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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108349/expression-of-a-soluble-truncated-vargula-luciferase-in-escherichia-coli
#1
Eric A Hunt, Angeliki Moutsiopoulou, David Broyles, Trajen Head, Emre Dikici, Sylvia Daunert, Sapna K Deo
Marine luciferases are regularly employed as useful reporter molecules across a range of various applications. However, attempts to transition expression from their native eukaryotic environment into a more economical prokaryotic, i.e. bacterial, expression system often presents several challenges. Specifically, bacterial protein expression inherently lacks chaperone proteins to aid in the folding process, while Escherichia coli presents a reducing cytoplasmic environment in. These conditions contribute to the inhibition of proper folding of cysteine-rich proteins, leading to incorrect tertiary structure and ultimately inactive and potentially insoluble protein...
January 17, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107813/prevalence-of-frailty-in-canadians-18-79-years-old-in-the-canadian-health-measures-survey
#2
Dustin Scott Kehler, Thomas Ferguson, Andrew N Stammers, Clara Bohm, Rakesh C Arora, Todd A Duhamel, Navdeep Tangri
BACKGROUND: There is little certainty as to the prevalence of frailty in Canadians in younger adulthood. This study examines and compares the prevalence of frailty in Canadians 18-79 years old using the Accumulation of Deficits and Fried models of frailty. METHODS: The Canadian Health Measures Study data were used to estimate the prevalence of frailty in adults 18-79 years old. A 23-item Frailty Index using the Accumulation of Deficits Model (cycles 1-3; n = 10,995) was developed; frailty was defined as having the presence of 25% or more indices, including symptoms, chronic conditions, and laboratory variables...
January 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107783/lorcaserin-suppresses-oxycodone-self-administration-and-relapse-vulnerability-in-rats
#3
Harshini Neelakantan, Erica D Holliday, Robert G Fox, Sonja J Stutz, Sandra D Comer, Margaret Haney, Noelle C Anastasio, Frederick Gerard Moeller, Kathryn A Cunningham
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health problem. High relapse rates and poor treatment retention continue to pose major challenges in OUD treatment. Of the abused opioids, oxycodone is well described to maintain self-administration and evoke the durable conditioned responses ("cue reactivity") that result from pairing of opioid-related stimuli (e.g., paraphernalia) with repeated abuse. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, particularly through the 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR), regulates psychostimulant reward and cue reactivity, and in the present experiments, we investigated the hypothesis that the selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin, which is FDA-approved for the treatment of obesity, will suppress oxycodone self-administration and oxycodone-associated cue reactivity in rats...
January 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107768/arabidopsis-protein-s-acyl-transferase4-mediates-root-hair-growth
#4
Zhi-Yuan Wan, Sen Chai, Fu-Rong Ge, Qiang-Nan Feng, Yan Zhang, Sha Li
Polar growth of root hairs is critical for plant survival and necessitates fine-tuned ROP signaling. Multiple ROP regulators participate in root hair growth. However, protein S-acyl transferases (PATs), mediating the S-acylation and membrane partitioning of ROPs, are yet to be found. By using a reverse genetic approach, combining fluorescence probes, pharmacological drugs, site-directed mutagenesis, and genetic analysis with related root-hair mutants, we have identified and characterized an Arabidopsis PAT, which may be responsible for ROP2 S-acylation in root hairs...
January 20, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107497/worldwide-increase-of-obesity-is-related-to-the-reduced-opportunity-for-natural-selection
#5
Alicja Budnik, Maciej Henneberg
Worldwide rise of obesity may be partly related to the relaxation of natural selection in the last few generations. Accumulation of mutations affecting metabolism towards excessive fat deposition is suggested to be a result of less purging selection. Using the WHO and UN data for 159 countries there is a significant correlation (r = 0.60, p<0.01) between an index of the relaxed opportunity for selection (Biological State Index) and prevalence of obesity (percentage of individuals with BMI >30kg/m2). This correlation remains significant (r = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107160/groupthink-how-should-clinicians-respond-to-human-trafficking
#6
William Polk Cheshire
Human trafficking is a pervasive problem that exceeds the capacity of social and organizational resources to restrain and for which guidelines are inadequate to assist medical professionals in responding to the special needs of victims when they present as patients. One obstacle to appropriate disagreement with an inadequate status quo is the lure of group cohesion. "Groupthink" is a social psychological phenomenon in which presumed group consensus prevails despite potentially adverse consequences. In the context of the medical response to human trafficking, groupthink may foster complacency, rationalize acquiescence with inaction on the basis of perceived futility, create an illusion of unanimity, and accommodate negative stereotyping...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106986/microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-nacopo4-red-phase-and-initial-characterization-as-high-voltage-cathode-for-sodium-ion-batteries
#7
Arturo Gutierrez, Soojeong Kim, Timothy T Fister, Christopher S Johnson
Transition metal-containing polyanion compounds are attractive for use as cathode materials in sodium-ion batteries (SIB) because they possess elevated higher intrinsic electrochemical potentials versus oxide analogs given the same M(n+/(n+1)+) redox couple, which leads to higher energy densities. NaMPO4 (M = transition metal) compounds have a driving force to form into the electrochemically inactive maricite phase when using conventional methods. Herein we report on the synthesis of a NaCoPO4 (NCP) polymorph ("Red"-phase) by a microwave-assisted solvothermal process at 200 °C using tetraethylene glycol as the solvent...
