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Gliogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448525/brorin-is-required-for-neurogenesis-gliogenesis-and-commissural-axon-guidance-in-the-zebrafish-forebrain
#1
Ayumi Miyake, Yoko Mekata, Hidenori Fujibayashi, Kazuya Nakanishi, Morichika Konishi, Nobuyuki Itoh
Bmps regulate numerous neural functions with their regulators. We previously identified Brorin, a neural-specific secreted antagonist of Bmp signaling, in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Mouse Brorin has two cysteine-rich domains containing 10 cysteine residues in its core region, and these are located in similar positions to those in the cysteine-rich domains of Chordin family members, which are secreted Bmp antagonists. Zebrafish Brorin had two cysteine-rich domains with high similarity to those of mouse Brorin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414930/antipsychotics-promote-gabaergic-interneuron-genesis-in-the-adult-rat-brain-role-of-heat-shock-protein-production
#2
Hiroo Kaneta, Wataru Ukai, Hanako Tsujino, Kengo Furuse, Yoshiyasu Kigawa, Masaya Tayama, Takao Ishii, Eri Hashimoto, Chiaki Kawanishi
Current antipsychotics reduce positive symptoms and reverse negative symptoms in conjunction with cognitive behavioral issues with the goal of restoring impaired occupational and social functioning. However, limited information is available on their influence on gliogenesis or their neurogenic properties in adult schizophrenia brains, particularly on GABAergic interneuron production. In the present study, we used young adult subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived progenitor cells expressing proteoglycan NG2 cultures to examine the oligodendrocyte and GABAergic interneuron genesis effects of several kinds of antipsychotics on changes in differentiation function induced by exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394502/the-genome-wide-expression-effects-of-escitalopram-and-its-relationship-to-neurogenesis-hippocampal-volume-and-antidepressant-response
#3
Timothy R Powell, Tytus Murphy, Simone de Jong, Sang Hyuck Lee, Katherine E Tansey, Karen Hodgson, Rudolf Uher, Jack Price, Sandrine Thuret, Gerome Breen
Antidepressant-induced hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is hypothesized to contribute to increases in hippocampal volume among major depressive disorder patients after long-term treatment. Furthermore, rodent studies suggest AHN may be the cellular mechanism mediating the therapeutic benefits of antidepressants. Here, we perform the first investigation of genome-wide expression changes associated with AHN in human cells. We identify gene expression networks significantly activated during AHN, and we perform gene set analyses to probe the molecular relationship between AHN, hippocampal volume, and antidepressant response...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352645/toward-a-better-understanding-of-enteric-gliogenesis
#4
COMMENT
Baptiste Charrier, Nicolas Pilon
Most of gastrointestinal functions are controlled by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which contains a vast diversity of neurons and glial cells. In accordance with its key role, defective ENS formation is the cause of several diseases that affect quality of life and can even be life-threatening. Treatment of these diseases would greatly benefit from a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ENS formation. In this regard, although several important discoveries have been made over the years, how the full spectrum of enteric neuronal and glial cell subtypes is generated from neural crest cells during development still remains enigmatic...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320737/mir-31-mutants-reveal-continuous-glial-homeostasis-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#5
Lynette Caizhen Foo, Shilin Song, Stephen Michael Cohen
The study of adult neural cell production has concentrated on neurogenesis. The mechanisms controlling adult gliogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for a homeostatic process that maintains the population of glial cells in the Drosophila adult brain. Flies lacking microRNA miR-31a start adult life with a normal complement of glia, but transiently lose glia due to apoptosis. miR-31a expression identifies a subset of predominantly gliogenic adult neural progenitor cells. Failure to limit expression of the predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rchy1, in these cells results in glial loss...
May 2, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271248/network-reconstruction-reveals-that-valproic-acid-activates-neurogenic-transcriptional-programs-in-adult-brain-following-traumatic-injury
#6
Gerald A Higgins, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Brian Pauls, Richard Higgins, Brian D Athey, Hasan E Alam
OBJECTIVES: To determine the mechanism of action of valproic acid (VPA) in the adult central nervous system (CNS) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). METHODS: Data were analyzed from different sources, including experiments in a porcine model, data from postmortem human brain, published studies, public and commercial databases. RESULTS: The transcriptional program in the CNS following TBI, HS, and VPA treatment includes activation of regulatory pathways that enhance neurogenesis and suppress gliogenesis...
