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Temporal lobe epilepsy and memory

Bettina K Steiger, Hennric Jokeit
Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions...
October 11, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Isabel Vieira de Assis Lima, Alline Cristina de Campos, Paula Maria Quaglio Bellozi, Juliana Guimaraes Doria, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Marcio Flavio Dutra Moraes, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in adults. The pilocarpine (PILO) experimental model of TLE portrays behavioral and pathophysiological changes in rodents that are very similar to those found in humans with TLE. However, this model is associated with an unfortunate high mortality rate. Studies have shown that intrahippocampal injection of PILO, while having a much smaller mortality rate, induces status epilepticus (SE) that secondarily leads to TLE. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to evaluate the cognitive and histological alterations 72h after intrahippocampal microinjection of PILO in C57BL/6 mice...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Gerardo Salvato, Pina Scarpa, Stefano Francione, Roberto Mai, Laura Tassi, Elisa Scarano, Giorgio Lo Russo, Gabriella Bottini
It is largely recognized that the mesial temporal lobe and its substructure support declarative long-term memory (LTM). So far, different theories have been suggested, and the organization of declarative verbal LTM in the brain is still a matter of debate. In the current study, we retrospectively selected 151 right-handed patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, with a homogeneous (seizure-free) clinical outcome. We analyzed verbal memory performance within a normalized scores context, by means of prose recall and word paired-associate learning tasks...
October 10, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Klajdi Puka, Mary Lou Smith
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the long-term cognitive outcomes following pediatric epilepsy surgery. Although the evidence for change within the first 2 years is not compelling, the plasticity of the immature brain may allow for improvements in the long term. This study examined memory function in a cohort of surgical and nonsurgical patients at baseline and 4-11 years after. METHOD: Participants were 88 patients (mean age 20.05, standard deviation [SD] 4.21 years) with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy; 53 had undergone resective epilepsy surgery...
October 12, 2016: Epilepsia
Ping Ding, Shaohui Zhang, Junchen Zhang, Xiaohong Hu, Xiaoman Yu, Shuangshuang Liang, Chao Gao, Shuli Liang
AIMS: To prospectively study the surgical outcomes of unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in patients with intractable bilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as well as two-staged contralateral hippocampal stimulation in patients after failed unilateral ATL. METHODS: Eighteen carefully selected patients with bilateral TLE underwent unilateral ATL. Five cases with failed ATL underwent two-staged contralateral hippocampal stimulation. Seizure control and changes in intelligence quotient (IQ), memory quotient, and quality of life (QOL) were analyzed 2-5 years after treatment...
October 11, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Nathan A Illman, Steven Kemp, Céline Souchay, Robin G Morris, Chris J A Moulin
Previous research has pointed to a deficit in associative recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Associative recognition tasks require discrimination between various combinations of words which have and have not been seen previously (such as old-old or old-new pairs). People with TLE tend to respond to rearranged old-old pairs as if they are "intact" old-old pairs, which has been interpreted as a failure to use a recollection strategy to overcome the familiarity of two recombined words into a new pairing...
2016: Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Yuko Fukata, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuri Miyazaki, Masaki Fukata
Physiological functioning of the brain requires fine-tuned synaptic transmission, and its dysfunction causes various brain disorders such as autism, dementia, and epilepsy. It is therefore extremely important to identify and characterize key regulators of synaptic function. In particular, disease-related synaptic proteins, such as autism-related neurexin-neuroligin and psychiatric disorder-related NMDA receptor, have attracted considerable attention. Recent basic and clinical research has highlighted critical roles of a ligand-receptor complex, LGI1-ADAM22, in synaptic transmission and brain function, as mutations in the LGI1 gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy and autoantibodies to LGI1 cause limbic encephalitis which is characterized by memory loss and seizures...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Jaderson C DaCosta, Mirna W Portuguez, Daniel R Marinowic, Lucas P Schilling, Carolina M Torres, Danielle I DaCosta, Maria Júlia M Carrion, Eduardo F Raupp, Denise C Machado, Ricardo B Soder, Silvia L Lardi, Bernardo Garicochea
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a highly prevalent syndrome among people with epilepsy, and is usually refractory to drug treatment. Structural and physiological changes, such as hippocampal sclerosis, are often present in TLE patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of intra-arterial infusion of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) in adults with medically refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). We enrolled 20 patients that had been diagnosed with MTLE-HS and refractory to medical treatment...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Thomas Sauvigny, Katja Brückner, Lasse Dührsen, Oliver Heese, Manfred Westphal, Stefan R G Stodieck, Tobias Martens
OBJECTIVE: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (sAHE) is a well-established treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy, commonly with favorable neuropsychological outcome. Yet, it is still unknown if subsequent resection of the anteromesial temporal lobe (AMTLR), when necessary, deteriorates neuropsychological performance in this selected group of patients. Thus, we evaluated the clinical and neuropsychological data of patients who, due to insufficient seizure control after sAHE, received a subsequent ipsilateral AMTLR and compared these findings with patients who did not receive a second resection (control group)...
September 28, 2016: Epilepsia
Marie St-Laurent, Morris Moscovitch, Mary Pat McAndrews
We assessed whether perceptual richness, a defining feature of episodic memory, depends on the engagement and integrity of the hippocampus during episodic memory retrieval. We tested participants' memory for complex laboratory events (LEs) that differed in perceptual content: short stories were either presented as perceptually rich film clips or as perceptually impoverished narratives. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while retrieving these LEs (narratives and clips), as well as events from their personal life (autobiographical memories)...
