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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431146/response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-to-xylanase-supplementation
#1
G Gonzalez-Ortiz, D Sola-Oriol, M Martinez-Mora, J F Perez, M R Bedford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase supplementation on performance, footpad score (FPS), nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Ross 308 broiler chicks (one d old) were placed in one of 3 experimental treatments: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) (-150 kcal/kg), and XYL (NC supplemented with xylanase). Each treatment had 8 replicates with 12 animals each. Starter (zero to 21 d) and grower (21 to 42 d) diets, based on wheat and soy-bean meal, were available ad libitum...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421381/lactase-non-persistence-and-lactose-intolerance
#2
REVIEW
Theodore M Bayless, Elizabeth Brown, David M Paige
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. RECENT FINDINGS: Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase non-persistence. The dairy industry and Minnesota investigators have made efforts to minimize the influence of lactose intolerance on milk consumption...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412825/family-dinner-frequency-is-inversely-related-to-mental-disorders-and-obesity-in-adolescents-the-caspian-iii-study
#3
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Roya Kelishadi, Mostafa Qorbani, Ramin Heshmat, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Leila Azadbakht
PURPOSE: Family dinner is a proxy of family connectedness that may affect mental health. The present study aimed to examine the associations of frequency of family dinner with mental disorders and obesity in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian adolescents. METHODS: A total of 5528 Iranians adolescents aged 10-18 years were enrolled in 2009-2010 in the third survey of a national surveillance program, entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study...
April 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410751/mizagliflozin-a-novel-selective-sglt1-inhibitor-exhibits-potential-in-the-amelioration-of-chronic-constipation
#4
Toshihiro Inoue, Masaaki Takemura, Nobuhiko Fushimi, Yoshikazu Fujimori, Tomoya Onozato, Takao Kurooka, Tetsuya Asari, Hiroo Takeda, Mamoru Kobayashi, Hironori Nishibe, Masayuki Isaji
Chronic constipation is a highly common functional gastrointestinal disorder that adversely affects patient quality of life. At present, limited therapeutic options are available for the treatment of chronic constipation, which indicates the need for new therapeutic agents. Herein, we report the potential of mizagliflozin, a novel selective sodium glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) inhibitor, for the amelioration of chronic constipation. Mizagliflozin's inhibitory activity against SGLTs was evaluated by an in vitro assay of cells transiently expressing SGLTs...
April 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392928/cost-of-intervention-delivery-in-a-lifestyle-weight-loss-trial-in-type-2-diabetes-results-from-the-look-ahead-clinical-trial
#5
J Rushing, R Wing, T A Wadden, W C Knowler, M Lawlor, M Evans, T Killean, M Montez, M A Espeland, P Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial was a randomized controlled clinical trial to compare the effects of 10 years of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) with a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) on health outcomes in over 5,000 participants with type 2 diabetes. The ILI had significantly greater weight losses than DSE throughout the trial. The goal of this analysis is to describe the cost of delivering the intervention. METHODS: The ILI was designed to promote weight loss and increase physical activity...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384887/the-impact-of-eating-and-exercise-frequency-on-weight-gain-a-cross-sectional-study-on-medical-undergraduate-students
#6
Abhinitha Padavinangadi, Lee Zi Xuan, Nishalini Chandrasekaran, Nursyahirah Johari, Naveen Kumar, Raghu Jetti
INTRODUCTION: Diverse factors influence an individual's ability to successfully achieve and maintain energy balance consistent with a healthy body weight. Eating frequency is one among the varied feature that thought to have a direct impact on the body weight gain. AIM: The present cross-sectional study has been carried out with the intention of awareness of food habit that specifically emphasize the frequency of eating and its effect on weight gain of an individual...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377047/developing-a-digital-photography-based-method-for-dietary-analysis-in-self-serve-dining-settings
#7
Mary J Christoph, Brett R Loman, Brenna Ellison
Current population-based methods for assessing dietary intake, including food frequency questionnaires, food diaries, and 24-h dietary recall, are limited in their ability to objectively measure food intake. Digital photography has been identified as a promising addition to these techniques but has rarely been assessed in self-serve settings. We utilized digital photography to examine university students' food choices and consumption in a self-serve dining hall setting. Research assistants took pre- and post-photos of students' plates during lunch and dinner to assess selection (presence), servings, and consumption of MyPlate food groups...
