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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457826/prevalence-of-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-professional-male-long-distance-bus-drivers-in-lagos-south-west-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Casmir E Amadi, Tim P Grove, Amam C Mbakwem, Obianuju B Ozoh, Oyewole A Kushimo, David A Wood, Michael Akinkunmi
BACKGROUND: Professional drivers are known to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was carried out to highlight these risk factors and their predictors among male long-distance professional bus drivers in Lagos, south-west Nigeria, with a view to improving health awareness in this group. METHOD: Socio-demographic data, anthropometric indices, blood pressure, fasting plasma blood glucose levels and lipid and physical activity profiles of 293 drivers were measured...
February 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457686/viable-but-non-culturable-and-persistence-describe-the-same-bacterial-stress-state
#2
Jun-Seob Kim, Nityananda Chowdhury, Ryota Yamasaki, Thomas K Wood
Bacteria are often thought of as having two dormant phenotypes: the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state and the persister state. Here we investigate the relatedness of the two stress-induced phenotypes at the single-cell level and examine cell morphology and quantify cell resuscitation. Using the classic starvation conditions to create VBNC cells, we found that the majority of the remaining Escherichia coli population are spherical, have empty cytosol, and fail to resuscitate; however, some of the spherical cells resuscitate immediately (most probably those with dense cytosol)...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457627/combination-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia-in-adults
#3
REVIEW
Joelle Thorpe, Bonnie Shum, R Andrew Moore, Philip J Wiffen, Ian Gilron
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Current pharmacotherapies are often ineffective and poorly tolerated. Combining different agents could provide superior pain relief and possibly also fewer side effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of combination pharmacotherapy compared to monotherapy or placebo, or both, for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to September 2017...
February 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456856/design-principles-of-perovskites-for-solar-driven-thermochemical-splitting-of-co-2
#4
Miriam Ezbiri, Michael Takacs, Boris Stolz, Jeffrey Lungthok, Aldo Steinfeld, Ronald Michalsky
Perovskites are attractive redox materials for thermo/electrochemical fuel synthesis. To design perovskites with balanced redox energetics for thermochemically splitting CO2 , the activity of lattice oxygen vacancies and stability against crystal phase changes and detrimental carbonate formation are predicted for a representative range of perovskites by electronic structure computations. Systematic trends in these materials properties when doping with selected metal cations are described in the free energy range defined for isothermal and temperature-swing redox cycles...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456767/biochemical-characterization-of-two-clinically-relevant-human-fumarase-variants-defective-for-oligomerization
#5
REVIEW
Artemisa Bulku, Todd M Weaver, Melanie B Berkmen
Background: Fumarase, a significant enzyme of energy metabolism, catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumarate to L-malate. Mutations in the FH gene, encoding human fumarase, are associated with fumarate hydratase deficiency (FHD) and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Fumarase assembles into a homotetramer, with four active sites. Interestingly, residues from three of the four subunits within the homotetramer comprise each active site. Hence, any mutation affecting oligomerization is predicted to disrupt enzyme activity...
2018: Open Biochemistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456261/insights-into-activation-of-cobalt-pre-catalysts-for-c-sp-2-h-functionalization
#6
Jennifer V Obligacion, Hongyu Zhong, Paul J Chirik
The activation of readily prepared, air-stable cobalt (II) bis(carboxylate) pre-catalysts for the functionalization of C( sp 2 )-H bonds has been systematically studied. With the pyridine bis(phosphine) chelate,iPr PNP, treatment of 1-(O2 Ct Bu)2 with either B2 Pin2 or HBPin generated cobalt boryl products. With the former, reduction to (iPr PNP)CoI BPin was observed while with the latter, oxidation to the cobalt(III) dihydride boryl, trans -(iPr PNP)Co(H)2 BPin occurred. The catalytically inactive cobalt complex, Co[PinB(O2 Ct Bu)2 ]2, accompanied formation of the cobalt-boryl products in both cases...
November 2017: Israel Journal of Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456110/synthesis-spectroscopic-studies-and-biological-evaluation-of-acridine-derivatives-the-role-of-aggregation-on-the-photodynamic-efficiency
#7
Carles Felip-León, Olga Martínez-Arroyo, Santiago Díaz-Oltra, Juan F Miravet, Nadezda Apostolova, Francisco Galindo
Two new photoactive compounds (1 and 2) derived from the 9-amidoacridine chromophore have been synthesized and fully characterized. Their abilities to produce singlet oxygen upon irradiation have been compared. The synthesized compounds show very different self-aggregating properties since only 1 present a strong tendency to aggregate in water. Biological assays were conducted with two cell types: hepatoma cells (Hep3B) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies carried out with Hep3B cells showed that non-aggregating compound 2 showed photoxicity, ascribed to the production of singlet oxygen, being aggregating compound 1 photochemically inactive...
