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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915292/the-dual-role-of-dksa-protein-in-the-regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pargx-promoter
#1
Robert Łyżeń, Amarnath Maitra, Klaudia Milewska, Maja Kochanowska-Łyżeń, V James Hernandez, Agnieszka Szalewska-Pałasz
Gene expression regulation by the stringent response effector, ppGpp, is facilitated by DksA protein; however DksA and ppGpp can play independent roles in transcription. In Escherichia coli, the pArgX promoter which initiates the transcription of four tRNA genes was shown to be inhibited by ppGpp. Our studies on the role of DksA in pArgX regulation revealed that it can stimulate transcription by increasing the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter and the productive transcription complex formation. However, when DksA is present together with ppGpp a severe down-regulation of promoter activity is observed...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914963/hypothermia-in-mouse-is-caused-by-adenosine-a1-and-a3-receptor-agonists-and-amp-via-three-distinct-mechanisms
#2
Jesse Lea Carlin, Shalini Jain, Elizabeth Gizewski, Tina C Wan, Dilip K Tosh, Cuiying Xiao, John A Auchampach, Kenneth A Jacobson, Oksana Gavrilova, Marc L Reitman
Small mammals have the ability to enter torpor, a hypothermic, hypometabolic state, allowing impressive energy conservation. Administration of adenosine or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) can trigger a hypothermic, torpor-like state. We investigated the mechanisms for hypothermia using telemetric monitoring of body temperature in wild type and receptor knock out (Adora1(-/-)-/-, Adora3(-/-)) mice. Confirming prior data, stimulation of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) induced hypothermia via peripheral mast cell degranulation, histamine release, and activation of central histamine H1 receptors...
November 30, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914933/differential-synthesis-and-release-of-il-18-and-il-18-binding-protein-from-human-platelets-and-their-implications-for-hiv-infection
#3
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cecile Tremblay, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family and is produced in the body from macrophages, epithelial and dendritic cells, keratinocytes, adrenal cortex etc. The cytokine is produced as an inactive precursor that is cleaved inside cells into its mature form by activated caspase 1, which exists as an inactive precursor in human cells and requires assembly of an inflammasomes for its activation. We show here for the first time that human platelets contain transcripts for the IL-18 gene. They synthesize the cytokine de novo, process and release it upon activation...
December 1, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914832/ophthalmic-manifestations-and-causes-of-vision-impairment-in-ebola-virus-disease-survivors-in-monrovia-liberia
#4
Jessica G Shantha, Ian Crozier, Brent R Hayek, Beau B Bruce, Catherine Gargu, Jerry Brown, John Fankhauser, Steven Yeh
PURPOSE: To describe the ocular findings, visual impairment, and association of structural complications of uveitis with visual impairment in a cohort of survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Monrovia, Liberia. DESIGN: Retrospective, uncontrolled, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Survivors of EVD who were evaluated in an ophthalmology clinic at Eternal Love Winning Africa (ELWA) Hospital in Monrovia, Liberia. METHODS: A cohort of EVD survivors who underwent baseline ophthalmic evaluation at ELWA Hospital were retrospectively reviewed for demographic information, length of Ebola treatment unit (ETU) stay, visual acuity (VA), and ophthalmic examination findings...
November 30, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914689/efficacy-of-biologic-therapy-across-individual-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-subtypes-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Rebecca Davies, Danielle Gaynor, Kimme L Hyrich, Clare E Pain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of differing biologic therapies amongst individual juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) subtypes rather than JIA overall. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted between January 1975 and November 2014. Studies included were randomised controlled trials, controlled trials, non-randomised prospective studies or case-control studies. Subjects were required to have a diagnosis of JIA and were ≤20 years of age at study entry...
