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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239915/rapid-analysis-of-corni-fructus-using-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#1
Yuan Guo, Zhixin Gu, Xuemei Liu, Jingjing Liu, Ming Ma, Bo Chen, Liping Wang
INTRODUCTION: Paper spray-mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is a kind of ambient MS technique for the rapid analysis of samples. Corni fructus has been widely used in traditional Chinese compound preparations and healthy food. However, a number of counterfeits of Corni fructus, such as Crataegi fructus, Lycii fructus, and grape skin are illegally sold in crude herb markets. Therefore, the development of a rapid and high-throughput quality evaluation method is important for ensuring the effectiveness and safety of the crude materials of Corni fructus...
February 26, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239692/high-throughput-screening-of-microchip-synthesized-genes-in-programmable-double-emulsion-droplets
#2
H F Chan, S Ma, J Tian, K W Leong
The rapid advances in synthetic biology and biotechnology are increasingly demanding high-throughput screening technology, such as screening of the functionalities of synthetic genes for optimization of protein expression. Compartmentalization of single cells in water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets allows screening of a vast number of individualized assays, and recent advances in automated microfluidic devices further help realize the potential of droplet technology for high-throughput screening. However these single-emulsion droplets are incompatible with aqueous phase analysis and the inner droplet environment cannot easily communicate with the external phase...
February 27, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239678/bidirectional-intragraft-alloreactivity-drives-the-repopulation-of-human-intestinal-allografts-and-correlates-with-clinical-outcome
#3
Julien Zuber, Brittany Shonts, Sai-Ping Lau, Aleksandar Obradovic, Jianing Fu, Suxiao Yang, Marion Lambert, Shana Coley, Joshua Weiner, Joseph Thome, Susan DeWolf, Donna L Farber, Yufeng Shen, Sophie Caillat-Zucman, Govind Bhagat, Adam Griesemer, Mercedes Martinez, Tomoaki Kato, Megan Sykes
A paradigm in transplantation states that graft-infiltrating T cells are largely non-alloreactive "bystander" cells. However, the origin and specificity of allograft T cells over time has not been investigated in detail in animals or humans. Here, we use polychromatic flow cytometry and high throughput TCR sequencing of serial biopsies to show that gut-resident T cell turnover kinetics in human intestinal allografts are correlated with the balance between intra-graft host-vs-graft (HvG) and graft-vs-host (GvH) reactivities and with clinical outcomes...
October 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239418/-classical-cytogenetics-is-not-equal-to-banding-cytogenetics
#4
Thomas Liehr
BACKGROUND: Human cytogenetics is a field suffering from the argumentation that it 'is nowadays really outdated and to be replaced by molecular high throughput approaches'. Thus, it is to be expected that non-cytogeneticists do mistakes in nomenclature of cytogenetics, which is exposed to repeated reforms, like e.g. recently the now hardly manageable and readable nomenclature for array-comparative genomic hybridization. RESULTS: An unexpected nomenclature problem becomes more and more obvious in human cytogenetics - it seems to become difficult to understand how and when to use the designations "classical cytogenetics" or "banding cytogenetics"...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239147/asymmetric-interactions-between-doublesex-and-tissue-and-sex-specific-target-genes-mediate-sexual-dimorphism-in-beetles
#5
C C Ledón-Rettig, E E Zattara, A P Moczek
Sexual dimorphisms fuel significant intraspecific variation and evolutionary diversification. Yet the developmental-genetic mechanisms underlying sex-specific development remain poorly understood. Here, we focus on the conserved sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) and the mechanisms by which it mediates sex-specific development in a horned beetle species by combining systemic dsx knockdown, high-throughput sequencing of diverse tissues and a genome-wide analysis of Dsx-binding sites. We find that Dsx regulates sex-biased expression predominantly in males, that Dsx's target repertoires are highly sex- and tissue-specific and that Dsx can exercise its regulatory role via two distinct mechanisms: as a sex-specific modulator by regulating strictly sex-specific targets, or as a switch by regulating the same genes in males and females in opposite directions...
