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Morphological plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922664/patchy-particles-made-by-colloidal-fusion
#1
Zhe Gong, Theodore Hueckel, Gi-Ra Yi, Stefano Sacanna
Patches on the surfaces of colloidal particles provide directional information that enables the self-assembly of the particles into higher-order structures. Although computational tools can make quantitative predictions and can generate design rules that link the patch motif of a particle to its internal microstructure and to the emergent properties of the self-assembled materials, the experimental realization of model systems of particles with surface patches (or 'patchy' particles) remains a challenge. Synthetic patchy colloidal particles are often poor geometric approximations of the digital building blocks used in simulations and can only rarely be manufactured in sufficiently high yields to be routinely used as experimental model systems...
September 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921611/dendritic-spines-provide-cognitive-resilience-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Benjamin D Boros, Kelsey M Greathouse, Erik G Gentry, Kendall A Curtis, Elizabeth L Birchall, Marla Gearing, Jeremy H Herskowitz
OBJECTIVE: Neuroimaging and other biomarker assays suggest that the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) initiate years prior to clinical dementia onset. However some 30%-50% of older individuals that harbor AD pathology do not become symptomatic in their lifetime. It is hypothesized that such individuals exhibit cognitive resilience that protects against AD dementia. We hypothesized that in cases with AD pathology structural changes in dendritic spines would distinguish individuals that had or did not have clinical dementia...
September 16, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919904/plasticity-of-sorghum-stem-biomass-accumulation-in-response-to-water-deficit-a-multiscale-analysis-from-internode-tissue-to-plant-level
#3
Lisa Perrier, Lauriane Rouan, Sylvie Jaffuel, Anne Clément-Vidal, Sandrine Roques, Armelle Soutiras, Christelle Baptiste, Denis Bastianelli, Denis Fabre, Cécile Dubois, David Pot, Delphine Luquet
Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919309/the-heterogeneity-of-human-cajal-retzius-neurons
#4
REVIEW
Gundela Meyer, Miriam González-Gómez
The definition of a Cajal-Retzius neuron (CRN) is still controversial, in part possibly due to species differences. We review the developmental history of CRN in human neocortex and focus on two main CRN family members, transient (t) and persisting (p) CRN. They share the expression of Reelin andTbr1, complemented by p73, calretinin, CXCR4 and NOS, but differ in their moment of appearance, fate and morphology. The distinctive feature of tCRN is the axon plexus in the lower third of the marginal zone, which innervates the apical dendritic tufts of pyramidal cells and may serve as a migration substrate and waiting compartment for interneurons descending from the subpial granular layer (SGL) into the cortical plate...
September 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#5
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917862/antibacterial-hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose-edible-films-containing-nanoemulsions-of-thymus-daenensis-essential-oil-for-food-packaging
#6
Roya Moghimi, Atousa Aliahmadi, Hasan Rafati
Edible films containing essential oils (EO) as natural antibacterial agents are promising systems for food preservation. In this work, nanoemulsions of Thymus daenensis EO (wild; F1 and cultivated; F2) were loaded in hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) films and the effect of different parameters (polymer, plasticizer, and EO concentration) on the film properties were analyzed and optimized. Prepared HPMC films were characterized in terms of EO loading, morphology, mechanical properties, and the antibacterial activity...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917848/development-and-characterization-of-ricinoleic-acid-based-sulfhydryl-thiol-and-ethyl-cellulose-blended-membranes
#7
Mei Li, Jianling Xia, Chengxiang Ding, Wei Mao, Haiyang Ding, Lina Xu, Shouhai Li