January 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106616/lymphocyte-phospho-ser-9-gsk-3%C3%AE-total-gsk-3%C3%AE-protein-levels-ratio-is-not-affected-by-chronic-lithium-or-valproate-treatment-in-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#8
Abed N Azab, Ella Vainer, Galila Agam, Yuly Bersudsky
BACKGROUND: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibition by lithium has been well established in vitro, but proof that this biochemical effect mediates lithium's beneficial action in patients with bipolar disorder is lacking. We studied whether lymphocyte GSK-3β activity measured indirectly in lithium- or valproate (VPA)-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder is different from controls. METHODS: Lymphocyte total and Ser-9-phospho-GSK-3β (inactive) levels were measured by Western blotting...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106239/intravitreal-chemotherapy-in-the-management-of-vitreous-disease-in-retinoblastoma
#9
Hayyam Kiratli, İrem Koç, Ali Varan, Canan Akyüz
PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic outcome of intravitreal melphalan injection in the management of vitreous disease in patients with retinoblastoma. We particularly aimed to assess whether higher melphalan dose with lower number of injections was more effective and associated with fewer side effects. METHODS: This retrospective, interventional, noncomparative, and nonrandomized study included 39 eyes of 37 patients. Vitreous seeds were classified as dust, sphere, and cloud types...
January 2, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105940/integrated-single-cell-data-analysis-reveals-cell-specific-networks-and-novel-coactivation-markers
#10
Shila Ghazanfar, Adam J Bisogni, John T Ormerod, David M Lin, Jean Y H Yang
BACKGROUND: Large scale single cell transcriptome profiling has exploded in recent years and has enabled unprecedented insight into the behavior of individual cells. Identifying genes with high levels of expression using data from single cell RNA sequencing can be useful to characterize very active genes and cells in which this occurs. In particular single cell RNA-Seq allows for cell-specific characterization of high gene expression, as well as gene coexpression. RESULTS: We offer a versatile modeling framework to identify transcriptional states as well as structures of coactivation for different neuronal cell types across multiple datasets...
December 5, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105728/invention-of-stimulus-responsive-peptide-bond-cleaving-residue-spr-and-its-application-to-chemical-biology-tools
#11
Akira Shigenaga, Jun Yamamoto, Taiki Kohiki, Tsubasa Inokuma, Akira Otaka
Elucidation of biological functions of peptides and proteins is essential for understanding peptide/protein-related biological events and developing drugs. Caged peptides and proteins that release a parent active peptide/protein by photo-irradiation have successfully been employed to elucidate the functions. Whereas the usual caged peptide/protein enables conversion of an inactive form to an active form (OFF-to-ON conversion) by photo-induced deprotection, photo-triggered main chain cleavage is reported to be applicable to ON-to-OFF conversion...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105598/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-dexmedetomidine
#12
REVIEW
Maud A S Weerink, Michel M R F Struys, Laura N Hannivoort, Clemens R M Barends, Anthony R Absalom, Pieter Colin
Dexmedetomidine is an α2-adrenoceptor agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, and analgesic-sparing effects, and minimal depression of respiratory function. It is potent and highly selective for α2-receptors with an α2:α1 ratio of 1620:1. Hemodynamic effects, which include transient hypertension, bradycardia, and hypotension, result from the drug's peripheral vasoconstrictive and sympatholytic properties. Dexmedetomidine exerts its hypnotic action through activation of central pre- and postsynaptic α2-receptors in the locus coeruleus, thereby inducting a state of unconsciousness similar to natural sleep, with the unique aspect that patients remain easily rousable and cooperative...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105232/trip13-is-expressed-in-colorectal-cancer-and-promotes-cancer-cell-invasion
#13
Kenji Kurita, Masao Maeda, Mohammed A Mansour, Toshio Kokuryo, Keisuke Uehara, Yukihiro Yokoyama, Masato Nagino, Michinari Hamaguchi, Takeshi Senga
Thyroid hormone receptor interactor 13 (TRIP13) is a member of the ATPases associated with various cellular activities family of proteins and is highly conserved in a wide range of species. Recent studies have demonstrated that TRIP13 is critical for the inactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and is associated with the progression of certain cancers. In the present study, the role of TRIP13 in colorectal cancer (CRC) was examined. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that TRIP13 messenger RNA was highly expressed in multiple CRC tissues...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104813/structural-modeling-defines-transmembrane-residues-in-adam17-that-are-crucial-for-rhbdf2-adam17-dependent-proteolysis
#14
Xue Li, Thorsten Maretzky, Jose Manuel Perez-Aguilar, Sébastien Monette, Gisela Weskamp, Sylvain Le Gall, Bruce Beutler, Harel Weinstein, Carl P Blobel