February 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239038/effect-of-ageratina-adenophora-invasion-on-the-composition-and-diversity-of-soil-microbiome
#6
Yunhong Kong, James Kong, Dingkang Wang, Heping Huang, Kaiyou Geng, Yonxia Wang, Yun Xia
In the present study, high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to investigate soil invaded by the aggressive weed Ageratina adenophora to determine its effect on the species composition, distribution, and biodiversity of the bacterial communities. Soil samples from 12 micro-sites containing a monoculture of A. adenophora plants, mixtures of A. adenophora and different native plant species, and native species alone were studied. We found that the invasion of this weed resulted in a selection of bacteria belonging to phyla Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and the lack of bacteria belonging to phyla Actinobacteria and Planctomycetes, but did not affect significantly the percentage abundances of members of other phyla...
February 24, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238653/tuned-smc-arms-drive-chromosomal-loading-of-prokaryotic-condensin
#7
Frank Bürmann, Alrun Basfeld, Roberto Vazquez Nunez, Marie-Laure Diebold-Durand, Larissa Wilhelm, Stephan Gruber
SMC proteins support vital cellular processes in all domains of life by organizing chromosomal DNA. They are composed of ATPase "head" and "hinge" dimerization domains and a connecting coiled-coil "arm." Binding to a kleisin subunit creates a closed tripartite ring, whose ∼47-nm-long SMC arms act as barrier for DNA entrapment. Here, we uncover another, more active function of the bacterial Smc arm. Using high-throughput genetic engineering, we resized the arm in the range of 6-60 nm and found that it was functional only in specific length regimes following a periodic pattern...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238134/evaluating-nanoparticle-binding-to-blood-compartment-immune-cells-in-high-throughput-with-flow-cytometry
#8
Shann S Yu
Nanoparticles are increasingly being utilized for in vivo applications, where they are implemented as carriers for drugs, contrast agents for noninvasive medical imaging, or delivery vehicles for macromolecular agents such as DNA or proteins. However, they possess many physical and chemical properties that cause them to become rapidly recognized by the immune system as a foreign body, leading to their clearance and elimination, even before they may accumulate to critical concentrations at anatomic and cellular sites of action...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238133/qflow-cytometry-based-receptoromic-screening-a-high-throughput-quantification-approach-informing-biomarker-selection-and-nanosensor-development
#9
Si Chen, Jared Weddell, Pavan Gupta, Grace Conard, James Parkin, Princess I Imoukhuede
Nanosensor-based detection of biomarkers can improve medical diagnosis; however, a critical factor in nanosensor development is deciding which biomarker to target, as most diseases present several biomarkers. Biomarker-targeting decisions can be informed via an understanding of biomarker expression. Currently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is the accepted standard for profiling biomarker expression. While IHC provides a relative mapping of biomarker expression, it does not provide cell-by-cell readouts of biomarker expression or absolute biomarker quantification...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238132/volumetric-bar-chart-chips-for-biosensing
#10
Yujun Song, Ying Li, Lidong Qin
The volumetric bar-chart chip (V-Chip) is a microfluidics-based, point-of-care (POC) device for the multiplexed and quantitative measurement of biomarkers. Volumetric readouts, based on the measurement of oxygen generated by a reaction between catalase and hydrogen peroxide, allow instant visual quantitation of target biomarkers and provide visualized bar charts without any assistance from instruments and without the need for data processing or graphics plotting. V-Chip shows potential capabilities in POC and personalized diagnostics; for instance, it can be utilized for making high-throughput, multiplexed, and quantitative measurements...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237954/what-is-the-influence-of-single-entry-models-on-access-to-elective-surgical-procedures-a-systematic-review
#11
Zaheed Damani, Barbara Conner-Spady, Tina Nash, Henry Tom Stelfox, Tom W Noseworthy, Deborah A Marshall
BACKGROUND: Single-entry models (SEMs) for the management of patients awaiting elective surgical services are designed to increase access and flow through the system of care. We assessed scope of use and influence of SEMs on access (waiting times/throughput) and patient-centredness (patient/provider acceptability). METHODS: Systematic review of articles published in 6 relevant electronic databases included studies from database inception to July 2016. Included studies needed to (1) report on the nature of the SEM; (2) specify elective service and (3) address at least 1 of 3 research questions related to (1) scope of use of SEMs; (2) influence on timeliness and access; (3) patient-centredness and acceptability...