Ethyl cellulose (EC) membranes can be combined with efficient plasticizers derived from renewable resources to form supramolecular systems. In this paper, a novel ricinoleic acid-based sulfhydryl triol (STRA) was first synthesized and used as a plasticizer for EC membranes. A supramolecular membrane of EC and STRA using van der Waals forces was designed. The morphology, hydrophilic performance, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. While pure EC is brittle, its membrane ductility and hydrophilic performance can be improved by integration with STRA...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916331/depressive-like-phenotype-induced-by-prenatal-dexamethasone-in-mice-is-reversed-by-desipramine
#8
Mirko Conti, Stefan Spulber, Marilena Raciti, Sandra Ceccatelli
Exposure to prenatal insults has been associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, but the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Persistent alterations of the HPA axis feedback mechanism as well as adult impaired neurogenesis are believed to play a relevant role in the etiology of depression. In addition, growing evidence points at epigenetic reprogramming as a key factor. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) impairs neurogenesis and leads to late onset of depression-like behavior that does not respond to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916169/the-large-and-small-spen-family-proteins-stimulate-axon-outgrowth-during-neurosecretory-cell-remodeling-in-drosophila
#9
Tingting Gu, Tao Zhao, Uday Kohli, Randall S Hewes
Split ends (SPEN) is the founding member of a well conserved family of nuclear proteins with critical functions in transcriptional regulation and the post-transcriptional processing and nuclear export of transcripts. In animals, the SPEN proteins fall into two size classes that perform either complementary or antagonistic functions in different cellular contexts. Here, we show that the two Drosophila representatives of this family, SPEN and Spenito (NITO), regulate metamorphic remodeling of the CCAP/bursicon neurosecretory cells...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915543/effects-of-diisononyl-phthalate-on-danio-rerio-reproduction
#10
Stefania Santangeli, Francesca Maradonna, Maya Zanardini, Valentina Notarstefano, Giorgia Gioacchini, Isabel Forner-Piquer, Hamid Habibi, Oliana Carnevali
Di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a high molecular weight phthalate commonly used as a plasticizer. It was introduced as a replacement for bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) which is used in the production of plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The purpose of this study was to investigate for the first time the effect of DiNP on female reproductive physiology in Danio rerio. Fish were exposed to five different doses of DiNP plus control (0 μg/L; 0.42 μg/L; 4.2 μg/L; 42 μg/L; 420 μg/L; 4200 μg/L) for a period of 21 days...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910298/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-poststroke-more-new-granule-cells-but-aberrant-morphology-and-impaired-spatial-memory
#11
Florus Woitke, Mihai Ceanga, Max Rudolph, Fanny Niv, Otto W Witte, Christoph Redecker, Albrecht Kunze, Silke Keiner
Stroke significantly stimulates neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus, though the functional role of this postlesional response is mostly unclear. Recent findings suggest that newborn neurons generated in the context of stroke may fail to correctly integrate into pre-existing networks. We hypothesized that increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus following stroke is associated with aberrant neurogenesis and impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory. To address these questions we used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) in mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901723/the-arms-race-between-heliconiine-butterflies-and-passiflora-plants-new-insights-on-an-ancient-subject
#12
Érika C P de Castro, Mika Zagrobelny, Márcio Z Cardoso, Søren Bak
Heliconiines are called passion vine butterflies because they feed exclusively on Passiflora plants during the larval stage. Many features of Passiflora and heliconiines indicate that they have radiated and speciated in association with each other, and therefore this model system was one of the first examples used to exemplify coevolution theory. Three major adaptations of Passiflora plants supported arguments in favour of their coevolution with heliconiines: unusual variation of leaf shape within the genus; the occurrence of yellow structures mimicking heliconiine eggs; and their extensive diversity of defence compounds called cyanogenic glucosides...