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) controls the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and is crucial for protecting the skin and intestinal barrier by proteolytic activation of Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ligands. The seven-membrane spanning inactive Rhomboid2 (iRhom2; Rhbdf2) is required for ADAM17-dependent TNFα shedding and crosstalk with the EGFR, and a point mutation (sinecure, sin) in the first transmembrane domain (TMD) of Rhbdf2 (Rhbdf2(sin)) blocks TNFα shedding, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104713/multimerization-properties-of-piggymac-a-domesticated-piggybac-transposase-involved-in-programmed-genome-rearrangements
#15
Emeline Dubois, Nathalie Mathy, Vinciane Régnier, Julien Bischerour, Céline Baudry, Raphaëlle Trouslard, Mireille Bétermier
During sexual processes, the ciliate Paramecium eliminates 25-30% of germline DNA from its somatic genome. DNA elimination includes excision of ∼45 000 short, single-copy internal eliminated sequences (IESs) and depends upon PiggyMac (Pgm), a domesticated piggyBac transposase that is essential for DNA cleavage at IES ends. Pgm carries a core transposase region with a putative catalytic domain containing three conserved aspartic acids, and a downstream cysteine-rich (CR) domain. A C-terminal extension of unknown function is predicted to adopt a coiled-coil (CC) structure...
January 18, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103811/study-protocol-effect-of-playful-training-on-functional-abilities-of-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Jari Due Jessen, Henrik Hautop Lund
BACKGROUND: Loss of functional capabilities due to inactivity is one of the most common reasons for fall accidents, and it has been well established that loss of capabilities can be effectively reduced by physical activity. Pilot studies indicate a possible improvement in functional abilities of community dwelling elderly as a result of short-term playing with an exergame system in the form of interactive modular tiles. Such playful training may be motivational to perform and viewed by the subjects to offer life-fulfilling quality, while providing improvement in physical abilities, e...
January 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103804/inactivity-periods-and-postural-change-speed-can-explain-atypical-postural-change-patterns-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-mutants
#17
Tsukasa Fukunaga, Wataru Iwasaki
BACKGROUND: With rapid advances in genome sequencing and editing technologies, systematic and quantitative analysis of animal behavior is expected to be another key to facilitating data-driven behavioral genetics. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in this field. Several video-tracking systems are available for automatically recording behavioral data for the nematode, but computational methods for analyzing these data are still under development. RESULTS: In this study, we applied the Gaussian mixture model-based binning method to time-series postural data for 322 C...
January 19, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103783/understanding-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-crfr-activation-using-structural-models
#18
Arnau Cordomi, George Liapakis, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas
The corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and 2 receptors (CRF1R and CRF2R) belong to the secretin-like family, also known as class B1, of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several endogenous hormones mediate their responses through the CRF receptors, such as CRF and the urocortins. The structures for the N-terminus extracellular domain of both CRF1R and CRF2R in complex with peptidic ligands were released a few years ago and permitted the study of hormone binding to the orthosteric binding site. It was not until more recently, when the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of human CRF1R in its inactive state bound to an allosteric antagonist became available...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103706/disclosure-of-physical-emotional-and-sexual-child-abuse-help-seeking-and-access-to-abuse-response-services-in-two-south-african-provinces
#19
Franziska Meinck, Lucie Cluver, Heidi Loening-Voysey, Rachel Bray, Jenny Doubt, Marisa Casale, Lorraine Sherr
Physical, emotional and sexual child abuse are major problems in South Africa. This study investigates whether children know about post-abuse services, if they disclose and seek services, and what the outcomes of help-seeking behaviour are. It examines factors associated with request and receipt of services. Confidential self-report questionnaires were completed by adolescents aged 10-17 (n = 3515) in South Africa. Prevalence of frequent (>weekly) physical abuse was 7.4%, frequent emotional abuse 12.4%, and lifetime contact sexual abuse 9...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103297/obesity-in-french-inmates-gender-differences-and-relationship-with-mood-eating-behavior-and-physical-activity
#20
Aude Lagarrigue, Soufiane Ajana, Lucile Capuron, Catherine Féart, Marie-Pierre Moisan
CONTEXT: Inmates, notably women, are at greater risk for obesity and metabolic complications than the general population according to several studies from high income countries. Data regarding French correctional institutions are lacking so far. To fill this gap, we have assessed in a sample from a French prison (33 females and 18 males) the gender-specific effect of incarceration on weight and body mass index (BMI) and examined their current metabolic status. Furthermore, to reveal the possible determinants of increased obesity, we analyzed emotional vulnerability, eating behavior and physical activity using self-reported questionnaires...
2017: PloS One
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