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Gliogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764857/lineage-guided-notch-dependent-gliogenesis-by-drosophila-multi-potent-progenitors
#1
Qingzhong Ren, Takeshi Awasaki, Yu-Chun Wang, Yu-Fen Huang, Tzumin Lee
Macroglial cells in the central nervous system exhibit regional specialization and carry out region-specific functions. Diverse glial cells arise from specific progenitors in specific spatiotemporal patterns. This raises an interesting possibility that there exist glial precursors with distinct developmental fates, which govern region-specific gliogenesis. Here we mapped the glial progeny produced by the Drosophila type II neuroblasts, which, like vertebrate radial glia cells, yield both neurons and glia via intermediate neural progenitors (INPs)...
May 15, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753005/a-transcriptome-comparison-of-time-matched-developing-human-mouse-and-rat-neural-progenitor-cells-reveals-human-uniqueness
#2
Stefan Masjosthusmann, Daniel Becker, Barbara Petzuch, Jördis Klose, Clara Siebert, Rene Deenen, Marta Barenys, Jenny Baumann, Katharina Dach, Julia Tigges, Ulrike Hübenthal, Karl Köhrer, Ellen Fritsche
It is widely accepted that human brain development has unique features that cannot be represented by rodents. Obvious reasons are the evolutionary distance and divergent physiology. This might lead to false predictions when rodents are used for safety or pharmacological efficacy studies. For a better translation of animal-based research to the human situation, human in vitro systems might be useful. In this study, we characterize developing neural progenitor cells from prenatal human and time-matched rat and mouse brains by analyzing the changes in their transcriptome profile during neural differentiation...
May 9, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752656/developmental-changes-in-oligodendrocyte-genesis-myelination-and-associated-behavioral-dysfunction-in-a-rat-model-of-intra-generational-protein-malnutrition
#3
Nisha Patro, Aijaz Ahmad Naik, Ishan K Patro
Impairments in oligodendrocyte development and resultant myelination deficits appear as a common denominator to all neurological diseases. An optimal in utero environment is obligatory for normal fetal brain development and later life brain functioning. Late embryonic and early postnatal brains from F1 rat born to protein malnourished mothers were studied through a combination of immunocytochemical and quantitative PCR assay for analyzing the relative expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), proteolipid protein (PLP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) to determine oligodendrocyte genesis, differentiation, maturation, and myelination...
May 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748916/zbtb20-regulates-developmental-neurogenesis-in-the-olfactory-bulb-and-gliogenesis-after-adult-brain-injury
#4
Thorsten R Doeppner, Josephine Herz, Mathias Bähr, Anton B Tonchev, Anastassia Stoykova
The transcription factor (TF) Zbtb20 is important for the hippocampal specification and the regulation of neurogenesis of neocortical projection neurons. Herein, we show a critical involvement of the TF Zbtb20 in the neurogenesis of both projection neurons and interneurons of the olfactory bulb during embryonic stages. Our data indicate that the lack of Zbtb20 significantly diminishes the generation of a set of early-born Tbr2+ neurons during embryogenesis. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Zbtb20 regulates the transition between neurogenesis to gliogenesis in cortical radial glial progenitor cells at the perinatal (E18...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739136/early-postnatal-valproic-acid-exposure-increase-the-protein-level-of-astrocyte-markers-in-frontal-cortex-of-rat
#5
Tamanna Jahan Mony, Jae Won Lee, Sung Soo Kim, Wanjoo Chun, Hee Jae Lee
Objective: In our previous study, it has been reported that valproic acid (VPA) effects gliogenesis and increases the number of glial precursor cells during the early postnatal period. However there is no specific report that whether this process is going on up to the age of mature brain development and the consequence effect of this ongoing gliogenesis process. Methods: As an ongoing study, using Immunoblotting analysis, we checked the level of glial protein and glial-derived factor markers in the frontal cortex of a rat brain at postnatal day (PND) 21...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658944/an-in-vivo-model-of-functional-and-vascularized-human-brain-organoids
#6
Abed AlFatah Mansour, J Tiago Gonçalves, Cooper W Bloyd, Hao Li, Sarah Fernandes, Daphne Quang, Stephen Johnston, Sarah L Parylak, Xin Jin, Fred H Gage
Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to small brain-like structures known as brain organoids offers an unprecedented opportunity to model human brain development and disease. To provide a vascularized and functional in vivo model of brain organoids, we established a method for transplanting human brain organoids into the adult mouse brain. Organoid grafts showed progressive neuronal differentiation and maturation, gliogenesis, integration of microglia, and growth of axons to multiple regions of the host brain...