September 13, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901550/principles-of-plasticity-in-the-developing-brain
#13
REVIEW
Bryan Kolb, Allonna Harker, Robbin Gibb
The developing brain is especially sensitive to a wide range of experiences, showing a remarkable capacity for plastic changes that influence behavioural outcomes throughout the lifetime. We review the principles that regulate this plasticity in development and consider the factors that modulate the developing brain. These include early sensory, motor, and language experience, early stress, caregiver interactions, peer interactions, psychoactive drugs, diet, microbiome, and the immune system. Emphasis is given to changes in behaviour, epigenetics, and neuronal morphology...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899992/depletion-of-progranulin-reduces-glun2b-containing-nmda-receptor-density-tau-phosphorylation-and-dendritic-arborization-in-mouse-primary-cortical-neurons
#14
Francesca Longhena, Michela Zaltieri, Jessica Grigoletto, Gaia Faustini, Luca La Via, Roberta Ghidoni, Luisa Benussi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, Arianna Bellucci
Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin (PGRN) gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy in the frontal and temporal lobes and with typical symptoms such as cognitive and memory impairment, profound behavioral abnormalities and personality changes, that are thought to be related to connectome dysfunctions. Recently, PGRN reduction has been found to induce a behavioural phenotype reminiscent of FTLD symptoms in mice by affecting neuron spine density and morphology, suggesting that the protein can influence neuronal structural plasticity...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898602/parallel-patterns-of-host-specific-morphology-and-genetic-admixture-in-sister-lineages-of-a-commensal-barnacle
#15
Christine Ewers-Saucedo, Benny K K Chan, John D Zardus, John P Wares
Symbiotic relationships are often species specific, allowing symbionts to adapt to their host environments. Host generalists, on the other hand, have to cope with diverse environments. One coping strategy is phenotypic plasticity, defined by the presence of host-specific phenotypes in the absence of genetic differentiation. Recent work indicates that such host-specific phenotypic plasticity is present in the West Pacific lineage of the commensal barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated genetic and morphological host-specific structure in the genetically distinct Atlantic sister lineage of C...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898441/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-the-pharyngeal-gland-cells-in-the-predatory-nematode-pristionchus-pacificus
#16
Metta Riebesell, Ralf J Sommer
Pristionchus pacificus is a model system in evolutionary biology and for comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans. As a necromenic nematode often found in association with scarab beetles, P. pacificus exhibits omnivorous feeding that is characterized by a mouth-form dimorphism, an example of phenotypic plasticity. Eurystomatous animals have a dorsal and a sub-ventral tooth enabling predatory feeding on other nematodes whereas stenostomatous animals have only a dorsal tooth and are microbivorous. Both mouth forms of P...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894298/molecular-basis-of-dendritic-atrophy-and-activity-in-stress-susceptibility
#17
T C Francis, R Chandra, A Gaynor, P Konkalmatt, S R Metzbower, B Evans, M Engeln, T A Blanpied, M K Lobo
Molecular and cellular adaptations in nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons (MSNs) underlie stress-induced depression-like behavior, but the molecular substrates mediating cellular plasticity and activity in MSN subtypes in stress susceptibility are poorly understood. We find the transcription factor early growth response 3 (EGR3) is increased in D1 receptor containing MSNs of mice susceptible to social defeat stress. Genetic reduction of Egr3 levels in D1-MSNs prevented depression-like outcomes in stress susceptible mice by preventing D1-MSN dendritic atrophy, reduced frequency of excitatory input and altered in vivo activity...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893328/plasticity-in-host-utilization-by-two-host-associated-populations-of-aphis-gossypii-glover
#18
A K Barman, K R Gadhave, B Dutta, R Srinivasan
Biological and morphological plasticity in polyphagous insect herbivores allow them to exploit diverse host plant species. Geographical differences in resource availability can lead to preferential host exploitation and result in inconsistent host specialization. Biological and molecular data provide insights into specialization and plasticity of such herbivore populations. In agricultural landscapes, Aphis gossypii encounters several crop and non-crop hosts, which exist in temporal and spatial proximity. We investigated the host-specialization of two A...
September 12, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890130/effects-of-perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-the-volume-of-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-of-juvenile-rats-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#19
Sheryl E Arambula, Joelle Fuchs, Jinyan Cao, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions...
September 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888857/modelling-plasticity-in-dendrites-from-single-cells-to-networks
#20
REVIEW
Jacopo Bono, Katharina A Wilmes, Claudia Clopath
One of the key questions in neuroscience is how our brain self-organises to efficiently process information. To answer this question, we need to understand the underlying mechanisms of plasticity and their role in shaping synaptic connectivity. Theoretical neuroscience typically investigates plasticity on the level of neural networks. Neural network models often consist of point neurons, completely neglecting neuronal morphology for reasons of simplicity. However, during the past decades it became increasingly clear that inputs are locally processed in the dendrites before they reach the cell body...
September 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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