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Morphological plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786720/a-strain-induced-subwavelength-structure-for-a-haze-free-and-highly-transparent-flexible-plastic-substrate
#1
Jae Yong Park, Juyoung Ham, Illhwan Lee, Jong-Lam Lee
This paper presents a method to produce subwavelength-scale (<250 nm) AgCl nanostructures on a flexible plastic film, which is indispensable for highly efficient flexible displays. Using Cl2 plasma treatment on an Ag-coated plastic film, AgCl nanostructures were produced through the reaction of Ag atoms with Cl radicals. During the reaction, the volume of AgCl expands, leading to drastically changed surface morphology from a two-dimensional (2D) flat Ag surface to a 3D subwavelength-scale AgCl nanostructure...
May 22, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786575/spatial-organization-of-the-excretory-ducts-and-sections-of-microcirculatory-blood-flow-of-the-labial-salivary-glands-in-older-adults
#2
Volodymyr H Hryn, Tamara F Deineha, Аndrij V Piliuhin, Anna V Lavrenko, Dmytro O Lavrenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Salivary glands have a significant impact on the state of the homeostasis of the human body, oral cavity in particular, sensitively responding to pathological processes. The reactivity of the salivary glands in response to pathological processes that are organically linked to morphology and functions of the organ's structures, and particularly the excretory ducts of the glands and their microcirculatory blood flow, is one of the problems which have not been solved to date...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785541/new-observations-in-tumor-cell-plasticity-mutational-profiling-in-a-case-of-metastatic-melanoma-with-biphasic-sarcomatoid-transdifferentiation
#3
Niels J Rupp, Markus Rechsteiner, Sandra N Freiberger, Daniela Lenggenhager, Mirjana Urosevic, Irene A Burger, Elisabeth J Rushing, Daniela Mihic-Probst
We describe a highly unusual case of metastatic melanoma in a 61-year-old female that manifested as a single groin lymph node metastasis accompanied by two distinct, subcutaneous sarcomatoid tumors on the same leg, without evidence of a primary tumor. Characterization encompassed extensive immunohistochemical staining as well as next-generation sequencing (NGS). The lymph node metastasis showed obvious features of melanoma. The two subcutaneous lesions, however, were morphologically and immunohistochemically consistent with high-grade myxofibrosarcoma and soft tissue mixed tumor, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782817/evolution-of-the-developmental-plasticity-and-a-coupling-between-left-mechanosensory-neuromasts-and-an-adaptive-foraging-behavior
#4
Vânia Filipa Lima Fernandes, Christian Macaspac, Louise Lu, Masato Yoshizawa
Many animal species exhibit laterality in sensation and behavioral responses, namely, the preference for using either the left or right side of the sensory system. For example, some fish use their left eye when observing social stimuli, whereas they use their right eye to observe novel objects. However, it is largely unknown whether such laterality in sensory-behavior coupling evolves during rapid adaptation processes. Here, in the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, we investigate the laterality in the relationship between an evolved adaptive behavior, vibration attraction behavior (VAB), and its main sensors, mechanosensory neuromasts...
May 18, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777688/proteomic-changes-during-adult-stage-in-pre-optic-hypothalamus-hippocampus-and-pituitary-regions-of-female-rat-brain-following-neonatal-exposure-to-estradiol-17%C3%AE
#5
Vijayakumar Govindaraj, Radhika Nagamangalam Shridharan, Addicam Jagannadha Rao
Although neonatal exposure to estrogen or estrogenic compounds results in irreversible changes in the brain function and reproductive abnormalities during adulthood but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. The present study has attempted to compare the protein profiles of sexually dimorphic brain regions of adult female rats which were exposed to estradiol- 17β during neonatal period. The total proteins extracted from pre-optic area (POA), hypothalamus, hippocampus and pituitary of control and neonatally E2 treated female rats was subjected to 2D-SDS-PAGE and differentially expressed proteins were identification by MALDI TOF/TOF-MS...