April 16, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650591/ldb1-and-rnf12-dependent-regulation-of-lhx2-controls-the-relative-balance-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-retina
#7
Jimmy de Melo, Brian S Clark, Anand Venkataraman, Fion Shiau, Cristina Zibetti, Seth Blackshaw
Precise control of the relative ratio of retinal neurons and glia generated during development is essential for visual function. We show that Lhx2 , which encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor essential for specification and differentiation of retinal Müller glia, also plays a critical role in the development of retinal neurons. Overexpression of Lhx2 with its transcriptional coactivator Ldb1 , triggers cell cycle exit and inhibits both Notch signaling and retinal gliogenesis. Lhx2/Ldb1 overexpression also induced the formation of wide-field amacrine cells (wfACs)...
April 12, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618286/neuronal-activity-dependent-control-of-postnatal-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis
#8
Ragnihldur T Káradóttir, Chay T Kuo
The addition of new neurons and oligodendroglia in the postnatal and adult mammalian brain presents distinct forms of gray and white matter plasticity. Substantial effort has been devoted to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling postnatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, revealing important parallels to principles governing the embryonic stages. While during central nervous system development, scripted temporal and spatial patterns of neural and glial progenitor proliferation and differentiation are necessary to create the nervous system architecture, it remains unclear what driving forces maintain and sustain postnatal neural stem cell (NSC) and oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) production of new neurons and glia...
April 4, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603384/axoglial-synapses-are-formed-onto-pioneer-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-at-the-onset-of-spinal-cord-gliogenesis
#9
Guillaume Osterstock, Barbara Le Bras, Kalaimakan Hervé Arulkandarajah, Hervé Le Corronc, Antonny Czarnecki, Christine Mouffle, Erika Bullier, Pascal Legendre, Jean-Marie Mangin
Virtually all oligodendrocyte precursors cells (OPCs) receive glutamatergic and/or GABAergic synapses that are lost upon their differentiation into oligodendrocytes in the postnatal and adult brain. Although OPCs are generated at mid-embryonic stages, several weeks before the onset of myelination, it remains unknown when and where OPCs receive their first synapses and become susceptible to the influence of neuronal activity. In the embryonic spinal cord, neuro-epithelial precursors in the pMN domain cease generating cholinergic motor neurons (MNs) to produce OPCs when the first synapses are formed in the ventral-lateral marginal zone...
March 30, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579552/proliferative-hippocampal-activity-in-a-group-of-patients-with-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-neuronal-glial-and-bdnf-tissue-expression-correlations
#10
Elane N Magno
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare and devastating unilateral inflammatory brain disease that causes severe and intractable partial epilepsy. It has been shown that epilepsy and subsequent inflammation have deleterious influence on hippocampal cell survival and neurogenesis, but this still has not been systematically explored in human tissue. In this study, we investigated the correlation between inflammation and epilepsy as well as the rates of hippocampal gliogenesis and neurogenesis in a pediatric group of six patients with RE and six control cases...
March 23, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507409/b-1a-lymphocytes-promote-oligodendrogenesis-during-brain-development
#11
Shogo Tanabe, Toshihide Yamashita
During brain development, the immune system mediates neurogenesis, gliogenesis and synapse formation. However, it remains unclear whether peripheral lymphocytes contribute to brain development. Here we identified the subtypes of lymphocytes that are present in neonatal mouse brains and investigated their functions. We found that B-1a cells, a subtype of B cells, were abundant in the neonatal mouse brain and infiltrated into the brain in a CXCL13-CXCR5-dependent manner. B-1a cells promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte-precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro, and depletion of B-1a cells from developing brains resulted in a reduction of numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes...
April 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483282/bmp-responsive-protease-htra1-is-differentially-expressed-in-astrocytes-and-regulates-astrocytic-development-and-injury-response
#12
Jessie Chen, Stephanie Van Gulden, Tammy L McGuire, Andrew C Fleming, Chio Oka, John A Kessler, Chian-Yu Peng
Astrocytes perform a wide array of physiological functions, including structural support, ion exchange, and neurotransmitter uptake. Despite this diversity, molecular markers that label subpopulations of astrocytes are limited, and mechanisms that generate distinct astrocyte subtypes remain unclear. Here we identified serine protease high temperature requirement A 1 (HtrA1), a bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling regulated protein, as a novel marker of forebrain astrocytes, but not of neural stem cells, in adult mice of both sexes...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448133/exposure-to-the-rock-inhibitor-fasudil-promotes-gliogenesis-of-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro
#13
Zubair Ahmed Nizamudeen, Lisa Chakrabarti, Virginie Sottile
Fasudil is a clinically approved Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor that has been used widely to treat cerebral consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is known to have a positive effect on animal models of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease and stroke. However, its cellular effect on progenitor populations and differentiation is not clearly understood. While recent studies suggest that fasudil promotes the mobilization of neural stem cells (NSCs) from the subventricular zone in vivo and promotes the differentiation of the C17...
