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Gliogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920882/paroxetine-can-enhance-neurogenesis-during-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#1
Maliheh Jahromi, Shahnaz Razavi, Nushin Amirpour, Zahra Khosravizadeh
BACKGROUND: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898583/genetic-control-of-postnatal-human-brain-growth
#2
Laura I van Dyck, Eric M Morrow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here, we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, post-mortem analysis, and animal model studies...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877121/the-indispensable-roles-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-during-brain-development
#3
REVIEW
Kitty Reemst, Stephen C Noctor, Paul J Lucassen, Elly M Hol
Glia are essential for brain functioning during development and in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the various roles of both microglia and astrocytes, and their interactions during brain development. Although both cells are fundamentally different in origin and function, they often affect the same developmental processes such as neuro-/gliogenesis, angiogenesis, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning. Due to their important instructive roles in these processes, dysfunction of microglia or astrocytes during brain development could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and potentially even late-onset neuropathology...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#4
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863528/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-embryonic-tuberal-hypothalamus-and-the-influence-of-ascl1
#5
Candace M Marsters, Jessica M Rosin, Hayley F Thornton, Shaghayegh Aslanpour, Natasha Klenin, Grey Wilkinson, Carol Schuurmans, Quentin J Pittman, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of cells in our brains are glia, we are only beginning to understand programs governing their development, especially within the embryonic hypothalamus. In mice, gliogenesis is a protracted process that begins during embryonic stages and continues into the early postnatal period, with glial progenitors first producing oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which then differentiate into pro-oligodendrocytes, pro-myelinating oligodendrocytes, and finally, mature myelinating oligodendrocytes...
November 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821050/stringent-comparative-sequence-analysis-reveals-sox10-as-a-putative-inhibitor-of-glial-cell-differentiation
#6
Chetna Gopinath, William D Law, José F Rodríguez-Molina, Arjun B Prasad, Lingyun Song, Gregory E Crawford, James C Mullikin, John Svaren, Anthony Antonellis
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor SOX10 is essential for all stages of Schwann cell development including myelination. SOX10 cooperates with other transcription factors to activate the expression of key myelin genes in Schwann cells and is therefore a context-dependent, pro-myelination transcription factor. As such, the identification of genes regulated by SOX10 will provide insight into Schwann cell biology and related diseases. While genome-wide studies have successfully revealed SOX10 target genes, these efforts mainly focused on myelinating stages of Schwann cell development...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791111/foxo6-affects-plxna4-mediated-neuronal-migration-during-mouse-cortical-development
#7
Ricardo H Paap, Saskia Oosterbroek, Cindy M R J Wagemans, Lars von Oerthel, Raymond D Schellevis, Annemarie J A Vastenhouw-van der Linden, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Marco F M Hoekman, Marten P Smidt
The forkhead transcription factor FoxO6 is prominently expressed during development of the murine neocortex. However, its function in cortical development is as yet unknown. We now demonstrate that cortical development is altered in FoxO6(+/-) and FoxO6(-/-) mice, showing migrating neurons halted in the intermediate zone. Using a FoxO6-directed siRNA approach, we substantiate the requirement of FoxO6 for a correct radial migration in the developing neocortex. Subsequent genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals altered expression of genes involved in cell adhesion, axon guidance, and gliogenesis upon silencing of FoxO6 We then show that FoxO6 binds to DAF-16-binding elements in the Plexin A4 (Plxna4) promoter region and affects Plxna4 expression...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781303/long-term-effects-of-autoimmune-cns-inflammation-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#8
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, George A Lyras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Aging and chronic degenerative disorders have been shown to impair hippocampal neurogenesis, but the consequence of chronic inflammation remains controversial. In this study the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis was used to investigate the long-term effects of T cell-mediated central nervous system inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled subpopulations of hippocampal cells in EAE and control mice (coexpressing GFAP, doublecortin, NeuN, calretinin, and S100) were quantified at the recovery phase, 21 days after BrdU administration, to estimate alterations on the rate and differentiation pattern of the neurogenesis process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776385/valproic-acid-exposure-during-early-postnatal-gliogenesis-leads-to-autistic-like-behaviors-in-rats
#9
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659965/manipulating-wnt-signaling-at-different-subcellular-levels-affects-the-fate-of-neonatal-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#10
Jan Kriska, Pavel Honsa, David Dzamba, Olena Butenko, Denisa Kolenicova, Lucie Janeckova, Zuzana Nahacka, Ladislav Andera, Zbynek Kozmik, M Mark Taketo, Vladimir Korinek, Miroslava Anderova
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in embryogenesis, and the establishment of neurogenic niches. It is involved in proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, since elevated Wnt/β-catenin signaling promotes differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs(1)) towards neuroblasts. Nevertheless, it remains elusive how the differentiation program of neural progenitors is influenced by the Wnt signaling output. Using transgenic mouse models, we found that in vitro activation of Wnt signaling resulted in higher expression of β-catenin protein and Wnt/β-catenin target genes, while Wnt signaling inhibition resulted in the reverse effect...
