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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909098/reversible-disruption-of-neuronal-mitochondria-by-ischemic-and-traumatic-injury-revealed-by-quantitative-two-photon-imaging-in-the-neocortex-of-anesthetized-mice
#1
Mikhail Kislin, Jeremy Sword, Ioulia V Fomitcheva, Deborah Croom, Evgeny Pryazhnikov, Eero Lihavainen, Dmytro Toptunov, Heikki Rauvala, Andre S Ribeiro, Leonard Khiroug, Sergei A Kirov
: Mitochondria play a variety of functional roles in cortical neurons, from metabolic support and neuroprotection to the release of cytokines that trigger apoptosis. In dendrites, mitochondrial structure is closely linked to their function, and fragmentation (fission) of the normally elongated mitochondria indicates loss of their function under such pathological conditions as stroke and brain trauma. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy in mouse brain, we quantified mitochondrial fragmentation in a full spectrum of cortical injuries ranging from severe to mild...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903121/craniopharyngioma-adherence-a-comprehensive-topographical-categorization-and-outcome-related-risk-stratification-model-based-on-the-methodical-examination-of-500-tumors
#2
Ruth Prieto, José María Pascual, Maria Rosdolsky, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Rodrigo Carrasco, Sewan Strauss, Laura Barrios
OBJECTIVE Craniopharyngioma (CP) adherence strongly influences the potential for achieving a radical and safe surgical treatment. However, this factor remains poorly addressed in the scientific literature. This study provides a rational, comprehensive description of CP adherence that can be used for the prediction of surgical risks associated with the removal of these challenging lesions. METHODS This study retrospectively analyzes the evidence provided in pathological, neuroradiological, and surgical CP reports concerning 3 components of the CP attachment: 1) the intracranial structures attached to the tumor; 2) the morphology of the adhesion; and 3) the adhesion strength...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901414/cognitive-deficits-and-inflammatory-response-resulting-from-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-are-exacerbated-by-repeated-pre-exposure-to-an-innate-stress-stimulus
#3
Michaël Ogier, Amor Belmeguenai, Thomas Lieutaud, Béatrice Georges, Sandrine Bouvard, Emilie Carré, Frédéric Canini, Laurent Bezin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both military and civilian populations, and often results in neurobehavioral sequelae that impair quality of life in both patients and their family. Although individuals who are chronically exposed to stress are more likely to experience TBI, it is still unknown whether pre-injury stress influences the outcome after TBI. The present study tested whether behavioral and cognitive long-term outcome after TBI in rats is affected by prior exposure to an innate stress stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900164/prevalence-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-top-level-male-and-female-football-players
#4
Astrid Junge, Nina Feddermann-Demont
BACKGROUND: Scientific studies on the prevalence of mental health problems in elite athletes are rare, and most have had considerable methodological limitations, such as low response rate and heterogeneous samples. AIMS: To evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in top-level football players in comparison to the general population, and to analyse potential risk factors. METHODS: Players of all first league (FL) and of four U-21 football teams in Switzerland were asked to answer a questionnaire on player's characteristics, the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899082/interventions-to-improve-gross-motor-performance-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#5
Barbara R Lucas, Elizabeth J Elliott, Sarah Coggan, Rafael Z Pinto, Tracy Jirikowic, Sarah Westcott McCoy, Jane Latimer
BACKGROUND: Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898158/multivariate-assessment-of-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-social-and-family-satisfaction-in-veterans-with-history-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Henry J Orff, Chelsea C Hays, Elizabeth W Twamley
Approximately 20% of current-era Veterans have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI), which can result in persistent postconcussive symptoms. These symptoms may disrupt family and social functioning. We explored psychiatric, postconcussive, and cognitive factors as correlates of objective functioning and subjective satisfaction in family and social relationships. At entry into a supported employment study, 50 unemployed Veterans with a history of mild to moderate TBI and current cognitive impairment were administered baseline assessments...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877096/a-prospective-pilot-study-on-the-systemic-absorption-of-oral-vancomycin-in-children-with-colitis
#7
James W Antoon, Margaret Hall, Diana Metropulos, Michael J Steiner, Ravi Jhaveri, Jacob A Lohr