May 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772733/effect-of-babassu-natural-filler-on-pbat-phb-biodegradable-blends-an-investigation-of-thermal-mechanical-and-morphological-behavior
#6
Vinicius C Beber, Silvio de Barros, Mariana D Banea, Markus Brede, Laura H de Carvalho, Ron Hoffmann, Anna Raffaela M Costa, Elieber B Bezerra, Ingridy D S Silva, Katharina Haag, Katharina Koschek, Renate M R Wellen
Blending of biodegradable polymers in combination with low-price organic fillers has proven to be a suitable approach to produce cost-effective composites in order to address pollution issues and develop products with superior mechanical properties. In the present research work PBAT/PHB/Babassu composites with 25, 50, and 75% of each polymer and 20% of Babassu were produced by melting extrusion. Their thermal, mechanical, and morphological behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
May 16, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772661/tensile-property-of-ansi-304-stainless-steel-weldments-subjected-to-cavitation-erosion-based-on-treatment-of-laser-shock-processing
#7
Lei Zhang, Yue-Hua Liu, Kai-Yu Luo, Yong-Kang Zhang, Yong Zhao, Jian-Yun Huang, Xu-Dong Wu, Chuang Zhou
Tensile property was one important index of mechanical properties of ANSI 304 stainless steel laser weldments subjected to cavitation erosion (CE). Laser shock processing (LSP) was utilized to strengthen the CE resistance, and the tensile property and fracture morphology were analyzed through three replicated experiment times. Results showed tensile process of treated weldments was composed of elastic deformation, plastic deformation, and fracture. The elastic limit, elastic modulus, elongation, area reduction, and ultimate tensile strength of tensile sample after CE were higher in view of LSP...
May 16, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771841/integrating-a-profile-of-frontal-face-with-its-mirror-image-for-facial-reconstruction
#8
Paramjit Kaur, Kewal Krishan, Suresh K Sharma, Tanuj Kanchan
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Face recognition plays an important role in the field of biometrics, bioinformatics, and forensic identification. Human faces appear bilaterally symmetric. However, asymmetry is a norm in the human body and careful morphological and metric examination of the human face gives an exact idea of the asymmetry present in the face of an individual. Most of the studies on asymmetry of human face have been carried out with regard to evaluation of expressions in psychology, anthropology, and biometrics...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771639/hic-5-expression-is-a-major-indicator-of-cancer-cell-morphology-migration-and-plasticity-in-three-dimensional-matrices
#9
Anushree C Gulvady, Fatemeh Dubois, Nicholas O Deakin, Gregory J Goreczny, Christopher E Turner
The focal adhesion proteins, Hic-5 and Paxillin have been previously identified as key regulators of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration and morphologic mesenchymal-amoeboid plasticity in three-dimensional extracellular matrices. However, their respective roles in other cancer cell types has not been evaluated. Herein, utilizing 3D cell-derived matrices and fibronectin-coated 1D substrates, we show that across a variety of cancer cell lines, the level of Hic-5 expression serves as the major indicator of the cells primary morphology, plasticity and in vitro invasiveness...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770112/circadian-plasticity-in-the-brain-of-insects-and-rodents
#10
REVIEW
Wojciech Krzeptowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elżbieta Pyza
In both vertebrate and invertebrate brains, neurons, glial cells and synapses are plastic, which means that the physiology and structure of these components are modified in response to internal and external stimuli during development and in mature brains. The term plasticity has been introduced in the last century to describe experience-dependent changes in synapse strength and number. These changes result from local functional and morphological synapse modifications; however, these modifications also occur more commonly in pre- and postsynaptic neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769480/5-hydroxy-4-nitro-7-propionyloxy-genistein-inhibited-invasion-and-metastasis-via-inactivating-wnt-b-catenin-signal-pathway-in-human-endometrial-carcinoma-ji-endometrial-cells
#11
Jun Bai, Xin Luo
BACKGROUND Chemotherapy has been assuring more important roles in the treatment of carcinoma. Developing new types of drugs with less adverse effects and low drug resistance has become an important researching focus. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects of 5-hydroxy-4'-nitro-7-propionyloxy-genistein (HNPG) and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS The inhibitory effects of cell viability of HNPG were detected using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flat plate clone formation method, and Transwell assay...
May 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769105/ornamental-bromeliads-of-miami-dade-county-florida-are-important-breeding-sites-for-aedes-aegypti-diptera-culicidae
#12
André B B Wilke, Chalmers Vasquez, Paul J Mauriello, John C Beier
BACKGROUND: A major public health concern is the emergence and geographical spread of vector-borne diseases such as Zika and yellow fever. Ornamental bromeliads retaining water in their leaf axils represent potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. As the role of ornamental bromeliads in breeding Aedes aegypti in Miami-Dade County, Florida is unknown, we hypothesize that ornamental bromeliads are important breeding sites for Ae. aegypti. Our objective was to survey bromeliads in areas with high densities of adult Ae...