April 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379049/foxj1-expressing-ependymal-cells-do-not-contribute-new-cells-to-sites-of-injury-or-stroke-in-the-mouse-forebrain
#14
Nagendran Muthusamy, Andrew Brumm, Xuying Zhang, S Thomas Carmichael, H Troy Ghashghaei
The stem cell source of neural and glial progenitors in the periventricular regions of the adult forebrain has remained uncertain and controversial. Using a cell specific genetic approach we rule out Foxj1+ ependymal cells as stem cells participating in neurogenesis and gliogenesis in response to acute injury or stroke in the mouse forebrain. Non stem- and progenitor-like responses of Foxj1+ ependymal cells to injury and stroke remain to be defined and investigated.
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349629/cerebellum-from-development-to-disease-the-8th-international-symposium-of-the-society-for-research-on-the-cerebellum-and-ataxias
#15
EDITORIAL
Hassan Marzban, Mario Manto, Jean Mariani
In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in research on cerebellar motor and non-motor functions. Cerebellum is particularly involved in the spectrum of neurodevelopmental diseases. The 8th International Symposium of the Society for Research on the Cerebellum and Ataxia (SRCA) was held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, (Canada) on May 24-26, 2017. The main theme of the 8th International Symposium was "Development of the Cerebellum and Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Advances in genetics, epigenetic, cerebellar neurogenesis, axonogenesis and gliogenesis, cerebellar developmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD), neuroimaging, cerebellar ataxias, medulloblastoma, and clinical investigation of cerebellar diseases were presented...
February 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346494/novel-myopia-genes-and-pathways-identified-from-syndromic-forms-of-myopia
#16
D Ian Flitcroft, James Loughman, Christine F Wildsoet, Cathy Williams, Jeremy A Guggenheim
Purpose: To test the hypothesis that genes known to cause clinical syndromes featuring myopia also harbor polymorphisms contributing to nonsyndromic refractive errors. Methods: Clinical phenotypes and syndromes that have refractive errors as a recognized feature were identified using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. One hundred fifty-four unique causative genes were identified, of which 119 were specifically linked with myopia and 114 represented syndromic myopia (i...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#17
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326173/transcriptional-regulator-zeb2-is-essential-for-bergmann-glia-development
#18
Li He, Kun Yu, Fanghui Lu, Jiajia Wang, Laiman N Wu, Chuntao Zhao, Qianmei Li, Xianyao Zhou, Hanmin Liu, Dezhi Mu, Mei Xin, Mengsheng Qiu, Q Richard Lu
Bergmann glia facilitate granule neuron migration during development and maintain the cerebellar organization and functional integrity. At present, molecular control of Bergmann glia specification from cerebellar radial glia is not fully understood. In this report, we show that ZEB2 (aka, SIP1 or ZFHX1B), a Mowat-Wilson syndrome-associated transcriptional regulator, is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, but hardly detectable in astrocytes in the cerebellum. The mice lacking Zeb2 in cerebellar radial glia exhibit severe deficits in Bergmann glia specification, and develop cerebellar cortical lamination dysgenesis and locomotion defects...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283025/polycomb-repressive-complex-2-emerging-roles-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
Pei-Pei Liu, Ya-Jie Xu, Zhao-Qian Teng, Chang-Mei Liu
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is responsible for catalyzing both di- and trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me2/3). The subunits of PRC2 are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). PRC2 as well as H3K27me2/3, play distinct roles in neuronal identity, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells, neuronal morphology, and gliogenesis. Mutations or dysregulations of PRC2 subunits often cause neurological diseases. Therefore, PRC2 might represent a common target of different pathological processes that drive neurodegenerative diseases...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251523/perivascular-neurotransmitters-regulation-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-role-in-primary-headaches
#20
Simona D Frederiksen, Kristian A Haanes, Karin Warfvinge, Lars Edvinsson
In order to understand the nature of the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and primary headaches, we have conducted a literature review with particular emphasis on the role of perivascular neurotransmitters. Primary headaches are in general considered complex polygenic disorders (genetic and environmental influence) with pathophysiological neurovascular alterations. Identified candidate headache genes are associated with neuro- and gliogenesis, vascular development and diseases, and regulation of vascular tone...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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