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Gliogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#1
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#2
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that Zeb2 (a.k.a. Sip1 or Zfhx1b), a Mowat-Wilson-syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283025/polycomb-repressive-complex-2-emerging-roles-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Pei-Pei Liu, Ya-Jie Xu, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is responsible for catalyzing both di- and trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3). The subunits of PRC2 are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). PRC2 as well as H3K27me2/3, play distinct roles in neuronal identity, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells, neuronal morphology, and gliogenesis. Mutations or dysregulations of PRC2 subunits often cause neurological diseases. Therefore, PRC2 might represent a common target of different pathological processes that drive neurodegenerative diseases...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251523/perivascular-neurotransmitters-regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-role-in-primary-headaches
#4
Simona D Frederiksen, Kristian A Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Lars Edvinsson
In order to understand the nature of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and primary headaches, we have conducted a literature review with particular emphasis on the role of perivascular neurotransmitters. Primary headaches are in general considered complex polygenic disorders (genetic and environmental influence) with pathophysiological neurovascular alterations. Identified candidate headache genes are associated with neuro- and gliogenesis, vascular development and diseases, and regulation of vascular tone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180570/perturbation-of-canonical-and-non-canonical-bmp-signaling-affects-migration-polarity-and-dendritogenesis-of-mouse-cortical-neurons
#5
Monika Saxena, Nitin Agnihotri, Jonaki Sen
Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling has been implicated in regulation of patterning of the forebrain and as a regulator of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the mammalian cortex. However, its role in regulating other aspects of cortical development in vivo remains unexplored. We hypothesized that BMP signaling may regulate additional processes during the development of cortical neurons after observing the presence of active BMP signaling in a spatio-temporally dynamic pattern in the mouse cortex. Our investigation revealed that BMP signaling specifically regulates migration, polarity and the dendritic morphology of upper layer cortical neurons born at E15...
November 27, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161257/regulation-of-camp-and-gsk3-signaling-pathways-contributes-to-the-neuronal-conversion-of-glioma
#6
Jinsoo Oh, Yongbo Kim, Lihua Che, Jeong Beom Kim, Gyeong Eon Chang, Eunji Cheong, Seok-Gu Kang, Yoon Ha
Glioma is the most malignant type of primary central nervous system tumors, and has an extremely poor prognosis. One potential therapeutic approach is to induce the terminal differentiation of glioma through the forced expression of pro-neural factors. Our goal is to show the proof of concept of the neuronal conversion of C6 glioma through the combined action of small molecules. We investigated the various changes in gene expression, cell-specific marker expression, signaling pathways, physiological characteristics, and morphology in glioma after combination treatment with two small molecules (CHIR99021, a glycogen synthase kinase 3 [GSK3] inhibitor and forskolin, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP] activator)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136113/the-laminar-organization-of-piriform-cortex-follows-a-selective-developmental-and-migratory-program-established-by-cell-lineage
#7
Eduardo Martin-Lopez, Kimiko Ishiguro, Charles A Greer
Piriform cortex (PC) is a 3-layer paleocortex receiving primary afferent input from the olfactory bulb. The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding the synaptic, cellular and functional organization of PC, but PC embryogenesis continues to be enigmatic. Here, using birthdating strategies and clonal analyses, we probed the early development and laminar specificity of neurogenesis/gliogenesis as it relates to the organization of the PC. Our data demonstrate a temporal sequence of laminar-specific neurogenesis following the canonical "inside-out" pattern, with the notable exception of PC Layer II which exhibited an inverse "outside-in" temporal neurogenic pattern...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122585/strong-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-the-mouse-ventral-spinal-cord-is-not-required-for-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-opc-generation-but-is-necessary-for-correct-timing-of-its-generation
#8
Hirokazu Hashimoto, Wen Jiang, Takeshi Yoshimura, Kyeong-Hye Moon, Jinwoong Bok, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
In the mouse neural tube, sonic hedgehog (Shh) secreted from the floor plate (FP) and the notochord (NC) regulates ventral patterning of the neural tube, and later is essential for the generation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). During early development, the NC is adjacent to the neural tube and induces ventral domains in it, including the FP. In the later stage of development, during gliogenesis in the spinal cord, the pMN domain receives strong Shh signaling input. While this is considered to be essential for the generation of OPCs, the actual role of this strong input in OPC generation remains unclear...
