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Meal frequency

Carolina Schwedhelm, Khalid Iqbal, Sven Knüppel, Lukas Schwingshackl, Heiner Boeing
Background: Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used exploratory method in epidemiology to derive dietary patterns from habitual diet. Such dietary patterns seem to originate from intakes on multiple days and eating occasions. Therefore, analyzing food intake of study populations with different levels of food consumption can provide additional insights as to how habitual dietary patterns are formed. Objective: We analyzed the food intake data of German adults in terms of the relations among food groups from three 24-h dietary recalls (24hDRs) on the habitual, single-day, and main-meal levels, and investigated the contribution of each level to the formation of PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shahnaz Karkon Varnosfaderani, Fataneh Hashem-Dabaghian, Gholamreza Amin, Mahbubeh Bozorgi, Ghazaleh Heydarirad, Esmaeil Nazem, Mohsen Nasiri Toosi, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat
BACKGROUND: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints. GERD, caused by the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus, leads to troublesome symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation. It is classified into two types: erosive esophagitis, characterized by visible esophageal mucosa erosion in endoscopy, and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). GERD is a chronic and recurrent disease that impairs the quality of life and imposes socioeconomic and therapeutic burdens to both patients and society...
March 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Laura B Gualdrón-Duarte, Michael S Allen
Absorbed fuels from the digestion of starch include propionic acid (PA) produced by ruminal fermentation and glucose (GLU) from intestinal digestion, which may be partially metabolized to lactic acid (LA) by intestinal tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these fuels on dry matter intake (DMI) and feeding behavior of cows in the postpartum period. We hypothesized that these fuels affect feed intake differently and that their effects are related to differences in their hepatic metabolism. Glucose was expected to have little effect on feed intake because little or no GLU is extracted from the blood by the liver...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Omid Nekouei, Sylvia Checkley, Cheryl Waldner, Ben A Smith, Jesse Invik, Carolee Carson, Brent Avery, Javier Sanchez, Sheryl Gow
Emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in food-borne bacteria is a public health issue. Retail meat is considered an important carrier for antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Currently, resistance of E. coli strains to third generation cephalosporins are of particular concern, with significant potential animal and public health consequences. Resistance to tetracyclines is also a concern, due to high prevalence of this resistance and important co-resistance patterns. However, the actual likelihood of exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria via the consumption of retail meats, beyond the simple frequencies of resistance found in samples of meat at the grocery store, in Canada remains to be investigated...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Cyrille Ndo, Edmond Kopya, Marie Agathe Donbou, Flobert Njiokou, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Charles Wondji
BACKGROUND: High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is the cornerstone of the malaria control strategy of the national malaria control program (NMCP) in Cameroon, with a target of reducing malaria transmission to less than 10% by 2035. To this end, more than 20 million LLINs have been distributed to populations countrywide since 2011. The present study evaluated entomological indices and Anopheles susceptibility to pyrethroids in a rural forested area of south Cameroon with high coverage of LLINs...
March 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Anna Galczak-Kondraciuk, Paweł Stempel, Jan Czeczelewski
Background: Children and youth constitute a group that is particularly prone to the effects of improper diet. In the puberty period, numerous significant lifestyle choices are made, for instance regarding particular nutritional behaviours which may be repeated later in life and may determine the state of health. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess nutritional behaviours of children aged 7-12 attending to primary schools in Biala Podlaska county (Eastern Region of Poland)...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak, Anna Harton
Background: In order to improve the quality of nutrition in care and educational institutions, in year 2015 a restrictive law regulation was introduced. The following year this regulation was withdrawn, and a new legal policy has been introduced. However, data on the impact of these legislations on nutrition in kindergartens are lacking. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the compliance with mandatory nutrition recommendations in preschools. Material and methods: The study included 706 institutions...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
E J Ndebia, A M Sammon, E Umapathy, J E Iputo
Reflux in this region of South Africa is known to be more frequent and less acidic than in other countries. We investigated the relationship between reflux and diet. We recruited 57 healthy participants. We carried out ambulant oesophageal pH-impedance monitoring for 24 hours. We used software and visual review to analyse data and to identify episodes of reflux and rapid alkaline rises in the stomach. A usual pattern diet questionnaire provided data on frequency of consumption of common foods. Associations between reflux, gastric pH and dietary components were sought using analysis of variance, and regression analyses...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Shawn M Varney, Patrick C Ng, Crystal A Perez, Allyson A Araña, Edwin R Austin, Rosemarie G Ramos, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplement use (protein/amino acids, weight-loss supplements, performance enhancers) is common among U.S. military members. Reported dietary supplement use in deployed troops is limited and is of concern in settings where troops are exposed to high ambient temperatures, increased physical demands, and dehydration. Our objective was to describe dietary supplement use and adverse events (AEs) among deployed U.S. service members compared with their pre-deployment use...
October 26, 2017: Military Medical Research
Jumpei Suzuki, Kazuo Shimazaki, Sarina Koike, Takashi Ono
INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic patients with malocclusion have significantly lower masticatory and gastrointestinal digestive function than persons with normal occlusion. Although several studies have suggested that masticatory function is improved after orthodontic treatment, the relationship between such improvement and change in gastrointestinal symptoms has not been quantitatively evaluated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the change in masticatory function and the gastric emptying rate in patients with malocclusion, before and after orthodontic treatment...