February 3, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455301/sexual-functioning-among-early-post-treatment-breast-cancer-survivors
#8
Nancy E Avis, Aimee Johnson, Mollie Rose Canzona, Beverly J Levine
PURPOSE: This study aims (1) to estimate percentages of partnered women who are sexually active over the first 2 years post-breast cancer diagnosis; (2) to identify factors related to sexual inactivity; and (3) to evaluate separately, among both sexually active and inactive survivors, the relation between sexual problems and treatment-related variables, symptoms, and psychosocial factors. METHODS: Longitudinal observational study of breast cancer survivors recruited within 8 months of cancer diagnosis and followed for 18 months...
February 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455292/effects-of-the-nicotinic-agonist-varenicline-nicotinic-antagonist-r-bpidi-and-dat-inhibitor-r-modafinil-on-co-use-of-ethanol-and-nicotine-in-female-p-rats
#9
Sarah E Maggio, Meredith A Saunders, Thomas A Baxter, Kimberly Nixon, Mark A Prendergast, Guangrong Zheng, Peter Crooks, Linda P Dwoskin, Rachel D Slack, Amy H Newman, Richard L Bell, Michael T Bardo
RATIONALE: Co-users of alcohol and nicotine are the largest group of polysubstance users worldwide. Commonalities in mechanisms of action for ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine proposes the possibility of developing a single pharmacotherapeutic to treat co-use. OBJECTIVES: Toward developing a preclinical model of co-use, female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained for voluntary EtOH drinking and i.v. nicotine self-administration in three phases: (1) EtOH alone (0 vs...
February 18, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455165/community-deliverable-exercise-and-anxiety-in-adults-with-arthritis-and-other-rheumatic-diseases-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#10
George A Kelley, Kristi S Kelley, Leigh F Callahan
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Given conflicting findings, the purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of exercise (aerobic, strength training or both) on anxiety in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases (AORD). METHODS: Randomised controlled exercise intervention trials ≥4weeks in adults ≥18 years of age with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia were included. Studies were located by searching eight electronic databases, cross-referencing and expert review...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454937/frequency-modulation-of-transcriptional-bursting-enables-sensitive-and-rapid-gene-regulation
#11
Congxin Li, François Cesbron, Michael Oehler, Michael Brunner, Thomas Höfer
Gene regulation is a complex non-equilibrium process. Here, we show that quantitating the temporal regulation of key gene states (transcriptionally inactive, active, and refractory) provides a parsimonious framework for analyzing gene regulation. Our theory makes two non-intuitive predictions. First, for transcription factors (TFs) that regulate transcription burst frequency, as opposed to amplitude or duration, weak TF binding is sufficient to elicit strong transcriptional responses. Second, refractoriness of a gene after a transcription burst enables rapid responses to stimuli...
February 12, 2018: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454318/points-based-physical-activity-a-novel-approach-to-facilitate-changes-in-body-composition-in-inactive-women-with-overweight-and-obesity
#12
Adrian Holliday, Alice Burgin, Elyzabeth Vargas Fernandez, Sally A M Fenton, Frank Thielecke, Andrew K Blannin
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) interventions for the promotion of weight-management may benefit from increased choice and flexibility to overcome commonly-perceived barriers to PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel "points-based" approach to PA on body composition in inactive women, who are overweight or obese. METHODS: Seventy-six overweight or obese, inactive women were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 'Points-based' PA (PBPA; 30 "PA points"•week- 1 ), Structured exercise (StructEx; 150 min moderate-intensity exercise•week- 1 ) or control (CONT; continue habitual inactive lifestyle) for a 24-week intervention...
February 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453450/insights-into-the-inhibitory-mechanisms-of-nadh-on-the-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-heterodimer-of-human-nad-dependent-isocitrate-dehydrogenase
#13
Yabing Liu, Lejia Hu, Tengfei Ma, Jun Yang, Jianping Ding
Human NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate in the citric acid cycle. In the α 2 βγ heterotetramer of NAD-IDH, the γ subunit plays the regulatory role and the β subunit the structural role. Previous biochemical data have shown that mammalian NAD-IDHs can be inhibited by NADH; however, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this work, we show that the αβ, αγ and α 2 βγ enzymes of human NAD-IDH can be inhibited by NADH, and further determine the crystal structure of the αγ heterodimer bound with an Mg 2+ and an NADH at the active site and an NADH at the allosteric site, which resembles that of the inactive α Mg γ heterodimer...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453356/coastal-polynyas-winter-oases-for-subadult-southern-elephant-seals-in-east-antarctica
#14
Sara Labrousse, Guy Williams, Takeshi Tamura, Sophie Bestley, Jean-Baptiste Sallée, Alexander D Fraser, Michael Sumner, Fabien Roquet, Karine Heerah, Baptiste Picard, Christophe Guinet, Robert Harcourt, Clive McMahon, Mark A Hindell, Jean-Benoit Charrassin