BACKGROUND: Oral vancomycin is used to treat refractory colitis due to Clostridium dificile infection. Traditionally, oral vancomycin was thought to not be absorbed systemically, but recent adult studies have demonstrated detectable serum levels in over half of patients with severe colitis. This has not been studied in children. OBJECTIVE: To determine the absorption of oral vancomycin and the renal safety profile of oral vancomycin in children hospitalized with colitis. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, pilot proof of principle study at the North Carolina Children's Hospital in patients 2 years to 18 years of age receiving oral vancomycin for the treatment of C dificile colitis...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871428/mortality-of-head-injuries-in-sub-saharan-african-countries-the-case-of-the-university-teaching-hospitals-of-cameroon
#8
VdP Djientcheu, E J Nguifo Fongang, P Owono Etoundi, A Esiene, M Motah, C Tchaleu, E Emakam, R Tonye, B Ngo Nonga, X Essiben, P J Fouda
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on severe head injury mortality is rarely reported in Sub-Saharan African countries and in Cameroon in particular. It was for this reason that for the first time ever a prospective study was carried out during a one year period in the university hospitals and some selected regional and district hospitals in Cameroon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All the patients admitted for head injury in the emergency units of the selected hospitals were enrolled and followed up over a period of one month...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857916/the-effectiveness-of-subdural-drains-using-urokinase-after-burr-hole-evacuation-of-subacute-subdural-hematoma-in-elderly-patients-a-prelimilary-report
#9
Chang-Gi Yeo, Woo-Yeol Jeon, Seong-Ho Kim, Oh-Lyong Kim, Min-Su Kim
OBJECTIVE: A subdural drain using urokinase after a burr hole hematoma evacuation was performed for subacute subdural hematoma (SASDH), and its effectiveness and safety in elderly patients were evaluated. METHODS: Between January 2013 and May 2015, subdural drains using urokinase after burr hole hematoma evacuation were performed in 19 elderly patients. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) a subdural hematoma occurring between 4 and 20 days after injury; 2) worsening neurological symptoms, from mild to moderate or severe, due to injury during the subacute stage; 3) a mix of solid clots (high-density lighter shadow) and fluid hematoma (low-density darker shadow) on the computed tomography (CT) scan; 4) a score of ≥9 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) assessed immediately before surgery; and 5) an age of ≥65 years...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857878/magnetic-resonance-imaging-assessment-of-vascular-contact-of-the-facial-nerve-in-the-asymptomatic-patient
#10
Nicholas L Deep, Geoffrey P Fletcher, Kent D Nelson, Ameet C Patel, David M Barrs, Bernard R Bendok, Joseph M Hoxworth
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial nerve vascular contact on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients without hemifacial spasm (HFS). Study Design Our radiology database was queried to identify consecutive adult patients without a history of HFS, intracranial tumor, brain radiation therapy, intracranial surgery, traumatic brain injury, or trigeminal nerve vascular compression. One hundred high-resolution MRIs of the posterior fossa were independently reviewed by two neuroradiologists for facial nerve vascular contact (200 sides)...
December 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857456/magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#11
Binoj Varghese, Rose Xavier, V C Manoj, M K Aneesh, P S Priya, Ashok Kumar, V K Sreenivasan
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury results in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and serious long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is an ideal and safe imaging modality for suspected hypoxic-ischemic injury. The pattern of injury depends on brain maturity at the time of insult, severity of hypotension, and duration of insult. Time of imaging after the insult influences the imaging findings. Mild to moderate hypoperfusion results in germinal matrix hemorrhages and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm neonates and parasagittal watershed territory infarcts in full-term neonates...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#12
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852364/-the-expression-of-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-and-its-injury-to-endothelial-cells
#13
P Yuan, W J Wang, D F Li, Q Ou, X L Gao
Objective: To study the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its injury to endothelial cells. Methods: According to the PSG test results, subjects who were the first time to take PSG examination without treatment (n=71) were divided into a control group (n=20), a mild OSAHS group (n=19), a moderate OSAHS group (n=15) and severe OSAHS group (n=17). For each patients, 4 ml fasting peripheral blood was obtained when PSG was finished around 6: 30 in the next morning, and the MIF level in plasma was detected with the ELISA method...
