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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528291/the-association-of-lifetime-physical-inactivity-with-bladder-and-renal-cancer-risk-a-hospital-based-case-control-analysis
#1
Rikki Cannioto, John Lewis Etter, Lauren Beryl Guterman, Janine M Joseph, Nicholas R Gulati, Kristina L Schmitt, Michael J LaMonte, Ryan Nagy, Albina Minlikeeva, James Brian Szender, Kirsten B Moysich
OBJECTIVES: Recreational physical inactivity has been gaining recognition as an independent epidemiological exposure of interest in relation to cancer endpoints due to evidence suggesting that it may associate with cancer independent of obesity. In the current analyses, we examined the associations of lifetime recreational physical inactivity with renal and bladder cancer risk. METHODS: In this hospital-based case-control study, we identified N=160 renal cancer patients, N=208 bladder cancer patients, and N=766 age frequency-matched controls without cancer...
May 18, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528175/heterodimeric-v-nikolskii-phospholipases-a2-induce-aggregation-of-the-lipid-bilayer
#2
A S Alekseeva, D S Tretiakova, V P Chernikov, Yu N Utkin, Yu G Molotkovskii, E L Vodovozova, I A Boldyrev
We report that the action of the heterodimeric phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from Vipera nikolskii, which comprises enzymatically active basic subunit and inactive acidic PLA2 homologue, on the lipid bilayer results in the aggregation and stacking of bilayers. These processes are demonstrated using two independent methods (fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy). Aggregation of bilayers is possible because both subunits of the V. nikolskii heterodimer contain a membrane-binding site (also known as IBS)...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527671/inferences-about-moral-character-moderate-the-impact-of-consequences-on-blame-and-praise
#3
Jenifer Z Siegel, Molly J Crockett, Raymond J Dolan
Moral psychology research has highlighted several factors critical for evaluating the morality of another's choice, including the detection of norm-violating outcomes, the extent to which an agent caused an outcome, and the extent to which the agent intended good or bad consequences, as inferred from observing their decisions. However, person-centered accounts of moral judgment suggest that a motivation to infer the moral character of others can itself impact on an evaluation of their choices. Building on this person-centered account, we examine whether inferences about agents' moral character shape the sensitivity of moral judgments to the consequences of agents' choices, and agents' role in the causation of those consequences...
May 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527583/molecular-characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-tcsc-a-characteristic-type-iii-hybrid-histidine-kinase-of-filamentous-fungi-harboring-six-hamp-domains
#4
Anja Spadinger, Frank Ebel
The type III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK) TcsC enables the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive under hyperosmotic conditions. It is, moreover, of particular interest, since it is the target of certain antifungal agents, such as fludioxonil. This study was aimed at a functional characterization of the domains that constitute the sensing and the kinase module of TcsC. The sensing module consists of six HAMP domains, an architecture that is commonly found in type III HHKs of filamentous fungi. To dissect the functional role of the individual domains, we have analyzed a set of truncated derivatives of TcsC with respect to their impact on fungal growth and their ability to respond to hyperosmotic stress and fludioxonil...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527493/impact-of-total-laryngectomy-on-return-to-work
#5
Jose Miguel Costa, Montserrat López, Jacinto García, Xavier León, Miquel Quer
INTRODUCTION: Total laryngectomy is one of the most mutilating oncological operations. There are no specific studies evaluating return to work after this surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 116 laryngectomized patients who were disease- free and had a minimum follow-up of 2 years from total laryngectomy. A survey was conducted to find out their employment situation before and after surgery. At the time of surgery, 62 (53%) were working, 40 (35%) were retired and 14 (12%) were in a disability situation...
May 17, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527238/a-widespread-family-of-serine-threonine-protein-phosphatases-shares-a-common-regulatory-switch-with-proteasomal-proteases
#6
Niels Bradshaw, Vladimir M Levdikov, Christina M Zimanyi, Rachelle Gaudet, Anthony J Wilkinson, Richard Losick
PP2C phosphatases control biological processes including stress responses, development, and cell division in all kingdoms of life. Diverse regulatory domains adapt PP2C phosphatases to specific functions, but how these domains control phosphatase activity was unknown. We present structures representing active and inactive states of the PP2C phosphatase SpoIIE from Bacillus subtilis. Based on structural analyses and genetic and biochemical experiments, we identify an α-helical switch that shifts a carbonyl oxygen into the active site to coordinate a metal cofactor...