Antarctic coastal polynyas are regions of persistent open water and are thought to be key bio-physical features within the sea-ice zone. However, their use by the upper trophic levels of ecosystems remains unclear. A unique bio-physical dataset recorded by southern elephant seals reveals that East Antarctic polynyas are a key winter foraging habitat for male seals. During their post-moult trips from Isles Kerguelen to the Antarctic continental shelf, a total of 18 out of 23 seals visited 9 different polynyas, spending on average 25 ± 20% (up to 75%) of their total trip time inside polynyas...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453311/visualization-of-ligand-induced-transmembrane-signaling-in-the-full-length-human-insulin-receptor
#15
Theresia Gutmann, Kelly H Kim, Michal Grzybek, Thomas Walz, Ünal Coskun
Insulin receptor (IR) signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism and growth in multicellular organisms. IRs are unique among receptor tyrosine kinases in that they exist exclusively as covalent (αβ) 2 homodimers at the cell surface. Transmembrane signaling by the IR can therefore not be based on ligand-induced dimerization as such but must involve structural changes within the existing receptor dimer. In this study, using glycosylated full-length human IR reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs, we show by single-particle electron microscopy that insulin binding to the dimeric receptor converts its ectodomain from an inverted U-shaped conformation to a T-shaped conformation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453217/time-spent-in-inactive-disease-before-mtx-withdrawal-is-relevant-with-regard-to-the-flare-risk-in-patients-with-jia
#16
Jens Klotsche, Kirsten Minden, Martina Niewerth, Gerd Horneff
OBJECTIVES: To determine the reasons of methotrexate (MTX) discontinuation, frequency of adverse events (AE) and whether the time in inactive disease before MTX withdrawal disease is associated with the risk of disease flare. METHODS: Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) beginning treatment with MTX were prospectively observed in the national JIA biologic register Biologika in der Kinderrheumatologie/Biologics in Paediatric Rheumatology and its follow-up register Juvenile arthritis Methotrexate/Biologics long-term Observation...
February 16, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452175/replacement-treatment-during-extinction-training-with-the-atypical-dopamine-uptake-inhibitor-jhw-007-reduces-relapse-to-methamphetamine-seeking
#17
Ashlea F Dassanayake, Juan J Canales
There are currently no approved medications to effectively counteract the effects of methamphetamine (METH), reduce its abuse and prolong abstinence from it. Data accumulated in recent years have shown that a range of N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogues possesses psychopharmacological features consistent with those of a potential replacement or "substitute" treatment for stimulant addiction. On the other hand, the evidence that antidepressant therapy may effectively prevent relapse to stimulant seeking is controversial...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452159/cyp27a1-acts-on-the-pre-vitamin-d3-photoproduct-lumisterol-producing-biologically-active-hydroxy-metabolites
#18
Robert C Tuckey, Wei Li, Dejian Ma, Chloe Y S Cheng, Katie M Wang, Tae-Kang Kim, Saowanee Jeayeng, Andrzej T Slominski
Prolonged exposure of the skin to UV radiation causes previtamin D3, the initial photoproduct formed by opening of the B ring of 7-dehydrocholesterol, to undergo a second photochemical reaction where the B-ring is reformed giving lumisterol3 (L3), a stereoisomer of 7-dehydrocholesterol. L3 was believed to be an inactive photoproduct of excessive UV radiation whose formation prevents excessive vitamin D production. Recently, we reported that L3 is present in serum and that CYP11A1 can act on L3 producing monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-metabolites which inhibit skin cell proliferation similarly to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452119/mirs-103-107-regulate-autophagy-in-the-epidermis
#19
Sijia Wang, Aya Kobeissi, Ying Dong, Nihal Kaplan, Wending Yang, Congcong He, Kang Zeng, Han Peng
We have shown that microRNAs-103 and -107(miRs-103/107) positively regulate end-stage autophagy via ensuring dynamin activity in cultured keratinocytes. Most work in end-stage autophagy has been conducted using in vitro model systems. In vivo regulation of end-stage autophagy in epidermis remains unknown. Here, we used antagomirs to subcutaneously knock-down miR-107 in the skin; conversely, we delivered miR-107 mimic subcutaneously via in vivo transfection to increase this miRNA. We found that antagomir-107 treatment in epidermis: (i) depleted endogenous miR-107; (ii) increased GFP-LC3 puncta in epidermal basal layers of GFP-LC3 transgenic mice, indicative of an accumulation of autophagosomes; (iii) inhibited LC3 turnover and increased p62, suggesting an inhibition of autophagy flux; and (iv) increased phosphorylated dynamin (p-dynamin, an inactive form), a key enzyme in end-stage autophagy...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451860/a-hierarchical-bayesian-tri-variate-analysis-on-factors-associated-with-anthropometric-measures-in-a-large-sample-of-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#20
Roya Kelishadi, Zahra Heidari, Iraj Kazemi, Tohid Jafari-Koshki, Marjan Mansourian, Mohammad-Esmaeil Motlagh, Ramin Heshmat
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess determinants of anthropometric measures in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. METHODS: This nationwide study was conducted among 13,280 students, aged 6-18 years, who were randomly selected from 30 provinces in Iran. Anthropometric measures were determined by calibrated instruments. Demographic and socio-economic (SES) variables, lifestyle behaviors, family history of chronic disease and prenatal factors were studied, as well...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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