September 19, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634414/chromatin-remodeling-during-the-in-vivo-glial-differentiation-in-early-drosophila-embryos
#11
Youqiong Ye, Liang Gu, Xiaolong Chen, Jiejun Shi, Xiaobai Zhang, Cizhong Jiang
Chromatin remodeling plays a critical role in gene regulation and impacts many biological processes. However, little is known about the relationship between chromatin remodeling dynamics and in vivo cell lineage commitment. Here, we reveal the patterns of histone modification change and nucleosome positioning dynamics and their epigenetic regulatory roles during the in vivo glial differentiation in early Drosophila embryos. The genome-wide average H3K9ac signals in promoter regions are decreased in the glial cells compared to the neural progenitor cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623015/postnatal-and-adult-consequences-of-loss-of-huntingtin-during-development-implications-for-huntington-s-disease
#12
Eduardo E Arteaga-Bracho, Maria Gulinello, Michael L Winchester, Nandini Pichamoorthy, Jenna R Petronglo, Alicia D Zambrano, Julio Inocencio, Chirstopher D De Jesus, Joseph O Louie, Solen Gokhan, Mark F Mehler, Aldrin E Molero
The mutation in huntingtin (mHtt) leads to a spectrum of impairments in the developing forebrain of Huntington's disease (HD) mouse models. Whether these developmental alterations are due to loss- or gain-of-function mechanisms and contribute to HD pathogenesis is unknown. We examined the role of selective loss of huntingtin (Htt) function during development on postnatal vulnerability to cell death. We employed mice expressing very low levels of Htt throughout embryonic life to postnatal day 21 (Hdh(d•hyp))...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605455/multiple-intrinsic-factors-act-in-concert-with-lhx2-to-direct-retinal-gliogenesis
#13
Jimmy de Melo, Brian S Clark, Seth Blackshaw
Müller glia (MG) are the principal glial cell type in the vertebrate retina. Recent work has identified the LIM homeodomain factor encoding gene Lhx2 as necessary for both Notch signaling and MG differentiation in late-stage retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). However, the extent to which Lhx2 interacts with other intrinsic regulators of MG differentiation is unclear. We investigated this question by investigating the effects of overexpression of multiple transcriptional regulators that are either known or hypothesized to control MG formation, in both wildtype and Lhx2-deficient RPCs...
September 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600849/oxygen-levels-regulate-the-development-of-human-cortical-radial-glia-cells
#14
J Alberto Ortega, Carissa L Sirois, Fani Memi, Nicole Glidden, Nada Zecevic
The oxygen (O2) concentration is a vital parameter for controlling the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neural stem cells. A prenatal reduction of O2 levels (hypoxia) often leads to cognitive and behavioral defects, attributable to altered neural development. In this study, we analyzed the effects of O2 levels on human cortical progenitors, the radial glia cells (RGCs), during active neurogenesis, corresponding to the second trimester of gestation. Small changes in O2 levels profoundly affected RGC survival, proliferation, and differentiation...
September 6, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591477/bet-bromodomain-inhibition-promotes-neurogenesis-while-inhibiting-gliogenesis-in-neural-progenitor-cells
#15
Jingjun Li, Jing Ma, Guofeng Meng, Hong Lin, Sharon Wu, Jamie Wang, Jie Luo, Xiaohong Xu, David Tough, Matthew Lindon, Inma Rioja Pastor, Jing Zhao, Hongkang Mei, Rab Prinjha, Zhong Zhong
Neural stem cells and progenitor cells (NPCs) are increasingly appreciated to hold great promise for regenerative medicine to treat CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, evidence for effective stimulation of neuronal production from endogenous or transplanted NPCs for neuron replacement with small molecules remains limited. To identify novel chemical entities/targets for neurogenesis, we had established a NPC phenotypic screen assay and validated it using known small-molecule neurogenesis inducers...