May 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527222/functional-characterization-of-c-terminal-ryanodine-receptor-1-variants-associated-with-central-core-disease-or-malignant-hyperthermia
#7
Remai Parker, Anja H Schiemann, Elaine Langton, Terasa Bulger, Neil Pollock, Andrew Bjorksten, Robyn Gillies, David Hutchinson, Richard Roxburgh, Kathryn M Stowell
BACKGROUND: Central core disease and malignant hyperthermia are human disorders of skeletal muscle resulting from aberrant Ca2+ handling. Most malignant hyperthermia and central core disease cases are associated with amino acid changes in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the skeletal muscle Ca2+-release channel. Malignant hyperthermia exhibits a gain-of-function phenotype, and central core disease results from loss of channel function. For a variant to be classified as pathogenic, functional studies must demonstrate a correlation with the pathophysiology of malignant hyperthermia or central core disease...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526679/succession-of-transiently-active-tumor-initiating-cell-clones-in-human-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts
#8
Claudia R Ball, Felix Oppel, Karl Roland Ehrenberg, Taronish D Dubash, Sebastian M Dieter, Christopher M Hoffmann, Ulrich Abel, Friederike Herbst, Moritz Koch, Jens Werner, Frank Bergmann, Naveed Ishaque, Manfred Schmidt, Christof von Kalle, Claudia Scholl, Stefan Fröhling, Benedikt Brors, Wilko Weichert, Jürgen Weitz, Hanno Glimm
Although tumor-initiating cell (TIC) self-renewal has been postulated to be essential in progression and metastasis formation of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), clonal dynamics of TICs within PDAC tumors are yet unknown. Here, we show that long-term progression of PDAC in serial xenotransplantation is driven by a succession of transiently active TICs producing tumor cells in temporally restricted bursts. Clonal tracking of individual, genetically marked TICs revealed that individual tumors are generated by distinct sets of TICs with very little overlap between subsequent xenograft generations...
May 19, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526163/new-hypnotic-drug-development-and-pharmacologic-considerations-for-clinical-anesthesia
#9
REVIEW
Mariah Kincaid Tanious, Sascha S Beutler, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
Since the public demonstration of ether as a novel, viable anesthetic for surgery in 1846, the field of anesthesia has continually sought the ideal anesthetic-rapid onset, potent sedation-hypnosis with a high therapeutic ratio of toxic dose to minimally effective dose, predictable clearance to inactive metabolites, and minimal side effects. This article aims to review current progress of novel induction agent development and provide an update on the most promising drugs poised to enter clinical practice. In addition, the authors describe trends in novel agent development, implications for health care costs, and implications for perioperative care...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526142/anticoagulant-reversal-and-anesthetic-considerations
#10
REVIEW
Joseph Meltzer, Joseph R Guenzer
Bleeding complications are a common concern with the use of anticoagulant agents. In many situations, reversing of neutralizing their effects may be warranted. Prothrombin complex concentrate replaces coagulation factors lowered by warfarin, as does fresh frozen plasma, but in a more concentrated form. Protamine negates the effect of heparin and combines chemically with heparin molecules to form an inactive salt. It also partially reverses the effects of low-molecular-weight heparin. Recombinant activated factor VII is a nonspecific procoagulant that activates the extrinsic clotting pathway, resulting in thrombin generation, but does not directly neutralize the activity of any of the new oral anticoagulants...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525839/discovery-of-efficient-stimulators-for-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-based-on-scaffolds-in-dragon-s-blood
#11
Jian-Hua Liang, Liang Yang, Si Wu, Si-Si Liu, Mark Cushman, Jing Tian, Nuo-Min Li, Qing-Hu Yang, He-Ao Zhang, Yun-Jie Qiu, Lin Xiang, Cong-Xuan Ma, Xue-Meng Li, Hong Qing
Reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis caused by aging and neurological disorders would impair neural circuits and result in memory loss. A new lead compound (N-trans-3',4'-methylenedioxystilben-4-yl acetamide 27) has been discovered to efficiently stimulate adult rats' neurogenesis. In-depth structure-activity relationship studies proved the necessity of a stilbene scaffold that is absent in highly cytotoxic analogs such as chalcones and heteroaryl rings and inactive analogs such as diphenyl acetylene and diphenyl ethane, and validated the importance of an NH in the carboxamide and a methylenedioxy substituent on the benzene ring...