March 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Kanta Fujimoto, Yui Shibayama, Eriko Yamaguchi, Sachiko Honjo, Akihiro Hamasaki, Yoshiyuki Hamamoto
BACKGROUND: Glucose excursions and hypoglycemia are associated with cardiovascular complications. However, no studies have evaluated glucose excursions and the frequency of hypoglycemia in patients treated with mitiglinide/voglibose versus glimepiride as add-on to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor therapy. METHODS: This cross-over trial included 20 patients with type 2 diabetes. After initiating vildagliptin 100 mg, patients were randomly assigned to receive mitiglinide/voglibose 10 mg/0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Wendy Si Hassen, Katia Castetbon, Christine Tichit, Sandrine Péneau, Anouar Nechba, Pauline Ducrot, Aurélie Lampuré, France Bellisle, Serge Hercberg, Caroline Méjean
BACKGROUND: Snacking raises concern since it may lead to an additional energy intake and poor nutrient quality. A snacking occasion can be defined as any eating occasion apart from main meals, regardless of the amount or type of foods consumed. We described the frequency of snacking occasions according to daily timing in French adults, and compared them between each other, and with the main meals, in terms of energy intake, energy and nutrient density, and food content. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 104,265 adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort...
February 27, 2018: Nutrition Journal
M Ishikawa, T Yokoyama, F Hayashi, Y Takemi, T Nakaya, Y Fukuda, K Kusama, M Nozue, N Yoshiike, N Murayama
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the relationships among subjective well-being, food and health behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and geography in chronically ill older Japanese adults living alone. DESIGN: The design was a cross-sectional, multilevel survey. A questionnaire was distributed by post and self-completed by participants. SETTING: The sample was drawn from seven towns and cities across Japan. PARTICIPANTS: A geographic information system was used to select a representative sample of older people living alone based on their proximity to a supermarket...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Anna Ali Nayani, Romaina Iqbal, Syed Iqbal Azam, Farhan Raza Khan, Aysha Habib Khan, Naveed Janjua, Azmina Hussain
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between environmental tobacco smoke and dental caries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and urban areas of Karachi, from February to August 2014, and comprised children aged 5-14 years. A pre-coded questionnaire for environmental tobacco smoke and food frequency questionnaire for dietary habits were used. Dental examination of children was done to detect caries. Cox-proportional hazard algorithm was used to measure the association of environmental tobacco smoke with dental caries at multivariable level...
February 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Katelyn M Godin, Ashok Chaurasia, David Hammond, Scott T Leatherdale
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether several food purchasing behaviors (ie, sources of meals or snacks) are associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and whether these associations vary by province. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Alberta and Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Secondary school students from Alberta (n = 3,300) and Ontario (n = 37,999) participating in year 2 (2013-2014) of the Cannabis Use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol Use, Smoking, Sedentary Behavior (COMPASS) study...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Jayna M Dave, Karen W Cullen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. DESIGN: On-site observations and menu coding. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Nine early care and education centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Agreement of posted menus with foods served, and comparison of foods served and consumed with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
A Williams, N de Vlieger, M Young, M E Jensen, T L Burrows, P J Morgan, C E Collins
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined dietary intake changes following a weight loss intervention in fathers and the association between father-child dietary intakes. The present study aimed to: (i) evaluate the change in dietary intake in overweight fathers randomised to a family-based lifestyle intervention [Healthy Dads Healthy Kids (HDHK)] versus controls and (ii) investigate whether an association exists between father-child dietary intakes. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted of father-child baseline and 3-month post-intervention data (n = 93) collected in the HDHK community randomised controlled trial...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
S O'Toole, F Mullan
An acidic diet has been associated with erosive tooth wear. However, some people who consume dietary acids develop erosive tooth wear and some do not. This review paper provides an overview of the risk factors of dietary acid consumption which increase the likelihood of developing severe erosive tooth wear. Increased frequency of dietary acid consumption, particularly between meals appears to be the predominant risk factor. However, habitually drinking acidic drinks by sipping them slowly or swishing, rinsing or holding acidic drinks in the mouth before swallowing will also increase risk of progression...
February 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
Yifan Duan, Zhenyu Yang, Jianqiang Lai, Dongmei Yu, Suying Chang, Xuehong Pang, Shan Jiang, Huanmei Zhang, Ye Bi, Jie Wang, Robert W Scherpbier, Liyun Zhao, Shian Yin
Appropriate infant and young child feeding could reduce morbidity and mortality and could improve cognitive development of children. However, nationwide data on exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess current exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding status in China. A national representative survey (Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey) of children aged under 6 years was done in 2013. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was used to select study participants...
February 22, 2018: Nutrients
S M Mason, N J Santaularia, J M Berge, N Larson, D Neumark-Sztainer
Childhood maltreatment is consistently associated with adult obesity, leading to calls for tailored weight interventions for people with maltreatment histories. However, it is possible that the maltreatment-obesity association is spurious and driven by unmeasured confounding, in which case such interventions would be misplaced. The home food environment in childhood is a potential confounder, but its role in the association of maltreatment with obesity has not been examined. We used a longitudinal dataset (Project EAT) to examine the association of adult retrospective reports of maltreatment history in childhood (1+ types of maltreatment before age 18 years) with previously-collected prospective childhood reports of home food environment characteristics (availability of healthy foods, availability of sweet/salty snack food, family meal frequency, and food insufficiency)...
February 14, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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