July 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585883/upregulation-of-the-nr2f1-a830082k12rik-gene-pair-in-murine-neural-crest-cells-results-in-a-complex-phenotype-reminiscent-of-waardenburg-syndrome-type-4
#16
Karl-F Bergeron, Chloé M A Nguyen, Tatiana Cardinal, Baptiste Charrier, David W Silversides, Nicolas Pilon
Waardenburg syndrome is a neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of skin and hair depigmentation, and inner ear defects. In the type 4 form, these defects show comorbidity with Hirschsprung disease, a disorder marked by an absence of neural ganglia in the distal colon, triggering functional intestinal obstruction. Here, we report that the Spot mouse line - obtained through an insertional mutagenesis screen for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development - is a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 4...
November 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545503/multipotency-of-adult-hippocampal-nscs-in%C3%A2-vivo-is-restricted-by-drosha-nfib
#17
Chiara Rolando, Andrea Erni, Alice Grison, Robert Beattie, Anna Engler, Paul J Gokhale, Marta Milo, Thomas Wegleiter, Sebastian Jessberger, Verdon Taylor
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their inherent capacity to self-renew and give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In vivo, however, hippocampal NSCs do not generate oligodendrocytes for reasons that have remained enigmatic. Here, we report that deletion of Drosha in adult dentate gyrus NSCs activates oligodendrogenesis and reduces neurogenesis at the expense of gliogenesis. We further find that Drosha directly targets NFIB to repress its expression independently of Dicer and microRNAs...
August 15, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458346/over-expression-of-meteorin-drives-gliogenesis-following-striatal-injury
#18
Jordan L Wright, Charlotte M Ermine, Jesper R Jørgensen, Clare L Parish, Lachlan H Thompson
A number of studies have shown that damage to brain structures adjacent to neurogenic regions can result in migration of new neurons from neurogenic zones into the damaged tissue. The number of differentiated neurons that survive is low, however, and this has led to the idea that the introduction of extrinsic signaling factors, particularly neurotrophic proteins, may augment the neurogenic response to a level that would be therapeutically relevant. Here we report on the impact of the relatively newly described neurotrophic factor, Meteorin, when over-expressed in the striatum following excitotoxic injury...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385012/sip1-regulates-the-generation-of-the-inner-nuclear-layer-retinal-cell-lineages-in-mammals
#19
Yotam Menuchin-Lasowski, Pazit Oren-Giladi, Qing Xie, Raaya Ezra-Elia, Ron Ofri, Shany Peled-Hajaj, Chen Farhy, Yujiro Higashi, Tom Van de Putte, Hisato Kondoh, Danny Huylebroeck, Ales Cvekl, Ruth Ashery-Padan
The transcription factor Sip1 (Zeb2) plays multiple roles during CNS development from early acquisition of neural fate to cortical neurogenesis and gliogenesis. In humans, SIP1 (ZEB2) haploinsufficiency leads to Mowat-Wilson syndrome, a complex congenital anomaly including intellectual disability, epilepsy and Hirschsprung disease. Here we uncover the role of Sip1 in retinogenesis. Somatic deletion of Sip1 from mouse retinal progenitors primarily affects the generation of inner nuclear layer cell types, resulting in complete loss of horizontal cells and reduced numbers of amacrine and bipolar cells, while the number of Muller glia is increased...
August 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378854/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-its-role-in-early-neural-development-and-in-adult-and-aged-brain-function
#20
REVIEW
Carla Garza-Lombó, María E Gonsebatt
The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates signals triggered by energy, stress, oxygen levels, and growth factors. It regulates ribosome biogenesis, mRNA translation, nutrient metabolism, and autophagy. mTOR participates in various functions of the brain, such as synaptic plasticity, adult neurogenesis, memory, and learning. mTOR is present during early neural development and participates in axon and dendrite development, neuron differentiation, and gliogenesis, among other processes. Furthermore, mTOR has been shown to modulate lifespan in multiple organisms...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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