March 7, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253906/molecular-imaging-of-nestin-in-neuroinflammatory-conditions-reveals-marked-signal-induction-in-activated-microglia
#7
Senthil Krishnasamy, Yuan-Cheng Weng, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Daniel Phaneuf, Melanie Lalancette-Hebert, Jasna Kriz
BACKGROUND: Nestin is a known marker of neuronal progenitor cells in the adult brain. Following neuro- and gliogenesis, nestin is replaced by cell type-specific intermediate filaments, e.g., neurofilaments for panneuronal expression and glial fibrillary acidic protein as a specific marker of mature astrocytes. While previous work have been mostly focused on the neuronal fate of nestin-positive progenitors, in the present study, we sought to investigate in real time how nestin signals and cellular expression patterns are controlled in the context of neuroinflammatory challenge and ischemic brain injury...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051179/the-hypoparathyroidism-associated-mutation-in-drosophila-gcm-compromises-protein-stability-and-glial-cell-formation
#8
Xiao Xi, Lu Lu, Chun-Chun Zhuge, Xuebing Chen, Yuanfen Zhai, Jingjing Cheng, Haian Mao, Chang-Ching Yang, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yi-Nan Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Margaret S Ho
Differentiated neurons and glia are acquired from immature precursors via transcriptional controls exerted by factors such as proteins in the family of Glial Cells Missing (Gcm). Mammalian Gcm proteins mediate neural stem cell induction, placenta and parathyroid development, whereas Drosophila Gcm proteins act as a key switch to determine neuronal and glial cell fates and regulate hemocyte development. The present study reports a hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation R59L that alters Drosophila Gcm (Gcm) protein stability, rendering it unstable, and hyperubiquitinated via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039052/a-holistic-approach-to-anesthesia-induced-neurotoxicity-and-its-implications-for-future-mechanistic-studies
#9
Christine N Zanghi, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic
The year 2016 marked the 15th anniversary since anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity and its resulting cognitive dysfunction were first described. Since that time, multiple scientific studies have supported these original findings and investigated possible mechanisms behind anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity. This paper reviews the existing mechanistic literature on anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in the context of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells during early postnatal development...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017654/hippocalcin-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-and-inhibits-astrocytic-differentiation-in-neural-stem-cells
#10
Shin-Young Park, Sung Nyo Yoon, Min-Jeong Kang, YunYoung Lee, Sung Jun Jung, Joong-Soo Han
Hippocalcin (HPCA) is a calcium-binding protein that is restricted to nervous tissue and contributes to neuronal activity. Here we report that, in addition to inducing neurogenesis, HPCA inhibits astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells. It promotes neurogenesis by regulating protein kinase Cα (PKCα) activation by translocating to the membrane and binding to phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which induces PKCα phosphorylation. We also found that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is implicated in the HPCA-mediated neurogenesis pathway; this enzyme promotes dephosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3[Y705]), which is necessary for astrocytic differentiation...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009307/ets-factors-regulate-neural-stem-cell-depletion-and-gliogenesis-in-ras-pathway-glioma
#11
Joshua J Breunig, Rachelle Levy, C Danielle Antonuk, Jessica Molina, Marina Dutra-Clarke, Hannah Park, Aslam Abbasi Akhtar, Gi Bum Kim, Terrance Town, Xin Hu, Serguei I Bannykh, Roel G W Verhaak, Moise Danielpour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920882/paroxetine-can-enhance-neurogenesis-during-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#12
Maliheh Jahromi, Shahnaz Razavi, Nushin Amirpour, Zahra Khosravizadeh
BACKGROUND: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898583/genetic-control-of-postnatal-human-brain-growth
#13
Laura I van Dyck, Eric M Morrow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here, we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, post-mortem analysis, and animal model studies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877121/the-indispensable-roles-of-microglia-and-astrocytes-during-brain-development
#14
REVIEW
Kitty Reemst, Stephen C Noctor, Paul J Lucassen, Elly M Hol
Glia are essential for brain functioning during development and in the adult brain. Here, we discuss the various roles of both microglia and astrocytes, and their interactions during brain development. Although both cells are fundamentally different in origin and function, they often affect the same developmental processes such as neuro-/gliogenesis, angiogenesis, axonal outgrowth, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning. Due to their important instructive roles in these processes, dysfunction of microglia or astrocytes during brain development could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and potentially even late-onset neuropathology...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#15
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
April 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863528/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-embryonic-tuberal-hypothalamus-and-the-influence-of-ascl1
#16
Candace M Marsters, Jessica M Rosin, Hayley F Thornton, Shaghayegh Aslanpour, Natasha Klenin, Grey Wilkinson, Carol Schuurmans, Quentin J Pittman, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of cells in our brains are glia, we are only beginning to understand programs governing their development, especially within the embryonic hypothalamus. In mice, gliogenesis is a protracted process that begins during embryonic stages and continues into the early postnatal period, with glial progenitors first producing oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which then differentiate into pro-oligodendrocytes, pro-myelinating oligodendrocytes, and finally, mature myelinating oligodendrocytes...