April 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377021/triggers-and-timing-of-acute-coronary-syndromes
#8
Geoffrey H Tofler, Eran Kopel, Robert Klempfner, Michael Eldar, Thomas Buckley, Ilan Goldenberg
Previous studies have shown that an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may be triggered by external activities; however, their frequency, predictors, and significance are uncertain. We evaluated data from the National Israel Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes, which was conducted in 2004 (February to March) in all 25 coronary care units and cardiac wards in Israel. Demographic and clinical data were recorded for consecutive participants, including potential triggers and time of symptom onset of ACS. Among the 1,849 patients who completed the trigger question, 1/4 (25...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376909/disordered-eating-and-emotion-dysregulation-among-adolescents-and-their-parents
#9
Erika Hansson, Daiva Daukantaité, Per Johnsson
BACKGROUND: Research on the relationships between adolescent and parental disordered eating (DE) and emotion dysregulation is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether mothers' and fathers' own DE, as measured by SCOFF questionnaire, and emotion dysregulation, as measured by the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), were associated with their daughters' or sons' DE and emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, the importance of shared family meals and possible parent-related predictors of adolescent DE were explored...
April 4, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376868/evaluation-of-the-anti-diarrheal-activity-of-the-aqueous-stem-extract-of-lantana-camara-linn-verbenaceae-in-mice
#10
Edlam Tadesse, Ephrem Engidawork, Teshome Nedi, Getnet Mengistu
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease remains a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. In order to alleviate this disease, Ethiopian traditional healers use a wide range of medicinal plants from which Lantana camara is one of them. The stem of this plant is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea. In addition, this plant is scientifically evaluated to have an antispasmodic effect on in vitro study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the aqueous stem extract of L...
April 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369078/the-effect-of-meal-frequency-in-a-reduced-energy-regimen-on-the-gastrointestinal-and-appetite-hormones-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-crossover-study
#11
Lenka Belinova, Hana Kahleova, Hana Malinska, Ondrej Topolcan, Jindra Windrichova, Olena Oliyarnyk, Ludmila Kazdova, Martin Hill, Terezie Pelikanova
BACKGROUND: Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363802/sociocultural-factors-influencing-eating-practices-among-office-workers-in-urban-south-korea
#12
Sohyun Park, Eunju Sung, Yuni Choi, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Joel Gittelsohn
OBJECTIVE: To understand the sociocultural factors affecting the eating behaviors of South Korean employees. DESIGN: In-depth individual interviews. SETTING: Two metropolitan areas of South Korea. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen male and 9 female office workers. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: The effects of sociocultural factors on office workers' eating behaviors. ANALYSIS: The researchers transcribed and analyzed audio-recorded interviews using thematic analysis...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351671/eating-patterns-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-associations-with-metabolic-control-insulin-omission-and-eating-disorder-pathology
#13
Line Wisting, Deborah Lynn Reas, Lasse Bang, Torild Skrivarhaug, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Øyvind Rø
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate eating patterns among male and female adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the associations with age, zBMI, eating disorder (ED) pathology, intentional insulin omission, and metabolic control. METHOD: The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (58.6% females) with child-onset T1D, mean age of 15.7 years (SD 1.8) and mean zBMI of 0.4 (SD 0.8). The Child Eating Disorder Examination (ChEDE) assessed meal/snack frequency and ED pathology...
March 27, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349369/is-snack-consumption-associated-with-meal-skipping-in-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#14
Roya Kelishadi, Nafiseh Mozafarian, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Saeid Safiri, Gelayol Ardalan, Mojtaba Keikhah, Fatemeh Rezaei, Ramin Heshmat
PURPOSE: The present inquiry set to assess the relationship between snack consumption and meal skipping in Iranian children and adolescents. METHODS: Overall, 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, were selected via multistage cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. A validated questionnaire of food behaviors including questions on snacks consumption and taking/skipping meals was completed. Consuming and skipping meals and their related factors were reported in both crude and adjusted models...