February 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237864/transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-induced-genes-in-the-response-of-harmonia-axyridis-to-cold-hardiness
#12
Bin Tang, Xiao-Jun Liu, Zuo-Kun Shi, Qi-Da Shen, Yan-Xia Xu, Su Wang, Fan Zhang, Shi-Gui Wang
Harmonia axyridis is an important predatory lady beetle that is a natural enemy of agricultural and forestry pests. In this research, the cold hardiness induced genes and their expression changes in H. axyridis were screened and detected by the way of the transcriptome and qualitative real-time PCR under normal and low temperatures, using high-throughput transcriptome and digital gene-expression-tag technologies. We obtained a 10Gb transcriptome and an 8Mb gene expression tag pool using Illumina deep sequencing technology and RNA-Seq analysis (accession number SRX540102)...
February 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236572/comparison-of-bacterial-16s-rrna-variable-regions-for-microbiome-surveys-of-ticks
#13
Janet L Sperling, K L Silva-Brandão, M M Brandão, V K Lloyd, S Dang, C S Davis, F A H Sperling, K E Magor
Ticks vector diverse pathogenic bacteria that are important to identify in public health and veterinary contexts. Technological advances in high throughput sequencing have given an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize bacterial associates of ticks, but recent studies have used different 16S rRNA variable regions and sequence read lengths with little consideration of whether they reveal the same bacterial diversity. We compare the effectiveness of bacterial surveys using three library preparations across nine 16S variable regions and a set of 12 tick specimens (Acari: Ixodidae)...
February 9, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236410/screening-and-evaluation-of-commonly-used-anti-influenza-chinese-herbal-medicines-based-on-anti-neuraminidase-activity
#14
Xue Han, Ding-Kun Zhang, Yu-Ming Guo, Wu-Wen Feng, Qin Dong, Cong-En Zhang, Yong-Feng Zhou, Yan Liu, Jia-Bo Wang, Yan-Ling Zhao, Xiao-He Xiao, Ming Yang
Anti-influenza Chinese herbal medicines (anti-flu CHMs) have advantages in preventing and treating influenza virus infection. Despite various data on antiviral activities of some anti-flu CHMs have been reported, most of them could not be compared using the standard evaluation methods for antiviral activity. This situation poses an obstacle to a wide application of anti-flu CHMs. Thus, it was necessary to develop an evaluation method to estimate antiviral activities of anti-flu CHMs. In the present study, we searched for anti-flu CHMs, based on clinic usage, to select study objects from commonly-used patented anti-flu Chinese medicines...