November 1, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914598/poor-muscle-strength-and-function-in-physically-inactive-childhood-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-despite-very-mild-disease
#6
Ana Jéssica Pinto, Fabiana Braga Benatti, Hamilton Roschel, Ana Lúcia de Sá Pinto, Clovis Artur Silva, Adriana Maluf Elias Sallum, Bruno Gualano
OBJECTIVE: To compare muscle strength (i.e. lower- and upper-body strength) and function between physically inactive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients (C-SLE) and healthy controls (CTRL). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study and the sample consisted of 19 C-SLE (age between 9 and 18 years) and 15 CTRL matched by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity levels (assessed by accelerometry). Lower- and upper-body strength was assessed by the one-repetition-maximum (1-RM) test...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914597/mean-platelet-volume-is-decreased-in-adults-with-active-lupus-disease
#7
Guillermo Delgado-García, Dionicio Ángel Galarza-Delgado, Iris Colunga-Pedraza, Omar David Borjas-Almaguer, Ilse Mandujano-Cruz, Daniel Benavides-Salgado, Rolando Jacob Martínez-Granados, Alexandro Atilano-Díaz
BACKGROUND: Only a few biomarkers are available for assessing disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been recently studied as an inflammatory biomarker. It is currently unclear whether MPV may also play a role as a biomarker of disease activity in adult patients with SLE. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between MPV and disease activity in adult patients with SLE. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared two groups of adult patients divided according to disease activity (36 per group)...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914595/intra-articular-injection-in-patients-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-factors-associated-with-a-good-response
#8
Ana Luiza Garcia Cunha, Vanessa Bugni Miotto E Silva, Fabiane Mitie Osaku, Luísa Brasil Niemxeski, Rita Nely Vilar Furtado, Jamil Natour, Maria Teresa de Sande, Lemos Ramos Ascensão Terreri
INTRODUCTION: Intra-articular injection of corticosteroids (IIC) for treatment of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is increasingly used in Pediatric Rheumatology. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical course of patients undergoing IIC in our Pediatric Rheumatology Unit. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with JIA undergoing IIC from January 2008 to December 2012, with a minimum follow-up of six months after the injection...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914466/decreasing-prevalence-of-no-known-major-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease-among-mississippi-adults-mississippi-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-2001-and-2009
#9
Vincent L Mendy, Rodolfo Vargas, Lamees El-Sadek, Vanessa L Short
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in Mississippi. However, the prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults and the change of prevalence in the past 9 years have not been described. We assess changes in prevalence of no known CVD risk factors during 2001 and 2009. METHODS: Prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity were investigated. Survey respondents who reported having none of these factors were defined as having no known CVD risk factors...
December 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913846/potent-mutagenicity-of-some-non-planar-tri-and-tetrachlorinated-biphenyls-in-mammalian-cells-human-cyp2e1-being-a-major-activating-enzyme
#10
Yungang Liu, Keqi Hu, Hansi Jia, Guifang Jin, Hansruedi Glatt, Hao Jiang
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been classified as human carcinogens. Mutagenicity of lower chlorinated biphenyls as well as activation of transcription factors by some other congeners may contribute to the carcinogenicity of PCBs. Recently, we reported that human CYP2E1 activates mono- and dichlorobiphenyls to mutagens. However, mutagenicity of other PCBs and the involvement of other CYPs remained unknown. In this study, Chinese hamster V79-derived cell lines genetically engineered for expression of individual human CYP enzymes and a human hepatocyte (L-02) line endogenously expressing various CYPs were used to determine the activities of several tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls to induce micronuclei and gene mutations...
December 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913646/critical-differences-between-induced-and-spontaneous-mouse-models-of-graves-disease-with-implications-for-antigen-specific-immunotherapy-in-humans
#11
Basil Rapoport, Bianca Banuelos, Holly A Aliesky, Nicole Hartwig Trier, Sandra M McLachlan
Graves' hyperthyroidism, a common autoimmune disease caused by pathogenic autoantibodies to the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR), can be treated but not cured. This single autoantigenic target makes Graves' disease a prime candidate for Ag-specific immunotherapy. Previously, in an induced mouse model, injecting TSHR A-subunit protein attenuated hyperthyroidism by diverting pathogenic TSHR Abs to a nonfunctional variety. In this study, we explored the possibility of a similar diversion in a mouse model that spontaneously develops pathogenic TSHR autoantibodies, NOD...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913570/revisiting-the-human-polypeptide-galnac-t1-and-t13-paralogs
#12
María Florencia Festari, Felipe Trajtenberg, Nora Berois, Sergio Pantano, Leslie Revoredo, Yun Kong, Patricia Solari-Saquieres, Yoshiki Narimatsu, Teresa Freire, Sylvie Bay, Carlos Robello, Jean Bénard, Thomas A Gerken, Henrik Clausen, Eduardo Osinaga
Polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of 20 human glycosyltransferases (comprising 9 subfamilies), which initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The O-glycoproteome is thought to be differentially regulated via the different substrate specificities and expression patterns of each GalNAc-T isoforms. Here, we present a comprehensive in vitro analysis of the peptide substrate specificity of GalNAc-T13, showing that it essentially overlaps with the ubiquitous expressed GalNAc-T1 isoform found in the same subfamily as T13...