May 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525758/targeted-degradation-of-ctcf-decouples-local-insulation-of-chromosome-domains-from-genomic-compartmentalization
#12
Elphège P Nora, Anton Goloborodko, Anne-Laure Valton, Johan H Gibcus, Alec Uebersohn, Nezar Abdennur, Job Dekker, Leonid A Mirny, Benoit G Bruneau
The molecular mechanisms underlying folding of mammalian chromosomes remain poorly understood. The transcription factor CTCF is a candidate regulator of chromosomal structure. Using the auxin-inducible degron system in mouse embryonic stem cells, we show that CTCF is absolutely and dose-dependently required for looping between CTCF target sites and insulation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Restoring CTCF reinstates proper architecture on altered chromosomes, indicating a powerful instructive function for CTCF in chromatin folding...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525742/ubiquitin-modification-by-the-e3-ligase-adp-ribosyltransferase-dtx3l-parp9
#13
Chun-Song Yang, Kasey Jividen, Adam Spencer, Natalia Dworak, Li Ni, Luke T Oostdyk, Mandovi Chatterjee, Beata Kuśmider, Brian Reon, Mahmut Parlak, Vera Gorbunova, Tarek Abbas, Erin Jeffery, Nicholas E Sherman, Bryce M Paschal
ADP-ribosylation of proteins is emerging as an important regulatory mechanism. Depending on the family member, ADP-ribosyltransferases either conjugate a single ADP-ribose to a target or generate ADP-ribose chains. Here we characterize Parp9, a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase reported to be enzymatically inactive. Parp9 undergoes heterodimerization with Dtx3L, a histone E3 ligase involved in DNA damage repair. We show that the Dtx3L/Parp9 heterodimer mediates NAD(+)-dependent mono-ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin, exclusively in the context of ubiquitin processing by E1 and E2 enzymes...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525637/characterizing-adult-sleep-behavior-over-20-years-the-population-based-doetinchem-cohort-study
#14
Margot L Zomers, Gerben Hulsegge, Sandra H van Oostrom, Karin I Proper, Wm Monique Verschuren, H Susan J Picavet
Study Objectives: To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period, to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns, and to relate the patterns to sleep quality. Methods: The study population consisted of 3,695 adults aged 20 to 59 years at baseline. Five measurements of self-reported sleep duration were used to compose seven patterns from 1987 to 2012: persistent short (≤6 hours), moderate (7-8 hours), or long (≥9 hours) sleep duration and several changing patterns (varying and became short, moderate, or long sleepers)...
May 19, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525612/an-effectiveness-hierarchy-of-preventive-interventions-neglected-paradigm-or-self-evident-truth
#15
Simon Capewell, Ann Capewell
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525522/cardiovascular-disease-in-korean-americans-a-systematic-review
#16
Cha-Nam Shin, Colleen Keller, Kyungeh An, Jeongha Sim
BACKGROUND: Despite Korean Americans being one of the fastest growing immigrant groups in the United States, little is known about their cardiovascular health or cardiovascular disease risk factors. PURPOSE: The purpose of this report is to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risks and their contributing factors in Korean Americans and recommend future directions for the development of cardiovascular disease prevention or management research to meet the unique needs of this ethnic group...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525316/er-assembly-of-snare-complexes-mediating-formation-of-partitioning-membrane-in-arabidopsis-cytokinesis
#17
Matthias Karnahl, Misoon Park, Ulrike Mayer, Ulrike Hiller, Gerd Jürgens
Intracellular membrane fusion mediates diverse processes including cell growth, division and communication. Fusion involves complex formation between SNARE proteins anchored to adjacent membranes. How and in what form interacting SNARE proteins reach their sites of action is virtually unknown. We have addressed this problem in the context of plant cell division in which a large number of TGN-derived membrane vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Blocking vesicle formation at the TGN revealed cis-SNARE complexes...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524829/role-of-diffusion-weighted-and-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-differentiating-activity-of-ankylosing-spondylitis
#18
Ying-Hua Zhao, Yan-Yan Cao, Qun Zhang, Ying-Jie Mei, Ji-Jie Xiao, Shao-Yong Hu, Wei Li, Shao-Lin Li
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that combining apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index value might provide a reliable evaluation of the activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and that contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unnecessary. However, the results were based on confirming only a small random sample. This study aimed to assess the role of CE-MRI in differentiating the disease activity of AS by comparing ADC value with a large sample...
June 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524803/maternal-and-early-life-nutrition-and-physical-activity-setting-the-research-and-intervention-agenda-for-addressing-the-double-burden-of-malnutrition-in-south-african-children
#19
A Prioreschi, S Wrottesley, C E Draper, S A Tomaz, C J Cook, E D Watson, M N M Van Poppel, R Said-Mohamed, S A Norris, E V Lambert, L K Micklesfield
Early life is important for later health outcomes, yet there are few studies which adequately address all of the potential early life insults that may affect later life health and growth trajectories. This is particularly evident in low- to middle-income countries such as South Africa, where women of childbearing age are particularly vulnerable to high levels of physical inactivity, malnutrition, and obesity. Pregnancy may therefore be an opportune time to change behaviours and improve maternal and offspring health outcomes, and decrease the inter-generational transfer of risk...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524726/objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-brazilians-with-visual-impairment-description-and-associated-factors
#20
Rafael Barbosa Porcellis da Silva, Alexandre Carriconde Marques, Felipe Fossati Reichert
BACKGROUND: Low level of physical activity is a serious health issue in individuals with visual impairment. Few studies have objectively measured physical activity in this population group, particularly outside high-income countries. The aim of this study was to describe physical activity measured by accelerometry and its associated factors in Brazilian adults with visual impairment. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, 90 adults (18-95 years old) answered a questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (including one weekend day) to measure physical activity (min/day)...
May 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
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