October 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235830/telomere-length-is-predictive-of-breast-cancer-risk-in-brca2-mutation-carriers
#15
Birna Thorvaldsdottir, Margret Aradottir, Olafur A Stefansson, Sigridur K Bodvarsdottir, Jorunn E Eyfjörd
BACKGROUND: Germline BRCA2 mutations increase risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. BRCA2 has been shown to play a role in telomere protection and maintenance. Telomere length (TL) has been studied as a modifying factor for various diseases, including breast cancer. Previous research on TL in BRCA mutation carriers has produced contradicting results. METHODS: We measured blood TL, using a high-throughput monochrome multiplex qPCR method, in a well-defined Icelandic cohort of female BRCA2 mutation carriers (n=169), sporadic breast cancer patients (n=561) and healthy controls (n=537)...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235791/high-throughput-screening-identifies-micrornas-that-target-nox2-and-improve-function-following-acute-myocardial-infarction
#16
Junyu Yang, Milton E Brown, Hanshuo Zhang, Mario Martinez, Zhihua Zhao, Srishti Bhutani, Shenyi Yin, David Trac, Jianzhong Jeff Xi, Michael E Davis
AIMS: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most common cause of heart failure. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling after MI. NADPH with Nox2 as the catalytic subunit is a major source of superoxide production and expression is significantly increased in the infarcted myocardium, especially by infiltrating macrophages. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression, and play an important role in heart disease, there still lacks efficient ways to identify miRNAs that target important pathological genes for treating MI...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235782/development-of-a-multiplexed-lc-mrm-ms-method-for-evaluation-of-salivary-proteins-as-oral-cancer-biomarkers
#17
Yi-Ting Chen, Hsiao-Wei Chen, Chun-Feng Wu, Lichieh Julie Chu, Wei-Fang Chiang, Chih-Ching Wu, Jau-Song Yu, Cheng-Han Tsai, Kung-Hao Liang, Yu-Sun Chang, Maureen Wu, Wei-Ting Ou Yang
Multiple (selected) reaction monitoring (MRM/SRM) of peptides is a growing technology for target protein quantification because it is more robust, precise, accurate, high-throughput, and multiplex-capable than antibody-based techniques. The technique has been applied clinically to the large-scale quantification of multiple target proteins in different types of fluids. However, previous MRM-based studies have placed less focus on sample-preparation workflow and analytical performance in the precise quantification of proteins in saliva, a non-invasively sampled body fluid...
February 24, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235761/high-throughput-genomic-profiling-of-adult-solid-tumors-reveals-novel-insights-into-cancer-pathogenesis
#18
Ryan J Hartmaier, Lee Albacker, Juliann Chmielecki, Mark Bailey, Jie He, Michael Goldberg, Shakti Ramkissoon, James Suh, Julia A Elvin, Samuel Chiacchia, Garrett M Frampton, Jeffrey S Ross, Vincent Miller, Philip J Stephens, Doron Lipson
Genomic profiling is widely predicted to become a standard of care in clinical oncology, but more effective data sharing to accelerate progress in precision medicine will be required. Here we describe cancer-associated genomic profiles from 18,004 unique adult cancers. The dataset was composed of 162 tumor subtypes including multiple rare and uncommon tumors. Comparison of alteration frequencies to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified some differences and suggested an enrichment of treatment-refractory samples in breast and lung cancer cohorts...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235639/transcriptomic-analysis-of-liver-from-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus-exposed-to-high-environmental-ammonia-reveals-the-activation-of-antioxidant-and-apoptosis-pathways
#19
Jiali Jin, Yao Wang, Zhixin Wu, Abeer Hergazy, Jiangfeng Lan, Lijuan Zhao, Xiaoling Liu, Nan Chen, Li Lin
High concentration of ammonia in aquatic system leads to detrimental effects on the health of aquatic animals. However, the mechanism underlying ammonia-induced toxicity is still not clear. To better understand the mechanism of ammonia toxicity effects on fish, juvenile grass carp was employed in the present study. RNA high-throughput sequencing technique was applied to analyze the total RNAs extracted from the liver of fish after 8 h post exposure to the water containing 2 mM NH4HCO3 which experimentally mimicked the high environmental ammonia (HEA)...
February 21, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235584/proteomic-analysis-in-kidneys-of-atlantic-salmon-infected-with-aeromonas-salmonicida-by-itraq
#20
Peng-Fei Liu, Yishuai Du, Lingjie Meng, Xian Li, Ying Liu
Aeromonas salmonicida is a major etiologic agent which induces furunculosis and is globally harmful in salmonid and turbot cultures, especially in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming. In order to improve knowledge of its poorly understood pathogenesis, we utilized high-throughput proteomics to display differentially expressed proteins in the kidney of Atlantic salmon challenged with high and low infection dose of A. salmonicida at 7 and 14 days. In quantitative proteomic assays, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) combined with 2D LC-MS/MS is emerging as a powerful methodology in the search for disease-specific targets and biomarkers...
February 21, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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