November 22, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913536/reversal-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-a-practical-approach
#13
Andrew W Shih, Mark A Crowther
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have at least noninferior efficacy compared with other oral anticoagulants and have ancillary benefits, including overall better safety profiles, lack of the need for routine monitoring, rapid onset of action, and ease of administration. Reversal of these agents may be indicated in certain situations such as severe bleeding and for perioperative management. DOAC-associated bleeding should be risk stratified: patients with moderate or severe bleeding should have the DOAC discontinued and reversal strategies should be considered...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913498/long-term-risk-of-second-malignancy-and-cardiovascular-disease-after-hodgkin-lymphoma-treatment
#14
Flora E van Leeuwen, Andrea K Ng
Long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) experience several late adverse effects of treatment, with second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) being the leading causes of death in these patients. Other late effects have also been identified, such as pulmonary dysfunction, endocrinopathies (thyroid dysfunction, infertility), neck muscle atrophy, and persistent fatigue. HL survivors have two- to fourfold increased risks to develop SMNs and CVD compared with the general population...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913116/multiple-conformations-of-gal3-protein-drive-the-galactose-induced-allosteric-activation-of-the-gal-genetic-switch-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Rajesh Kumar Kar, Hungyo Kharerin, Ranjith Padinhateeri, Paike Jayadeva Bhat
Gal3p is an allosteric monomeric protein which activates the GAL genetic switch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to galactose. Expression of constitutive mutant of Gal3p or overexpression of wild-type Gal3p activates the GAL switch in the absence of galactose. These data suggest that Gal3p exists as an ensemble of active and inactive conformations. Structural data has indicated that Gal3p exists in open (inactive) and closed (active) conformations. However, mutant of Gal3p that predominantly exists in inactive conformation and yet capable of responding to galactose has not been isolated...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912742/secular-trends-and-correlates-of-physical-activity-the-troms%C3%A3-study-1979-2008
#16
Bente Morseth, Bjarne K Jacobsen, Nina Emaus, Tom Wilsgaard, Lone Jørgensen
BACKGROUND: The aim was to describe secular trends in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and work related physical activity (WPA) from 1979 to 2008. Additionally, we explored potential cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of LTPA and WPA. METHODS: Data are collected from 34,898 individuals (49.7% men) aged >20 years who participated in at least one Tromsø Study survey between 1979 and 2008. In each survey, the participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and underwent physical examinations...
December 3, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911813/spatiotemporal-imaging-of-small-gtpases-activity-in-live-cells
#17
Stephanie Voss, Dennis M Krüger, Oliver Koch, Yao-Wen Wu
Ras-like small GTPases function as molecular switches and regulate diverse cellular events. To examine the dynamics of signaling requires spatiotemporal visualization of their activity in the cell. Current small GTPase sensors rely on specific effector domains that are available for only a small number of GTPases and compete for endogenous regulator/effector binding. Here, we describe versatile conformational sensors for GTPase activity (COSGAs) based on the conserved GTPase fold. Conformational changes upon GDP/GTP exchange were directly observed in solution, on beads, and in live cells by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911799/mechanism-of-the-intrinsic-arginine-finger-in-heterotrimeric-g-proteins
#18
Daniel Mann, Christian Teuber, Stefan A Tennigkeit, Grit Schröter, Klaus Gerwert, Carsten Kötting
Heterotrimeric G proteins are crucial molecular switches that maintain a large number of physiological processes in cells. The signal is encoded into surface alterations of the Gα subunit that carries GTP in its active state and GDP in its inactive state. The ability of the Gα subunit to hydrolyze GTP is essential for signal termination. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerates this process. A key player in this catalyzed reaction is an arginine residue, Arg178 in Gαi1, which is already an intrinsic part of the catalytic center in Gα in contrast to small GTPases, at which the corresponding GTPase-activating protein (GAP) provides the arginine "finger...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911654/online-social-support-for-the-prevention-of-smoking-relapse-a-content-analysis-of-the-whatsapp-and-facebook-social-groups
#19
Yee Tak Derek Cheung, Ching Han Helen Chan, Man Ping Wang, Ho Cheung William Li, Tai-Hing Lam
BACKGROUND: Online social groups have been increasingly used for smoking cessation intervention. INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to explore the social support components of the online discussion through WhatsApp and Facebook, how these components addressed the need of relapse prevention, and how the participants evaluated this intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We coded and analyzed the posts (N = 467) by the 82 recent quitters in WhatsApp and Facebook social groups, who were recruited from the eight smoking cessation clinics in Hong Kong to participate in a pragmatic randomized trial of relapse prevention...
December 2, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911411/preparation-and-in-vivo-use-of-an-activity-based-probe-for-n-acylethanolamine-acid-amidase
#20
Elisa Romeo, Silvia Pontis, Stefano Ponzano, Fabiola Bonezzi, Marco Migliore, Simona Di Martino, Maria Summa, Daniele Piomelli
Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a method for the identification of an enzyme of interest in a complex proteome through the use of a chemical probe that targets the enzyme's active sites. A reporter tag introduced into the probe allows for the detection of the labeled enzyme by in-gel fluorescence scanning, protein blot, fluorescence microscopy, or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Here, we describe the preparation and use of the compound ARN14686, a click chemistry activity-based probe (CC-ABP) that selectively recognizes the enzyme N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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