilar Zueras, Jeroen Spijker, Amand Blanes
INTRODUCTION: The increasing participation of women in the workforce may make it difficult to sustain the current model of elderly care. The aim of this article was to determine the changing sociodemographic profile of informal elderly caregivers with disabilities, the interaction between employment and care, and the view of the public on the responsibility of that care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of secondary data from four national surveys were used: the disability surveys held in 1999 (N=3,936) and 2008 (N=5,257), the 2011-12 National Health Survey (N=439), and the Family and Gender survey of 2012 (N=1,359)...
December 4, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217234/outcomes-following-three-factor-inactive-prothrombin-complex-concentrate-versus-recombinant-activated-factor-vii-administration-during-cardiac-surgery
#20
Patrick C Harper, Mark M Smith, Nathan J Brinkman, Melissa A Passe, Darrell R Schroeder, Sameh M Said, Gregory A Nuttall, William C Oliver, David W Barbara
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes following inactive prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) or recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) administration during cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective propensity-matched analysis. SETTING: Academic tertiary-care center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass who received either rFVIIa or the inactive 3-factor PCC. INTERVENTIONS: Outcomes following intraoperative administration of rFVIIa (263) or factor IX complex (72) as rescue therapy to treat bleeding...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
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