August 27, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Azza M Oraby, Ehab R Abdol Raouf, Mostafa M El-Saied, Maha K Abou-Khadra, Suzette I Helal, Adel F Hashish
We conducted the present study to examine cognitive function and serum heat shock protein 70 levels among children with temporal lobe epilepsy. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test was carried out to examine cognitive function in 30 children with temporal lobe epilepsy and 30 controls. Serum heat shock protein 70 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The epilepsy group had significantly lower cognitive function testing scores and significantly higher serum heat shock protein 70 levels than the control group; there were significant negative correlations between serum heat shock protein 70 levels and short-term memory and composite scores...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
Lucy F Robinson, Xiaosong He, Paul Barnett, Gaёlle E Doucet, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: Focal epilepsies, such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are known to disrupt network activity in areas outside the epileptogenic zone [Tracy et al., 2015]. We devised a measure of temporal instability of resting state functional connectivity (FC), capturing temporal variations of BOLD correlations between brain regions that is less confounded than the "sliding window" approach common in the literature. METHODS: We investigated healthy controls and unilateral TLE patients (right and left seizure focus groups), utilizing group ICA to identify the default mode network (DMN), a network associated with episodic memory, a key cognitive deficit in TLE...
September 15, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Han-Tao Li, Ching-Yi Lee, Siew-Na Lim, Chun-Wei Chang, Shih-Tseng Lee, Tony Wu
BACKGROUND: Surgical interventions are often used for freedom from seizure in patients with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. A patient with seizure foci in the left mesiotemporal region underwent limited-size stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RF-TC) over the left hippocampus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old woman with febrile convulsion in her childhood was admitted to our neurologic department with complex partial seizure with secondary generalization...
September 4, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Rūta Mameniškienė, Justė Rimšienė, Roma Puronaitė
OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to evaluate cognitive decline in people with temporal lobe epilepsy over a period of 13years and to determine what clinical and treatment characteristics may have been associated with these. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy underwent the same neuropsychological assessment of verbal and nonverbal memory, attention, and executive functions using the same cognitive test battery as one used 13years ago...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zohreh Ghotbeddin, Mahyar Janahmadi, Ali Yadollahpour
Epilepsy affects about 1-2 % of world population as a chronic neurological disease that is manifested by repeated and consecutive seizures (Grone and Baraban, Nat Neurosci 18(3):339-343, 2015). There is no definitive therapy for epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs cannot offer a permanent and definitive cure for epilepsy, and most epileptic patients become drug resistant (Sasa, J Pharmacol Sci 100(5):487-494, 2006). Surgery and removal of the epileptic focus is a substitute method for treating drug-resistant patients and epilepsy surgery of either side of the brain improves seizure control...
August 26, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Dario J Englot, Peter E Konrad, Victoria L Morgan
Epilepsy is among the most common brain network disorders, and it is associated with substantial morbidity and increased mortality. Although focal epilepsy was traditionally considered a regional brain disorder, growing evidence has demonstrated widespread network alterations in this disorder that extend beyond the epileptogenic zone from which seizures originate. The goal of this review is to summarize recent investigations examining functional and structural connectivity alterations in focal epilepsy, including neuroimaging and electrophysiologic studies utilizing model-based or data-driven analytic methods...
October 2016: Epilepsia
Manuela Tondelli, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Andrea Ruggieri, Stefano Meletti
Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE) in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Freesurfer analyses were used...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Tanja S Kellermann, Leonardo Bonilha, Ramin Eskandari, Camille Garcia-Ramos, Jack J Lin, Bruce P Hermann
OBJECTIVE: Normal cognitive function is defined by harmonious interaction among multiple neuropsychological domains. Epilepsy has a disruptive effect on cognition, but how diverse cognitive abilities differentially interact with one another compared with healthy controls (HC) is unclear. This study used graph theory to analyze the community structure of cognitive networks in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared with that in HC. METHODS: Neuropsychological assessment was performed in 100 patients with TLE and 82 HC...
October 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Julia Jacobs, Sarah Banks, Rina Zelmann, Maeike Zijlmans, Marilyn Jones-Gotman, Jean Gotman
INTRODUCTION: High-frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80-500Hz) are newly-described EEG markers of epileptogenicity. The proportion of physiological and pathological HFOs is unclear, as frequency analysis is insufficient for separating the two types of events. For instance, ripples (80-250Hz) also occur physiologically during memory consolidation processes in medial temporal lobe structures. We investigated the correlation between HFO rates and memory performance. METHODS: Patients investigated with bilateral medial temporal electrodes and an intellectual capacity allowing for memory testing were included...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Kirill A Kryukov, Kira K Kim, Lev G Magazanik, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Seizure-induced memory deficits are frequent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this memory impairment are not entirely clear. Persistent changes in synaptic efficacy, long-term potentiation (LTP), and depression are considered a cellular substrate underlying the learning and memory processes. Using a lithium-pilocarpine model to induce status epilepticus (SE) in rats, the present study investigated whether the induction of LTP was altered in hippocampal slices obtained 3 h, 1, 3, and 7 days after SE...
November 9, 2016: Neuroreport
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