November 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821050/stringent-comparative-sequence-analysis-reveals-sox10-as-a-putative-inhibitor-of-glial-cell-differentiation
#17
Chetna Gopinath, William D Law, José F Rodríguez-Molina, Arjun B Prasad, Lingyun Song, Gregory E Crawford, James C Mullikin, John Svaren, Anthony Antonellis
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor SOX10 is essential for all stages of Schwann cell development including myelination. SOX10 cooperates with other transcription factors to activate the expression of key myelin genes in Schwann cells and is therefore a context-dependent, pro-myelination transcription factor. As such, the identification of genes regulated by SOX10 will provide insight into Schwann cell biology and related diseases. While genome-wide studies have successfully revealed SOX10 target genes, these efforts mainly focused on myelinating stages of Schwann cell development...
November 7, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791111/foxo6-affects-plxna4-mediated-neuronal-migration-during-mouse-cortical-development
#18
Ricardo H Paap, Saskia Oosterbroek, Cindy M R J Wagemans, Lars von Oerthel, Raymond D Schellevis, Annemarie J A Vastenhouw-van der Linden, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Marco F M Hoekman, Marten P Smidt
The forkhead transcription factor FoxO6 is prominently expressed during development of the murine neocortex. However, its function in cortical development is as yet unknown. We now demonstrate that cortical development is altered in FoxO6(+/-) and FoxO6(-/-) mice, showing migrating neurons halted in the intermediate zone. Using a FoxO6-directed siRNA approach, we substantiate the requirement of FoxO6 for a correct radial migration in the developing neocortex. Subsequent genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals altered expression of genes involved in cell adhesion, axon guidance, and gliogenesis upon silencing of FoxO6 We then show that FoxO6 binds to DAF-16-binding elements in the Plexin A4 (Plxna4) promoter region and affects Plxna4 expression...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781303/long-term-effects-of-autoimmune-cns-inflammation-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, George A Lyras, Nikolaos Grigoriadis
Neurogenesis is a well-characterized phenomenon within the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus. Aging and chronic degenerative disorders have been shown to impair hippocampal neurogenesis, but the consequence of chronic inflammation remains controversial. In this study the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis was used to investigate the long-term effects of T cell-mediated central nervous system inflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis. 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled subpopulations of hippocampal cells in EAE and control mice (coexpressing GFAP, doublecortin, NeuN, calretinin, and S100) were quantified at the recovery phase, 21 days after BrdU administration, to estimate alterations on the rate and differentiation pattern of the neurogenesis process...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776385/valproic-acid-exposure-during-early-postnatal-gliogenesis-leads-to-autistic-like-behaviors-in-rats
#20
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Cheryl Dreyfus, Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: We reported that postnatal exposure of rats to valproic acid (VPA) stimulated proliferation of glial precursors during cortical gliogenesis. However, there are no reports whether enhanced postnatal gliogenesis affects behaviors related to neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: After VPA treatment during the postnatal day (PND) 2 to PND 4, four behavioral test, such as open field locomotor test, elevated plus maze test, three-chamber social interaction test, and passive avoidance test, were performed at PND 21 or 22...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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