November 12, 2016: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850440/802-disposition-of-children-with-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-and-positive-head-imaging
#14
Corina Noje, Eric Jackson, Isam Nasr, Philomena Costabile, Eric Henderson, Marcelo Cerullo, Katherine Hoops, Courtney Robertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836677/the-effect-of-instruction-in-analgesic-use-compared-with-neuromuscular-exercise-on-knee-joint-load-in-patients-with-knee-osteoarthritis-a-randomized-single-blind-controlled-trial
#15
A Holsgaard-Larsen, B Clausen, J Søndergaard, R Christensen, T P Andriacchi, E M Roos
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a neuro-muscular exercise (NEMEX) therapy program compared with instructions in optimized analgesics and anti-inflammatory drug use (PHARMA), on measures of knee-joint load in people with mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA). We hypothesized that knee joint loading during walking would be reduced by NEMEX and potentially increased by PHARMA. DESIGN: Single-blind, RCT comparing NEMEX therapy twice a week with PHARMA. Participants with mild-to-moderate medial tibiofemoral knee OA were randomly allocated (1:1) to one of two 8-week treatments...
November 9, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831731/behavioral-inhibition-and-activation-systems-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Christina G Wong, Lisa J Rapport, Sarah-Jane Meachen, Robin A Hanks, Mark A Lumley
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Personality has been linked to cognitive appraisal and health outcomes; however, research specific to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been sparse. Gray's theory of behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) offers a neurobiologic view of personality that may be especially relevant to neurobehavioral change associated with TBI. The present study examined theoretical and psychometric issues of using the BIS/BAS scale among adults with TBI as well as BIS/BAS personality correlates of TBI...
November 2016: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828808/managing-chronic-kidney-disease-in-the-older-adults-living-with-hiv
#17
Frank A Post
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV replication and immunodeficiency are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Widespread use of antiretrovirals that may affect kidney function underscores the need for monitoring kidney function, allowing early detection of drug-induced kidney injury and identification of patients who may benefit from antiretroviral therapy switches. RECENT FINDINGS: Several cohorts have reported an increased incidence of CKD with tenofovir [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)], atazanavir, and lopinavir, and CKD risk scores have been developed to identify those most at risk of kidney disease progression while receiving these agents...
November 8, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822256/the-role-of-m30-in-predicting-the-severity-of-liver-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#18
Baris Yilmaz, Bora Aktas, Akif Altinbas, Zeynep Ginis, Gulfer Ozturk, Fuat Ekiz, Serta Kilincalp, Murat Deveci, Zahide Simsek, Sahin Coban, Omer Basar, Osman Yuksel
BACKGROUND: Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure that is currently still necessary for predicting underlying hepatic injury related to chronic viral hepatitis B (CVHB). To date, none of the studied non-invasive methods have been able to replace liver biopsy. An apoptotic serum marker, M30, which has been reported to indicate ongoing liver fibrosis, has been popular in recent years. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the possible role of M30 in predicting CVHB-associated hepatic injury and its severity...
September 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821641/effects-of-ischaemic-conditioning-on-major-clinical-outcomes-in-people-undergoing-invasive-procedures-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Louisa Sukkar, Daqing Hong, Muh Geot Wong, Sunil V Badve, Kris Rogers, Vlado Perkovic, Michael Walsh, Xueqing Yu, Graham S Hillis, Martin Gallagher, Meg Jardine
OBJECTIVE:  To summarise the benefits and harms of ischaemic conditioning on major clinical outcomes in various settings. DESIGN:  Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:  Medline, Embase, Cochrane databases, and International Clinical Trials Registry platform from inception through October 2015. STUDY SELECTION:  All randomised controlled comparisons of the effect of ischaemic conditioning on clinical outcomes were included...
November 7, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820776/muscle-oxygenation-as-an-early-predictor-of-shock-severity-in-trauma-patients
#20
Lorilee S L Arakaki, Eileen M Bulger, Wayne A Ciesielski, David J Carlbom, Dana M Fisk, Kellie J Sheehan, Karin M Asplund, Kenneth A Schenkman
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the potential utility of a new prototype noninvasive muscle oxygenation (MOx) measurement for the identification of shock severity in a population of patients admitted to the trauma resuscitation rooms of a Level I regional trauma center. The goal of this project was to correlate MOx with shock severity as defined by standard measures of shock: systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and lactate. METHODS: Optical spectra were collected from subjects by placement of a custom-designed optical probe over the first dorsal interosseous muscles on the back of the hand...
November 3, 2016: Shock
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