May 17, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767995/structure-activity-relationships-and-therapeutic-potentials-of-5-ht7-receptor-ligands-an-update
#13
Maria N Modica, Enza Lacivita, Sebastiano Intagliata, Loredana Salerno, Giuseppe Romeo, Valeria Pittala, Marcello Leopoldo
Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) has been the subject of intense research efforts because of its presence in brain areas such as hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cortex. Preclinical data link the 5-HT7R to a variety of central nervous system processes such as regulation of circadian rhythms, mood, cognitions, pain processing, and mechanisms of addiction. 5-HT7R blockade has antidepressant effects and may ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. 5-HT7R has been recently shown to modulate neuronal morphology, excitability, and plasticity, thus contributing to shape brain networks during development and to remodel neuronal wiring in the mature brain...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765686/phylogeography-of-hydrothermal-vent-stalked-barnacles-a-new-species-fills-a-gap-in-the-indian-ocean-dispersal-corridor-hypothesis
#14
Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Chong Chen, Daniel P Marie, Ken Takai, Katsunori Fujikura, Benny K K Chan
Phylogeography of animals provides clues to processes governing their evolution and diversification. The Indian Ocean has been hypothesized as a 'dispersal corridor' connecting hydrothermal vent fauna of Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Stalked barnacles of the family Eolepadidae are common associates of deep-sea vents in Southern, Pacific and Indian oceans, and the family is an ideal group for testing this hypothesis. Here, we describe Neolepas marisindica sp. nov. from the Indian Ocean, distinguished from N. zevinae and N...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765299/src-kinase-dependent-rapid-non-genomic-modulation-of-hippocampal-spinogenesis-induced-by-androgen-and-estrogen
#15
Mika Soma, Jonghyuk Kim, Asami Kato, Suguru Kawato
Dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from an axon terminal at the synapse. Memories are stored in synapses which consist of spines and presynapses. Rapid modulations of dendritic spines induced by hippocampal sex steroids, including dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and estradiol (E2), are essential for synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid non-genomic modulation through synaptic receptors of androgen (AR) and estrogen (ER) as well as its downstream kinase signaling, however, have not been well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765273/scalp-and-forehead-reconstruction
#16
REVIEW
Mofiyinfolu Sokoya, Jared Inman, Yadranko Ducic
Reconstructing the scalp and forehead is a challenging endeavor frequently undertaken by facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons. There are many anatomical factors to be considered in this area, including multiple neurovascular structure present that should be identified and preserved. Hair morphology and physiology should be considered, and trichophytic techniques should be incorporated into incision planning and closure. The reconstructive ladder must be used when considering options in reconstructing scalps and forehead defects...
May 2018: Seminars in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762450/three-dimensional-analysis-of-mandibular-angle-classification-and-aesthetic-evaluation-of-the-lower-face-in-chinese-female-adults
#17
Xiaoyan Mao, Xi Fu, Feng Niu, Ying Chen, Qi Jin, Jia Qiao, Lai Gui
BACKGROUND: Reduction gonioplasty is very popular in East Asia. However, there has been little quantitative criteria for mandibular angle classification or aesthetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the quantitative differences of mandibular angle types and determine the morphologic features of mandibular angle in attractive women. METHODS: We created a database of skull computed tomography and standardized frontal and lateral photographs of 96 Chinese female adults...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760957/simulated-microgravity-induces-a-cellular-regression-of-the-mature-phenotype-in-human-primary-osteoblasts
#18
Magda Gioia, Anna Michaletti, Manuel Scimeca, Mario Marini, Umberto Tarantino, Lello Zolla, Massimo Coletta
Decreased mechanical loading on bones, such as prolonged bed rest and microgravity during space flights, leads to the development of an osteoporotic-like phenotype. Although osteoblast hypo-functionality is reported to be involved in the progression of bone pathological conditions, the cellular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown. The combined application of mass spectrometry "-omics" and histochemical and ultrastructural approaches have been employed to investigate the effects of the gravitational unloading on human bone-cell biology...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760952/downregulation-of-the-psychiatric-susceptibility-gene-cacna1c-promotes-mitochondrial-resilience-to-oxidative-stress-in-neuronal-cells
#19
Susanne Michels, Goutham K Ganjam, Helena Martins, Gerhard M Schratt, Markus Wöhr, Rainer K W Schwarting, Carsten Culmsee
Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760896/shell-morphology-and-color-of-the-subtidal-whelk-buccinum-undatum-exhibit-fine-scaled-spatial-patterns
#20
Hildur Magnúsdóttir, Snæbjörn Pálsson, Kristen M Westfall, Zophonías O Jónsson, Erla Björk Örnólfsdóttir
Geographical patterns in morphology can be the result of divergence among populations due to neutral or selective changes and/or phenotypic plasticity in response to different environments. Marine gastropods are ideal subjects on which to explore these patterns, by virtue of the remarkable intraspecific variation in life-history traits and morphology often observed across relatively small spatial scales. The ubiquitous N-Atlantic common whelk ( Buccinum undatum ) is well known for spatial variation in life-history traits and morphology...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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