November 6, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106906/transcriptional-regulation-of-nfix-by-nfib-drives-astrocytic-maturation-within-the-developing-spinal-cord
#9
Elise Matuzelski, Jens Bunt, Danyon Harkins, Jonathan W C Lim, Richard M Gronostajski, Linda J Richards, Lachlan Harris, Michael Piper
During mouse spinal cord development, ventricular zone progenitor cells transition from producing neurons to producing glia at approximately embryonic day 11.5, a process known as the gliogenic switch. The transcription factors Nuclear Factor I (NFI) A and B initiate this developmental transition, but the contribution of a third NFI member, NFIX, remains unknown. Here, we reveal that ventricular zone progenitor cells within the spinal cord express NFIX after the onset of NFIA and NFIB expression, and after the gliogenic switch has occurred...
October 26, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089925/advances-in-understanding-of-structural-reorganization-in-the-hypothalamic-neurosecretory-system
#10
REVIEW
Seiji Miyata
The hypothalamic neurosecretory system synthesizes neuropeptides in hypothalamic nuclei and releases them from axonal terminals into the circulation in the neurohypophysis (NH) and median eminence (ME). This system plays a crucial role in regulating body fluid homeostasis and social behaviors as well as reproduction, growth, metabolism, and stress responses, and activity-dependent structural reorganization has been reported. Current knowledge on dynamic structural reorganization in the NH and ME, in which the axonal terminals of neurosecretory neurons directly contact the basement membrane (BM) of a fenestrated vasculature, is discussed herein...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025924/dmrt5-a-novel-neurogenic-factor-reciprocally-regulates-lhx2-to-control-the-neuron-glia-cell-fate-switch-in-the-developing-hippocampus
#11
Bhavana Muralidharan, Marc Keruzore, Saurabh J Pradhan, Basabdatta Roy, Ashwin S Shetty, Veena Kinare, Leora D'Souza, Upasana Maheshwari, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Agasthya Suresh, Sanjeev Galande, Eric J Bellefroid, Shubha Tole
Regulation of the neuron-glia cell fate switch is a critical step in the development of the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that Lhx2 is a necessary and sufficient regulator of this process in the mouse hippocampal primordium, such that Lhx2 overexpression promotes neurogenesis and suppresses gliogenesis, whereas loss of Lhx2 has the opposite effect. We tested a series of transcription factors for their ability to mimic Lhx2 overexpression and suppress baseline gliogenesis, and also to compensate for loss of Lhx2 and suppress the resulting enhanced level of gliogenesis in the hippocampus...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975768/a-physicochemically-optimized-and-neuroconductive-biphasic-nerve-guidance-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#12
Alan J Ryan, William A Lackington, Alan J Hibbitts, Austyn Matheson, Tijna Alekseeva, Anna Stejskalova, Phoebe Roche, Fergal J O'Brien
Clinically available hollow nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) have had limited success in treating large peripheral nerve injuries. This study aims to develop a biphasic NGC combining a physicochemically optimized collagen outer conduit to bridge the transected nerve, and a neuroconductive hyaluronic acid-based luminal filler to support regeneration. The outer conduit is mechanically optimized by manipulating crosslinking and collagen density, allowing the engineering of a high wall permeability to mitigate the risk of neuroma formation, while also maintaining physiologically relevant stiffness and enzymatic degradation tuned to coincide with regeneration rates...
October 4, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855626/dual-roles-of-a%C3%AE-in-proliferative-processes-in-an-amyloidogenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
David Baglietto-Vargas, Elisabeth Sánchez-Mejias, Victoria Navarro, Sebastián Jimenez, Laura Trujillo-Estrada, Angela Gómez-Arboledas, Maria Sánchez-Mico, Raquel Sánchez-Varo, Marisa Vizuete, José Carlos Dávila, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Javier Vitorica, Antonia Gutierrez
Alzheimer's disease is a major neurodegenerative disorder that leads to severe cognitive deficits in the elderly population. Over the past two decades, multiple studies have focused on elucidating the causative factors underlying memory defects in Alzheimer's patients. In this regard, new evidence linking Alzheimer's disease-related pathology and neuronal stem cells suggests that hippocampal neurogenesis impairment is an important factor underlying these cognitive deficits. However, because of conflicting results, the impact of Aβ pathology on neurogenesis/gliogenesis remains unclear...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851724/hes5-regulates-the-transition-timing-of-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-mammalian-neocortical-development
#14
Shama Bansod, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Toshiyuki Ohtsuka
During mammalian neocortical development, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) sequentially give rise to deep layer neurons and superficial layer neurons through mid- to late-embryonic stages, shifting to gliogenic phase at perinatal stages. Previously, we found that the Hes genes inhibit neuronal differentiation and maintain NSCs. Here, we generated transgenic mice that overexpress Hes5 in NSCs of the central nervous system, and found that the transition timing from deep to superficial layer neurogenesis was shifted earlier, while gliogenesis precociously occurred in the developing neocortex of Hes5-overexpressing mice...