March 27, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346574/size-matters-differences-in-nutritional-care-between-small-medium-and-large-nursing-homes-in-germany
#15
C Burger, E Kiesswetter, A Gietl, U Pfannes, U Arens-Azevedo, C C Sieber, D Volkert
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to comprehensively describe nutritional care in German nursing homes (NHs) and to examine if nutritional care differs between small, medium and large NHs. DESIGN: Nationwide cross-sectional postal survey. SETTING: Nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: 541 NHs across Germany. MEASUREMENTS: Information on structural NH characteristics and nutritional care (food provision and menu planning, nursing care, and management and quality assurance) was collected by means of a questionnaire addressed to the management of a random sample of German NHs...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345792/adding-fast-acting-insulin-aspart-to-basal-insulin-significantly-improved-glycaemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-18-week-open-label-phase-3-trial-onset-3
#16
Helena W Rodbard, Devjit Tripathy, Maricela Vidrio Velázquez, Marek Demissie, Søren Can Tamer, Milivoj Piletič
AIM: To confirm glycaemic control superiority of mealtime fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) in a basal-bolus (BB) regimen versus basal-only insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, 18-week trial (51 sites; 6 countries) adults (n = 236) with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D; mean glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c ] ±SD: 7.9 ± 0.7% [63.1 ± 7.5 mmol/mol) receiving basal insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs underwent 8-week optimisation of prior once-daily basal insulins followed by randomisation 1:1 to a BB regimen with faster aspart (n = 116) or continuation of once-daily basal insulin (n = 120), both with metformin...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341017/family-meals-and-adolescent-emotional-well-being-findings-from-a-national-study
#17
Jennifer Utter, Simon Denny, Roshini Peiris-John, Emma Moselen, Ben Dyson, Terryann Clark
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between family meals and adolescent mental health and determine whether the relationship differs by sex. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of a cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 8,500 nationally representative students. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; World Health Organization Well-being Index. ANALYSIS: Multiple regression models determined the relationships between family meals and mental health indicators; sociodemographic variables and family connection were included as covariates...
January 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340302/does-the-type-of-activity-break-from-prolonged-sitting-differentially-impact-on-post-prandial-blood-glucose-reductions-an-exploratory-analysis
#18
Robyn N Larsen, Paddy C Dempsey, Francis Dillon, Megan Grace, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Neville Owen, David W Dunstan
Frequent breaks in prolonged sitting are associated beneficially with glycaemic control. However, the contribution of energy expenditure to these relationships has not been well characterised. In this exploratory analysis, data from three laboratory trials that standardised test meals, cohort characteristics (overweight/obese, sedentary), and break frequency and duration were pooled. Higher energy expenditures of different types of breaks (standing, light- or moderate-intensity walking) were associated with lower post-prandial glucose and insulin responses in a dose-dependent manner...
March 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330733/what-do-children-eat-in-the-summer-a-direct-observation-of-summer-day-camps-that-serve-meals
#19
Erica L Kenney, Rebekka M Lee, Carolyn J Brooks, Angie L Cradock, Steven L Gortmaker
BACKGROUND: More than 14 million children in the United States attend summer camp annually, yet little is known about the food environment in day camps. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the nutritional quality of meals served to, brought by, and consumed by children attending summer day camps serving meals and snacks, and to describe camp water access. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: Participants were 149 children attending five summer camps in Boston, MA, in 2013...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327814/the-development-of-panstrongylus-herreri-under-fluctuating-environmental-conditions
#20
Edson Franzim, Maria Tays Mendes, Ana Carolina Borella Marfil Anhê, Afonso Pelli, Marcos Vinicius Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues, Helioswilton Sales-Campos, Carlo Jose Freire Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Panstrongylus herreri is a main Chagas disease vector, and its success as a vector stems from its ability to establish domiciliated colonies; we aimed to explore its biology and reproduction. METHODS: The average amount of blood ingested and the time from the beginning of a blood meal to the production of feces were recorded. RESULTS: Females exhibited a higher blood ingestion rate than males, but similar defecation times and frequencies were observed...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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