September 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840056/effects-of-erythropoietin-on-gliogenesis-during-cerebral-ischemic-reperfusion-recovery-in-adult-mice
#15
Rongliang Wang, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Zhen Tao, Haiping Zhao, Yumin Luo
Erythropoietin (EPO) promotes oligodendrogenesis and attenuates white matter injury in neonatal rats. However, it is unknown whether this effect extends to adult mice and whether EPO regulate microglia polarization after ischemic stroke. Male adult C57BL/6 mice (25-30g) were subjected to 45 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). EPO (5000 IU/kg) or saline was injected intraperitoneally every other day after reperfusion. Neurological function was evaluated using the rotarod test at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after MCAO...
July 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827089/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-experience-on-cognitive-functions-evidence-from-animal-studies-on-the-neurobiological-bases-of-brain-reserve
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Gelfo, Laura Mandolesi, Laura Serra, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Carlo Caltagirone
Brain plasticity is the ability of the nervous system to change structurally and functionally in response to experience. By shaping brain structure and function, experience leads to the creation of a protective reserve that accounts for differences among individuals in susceptibility to age-related brain modifications and pathology. This review is aimed to address the biological bases of the experience-dependent "brain reserve" by describing the results of animal studies that focused on the neuroanatomical and molecular effects of environmental enrichment...
August 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803915/neural-crest-cell-implantation-restores-enteric-nervous-system-function-and-alters-the-gastrointestinal-transcriptome-in-human-tissue-engineered-small-intestine
#17
Christopher R Schlieve, Kathryn L Fowler, Matthew Thornton, Sha Huang, Ibrahim Hajjali, Xiaogang Hou, Brendan Grubbs, Jason R Spence, Tracy C Grikscheit
Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS) development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from human intestinal organoids (HIOs). However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649667/impact-of-protein-kinase-ck2-inhibitors-on-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells
#18
Melanie Bender, Lisa Schwind, David Grundmann, Monika Martin, Markus Klotz, Claudia Götz, Mathias Montenarh, Karl-Herbert Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Protein kinases play central roles in cell and tissue development. Protein kinase CK2, an ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase has severe impacts on embryo- and spermatogenesis. Since its role in neurogenesis has so far only been investigated in very few studies, we analysed the role of CK2 in neural stem cells by using two specific inhibitors. METHODS: Neural stem cells were isolated from the subventricular zone of neonatal mice, using a neurosphere approach...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629517/erythropoietin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-insects-suggests-a-prevertebrate-evolution-of-erythropoietin-like-signaling
#19
Ralf Heinrich, Verena Günther, Natasa Miljus
The cytokine erythropoietin (Epo) mediates protective and regenerative functions in mammalian nervous systems via activation of poorly characterized receptors that differ from the "classical" homodimeric Epo receptor expressed on erythroid progenitor cells. Epo genes have been identified in vertebrate species ranging from human to fish, suggesting that Epo signaling evolved earlier than the vertebrate lineage. Studies on insects (Locusta migratoria, Chorthippus biguttulus, Tribolium castaneum) revealed Epo-mediated neuroprotection and neuroregeneration...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623429/bdnf-a-key-factor-with-multipotent-impact-on-brain-signaling-and-synaptic-plasticity
#20
REVIEW
Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Ewelina Czuba, Monika Waśkow, Aleksandra Steliga, Janusz Moryś
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most widely distributed and extensively studied neurotrophins in the mammalian brain. Among its prominent functions, one can mention control of neuronal and glial development, neuroprotection, and modulation of both short- and long-lasting synaptic interactions, which are critical for cognition and memory. A wide spectrum of processes are controlled by BDNF, and the sometimes contradictory effects of its action can be explained based on its specific pattern of synthesis, comprising several intermediate biologically active isoforms that bind to different types of receptor, triggering several signaling pathways...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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