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Morphological plasticity

Evgenii Tcyganov, Jerome Mastio, Eric Chen, Dmitry I Gabrilovich
In recent years, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have emerged as one of the major inhibitors of immune effector cell function in cancer. MDSC represent a heterogeneous population of largely immature myeloid cells that are characterized by a pathological state of activation and display potent immune suppressive activity. Two major subsets of MDSC have been identified: monocytic (M-MDSC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN-MDSC). PMN-MSDC share phenotypic and morphologic features with neutrophils, whereas M-MDSC are similar to monocytes and are characterized by high plasticity...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
Shinji Kakei, Takahiro Ishikawa, Jongho Lee, Takeru Honda, Donna S Hoffman
BACKGROUND: In order to optimize outcomes of novel therapies for cerebellar ataxias (CAs), it is desirable to start these therapies while declined functions are restorable: i.e. while the so-called cerebellar reserve remains. OBJECTIVE: In this mini-review, we tried to define and discuss the cerebellar reserve from physiological and morphological points of view. METHOD: The cerebellar neuron circuitry is designed to generate spatiotemporally organized outputs, regardless of the region...
March 15, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jiangwei Wang, Yanming Wang, Wei Cai, Jixue Li, Ze Zhang, Scott X Mao
Shear band in metallic crystals is localized deformation with high dislocation density, which is often observed in nanopillar deformation experiments. The shear band dynamics coupled with dislocation activities, however, remains unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamic processes of dislocation and shear band in body-centered cubic (BCC) tungsten nanowires via an integrated approach of in situ nanomechanical testing and atomistic simulation. We find a strong effect of surface orientation on dislocation nucleation in tungsten nanowires, in which {111} surfaces act as favorite sites under high strain...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
P R Pearson, D A Warner
Seasonal shifts in environmental conditions provide predictable cues to which organisms can respond in adaptive ways. For example, seasonal changes in temperature can induce phenotypes at different times of the year that have season-specific fitness benefits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that embryo responses to seasonal changes in thermal environments are adaptively matched to the timing of reproduction (environmental-matching hypothesis). We collected eggs of the brown anole lizard ( Anolis sagrei ) from early and late seasons, and exposed them to early and late thermal regimes that mimic nest temperatures...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Mingyan Li, Weihua Guo, Ning Du, Zhenwei Xu, Xiao Guo
Light and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are among the important environmental factors influencing plant growth and forest regeneration. We used Quercus acutissima, a dominant broadleaf tree species native to the deciduous forests of Northern China, to study the combined effects of light exposure and N addition on leaf physiology and individual plant growth. In the greenhouse, we exposed Quercus acutissima seedlings to one of two light conditions (8% and 80% of full irradiation) and one of three N treatments (0, 6, and 12 g N m-2 y-1)...
2018: PloS One
Francis D Gratte, Sara Pasic, John K Olynyk, George C T Yeoh, David Tosh, Deirdre R Coombe, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
The rising prevalence of chronic liver disease, coupled with a permanent shortage of organs for liver transplantation, has sparked enormous interest in alternative treatment strategies. Previous protocols to generate hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) via pancreas-to-liver transdifferentiation have utilised fetal bovine serum, introducing unknown variables and severely limiting study reproducibility. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to develop a protocol for transdifferentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells to HLCs in a chemically defined, serum-free culture medium...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tae-Yong Choi, Seung-Hyun Lee, Yoon-Jung Kim, Jae Ryul Bae, Kwang Min Lee, Youhwa Jo, Soo-Jeong Kim, A-Ram Lee, Sekyu Choi, La-Mee Choi, Sunhoe Bang, Mi-Ryoung Song, Jongkyeong Chung, Kyung Jin Lee, Sung Hyun Kim, Chul-Seung Park, Se-Young Choi
Mutations in the cereblon ( CRBN ) gene cause human intellectual disability, one of the most common cognitive disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of CRBN -related intellectual disability remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of CRBN in synaptic function and animal behavior using male mouse and Drosophila models. Crbn knockout (KO) mice showed normal brain and spine morphology as well as intact synaptic plasticity; however, they also exhibited decreases in synaptic transmission and presynaptic release probability exclusively in excitatory synapses...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sabrina Renaud, Ronan Ledevin, Benoit Pisanu, Jean-Louis Chapuis, Petra Quillfeldt, Emilie A Hardouin
Convergent evolution in similar environments constitutes strong evidence of adaptive evolution. Transported with people around the world, house mice colonized even remote areas, such as Sub-Antarctic islands. There, they returned to a feral way of life, shifting towards a diet enriched in terrestrial macroinvertebrates. Here, we test the hypothesis that this triggered convergent evolution of the mandible, a morphological character involved in food consumption. Mandible shape from four Sub-Antarctic islands was compared to phylogeny, tracing the history of colonization, and climatic conditions...
March 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Adriano Evandir Marchello, Alexsandro Claudino Dos Santos, Ana Teresa Lombardi, Clovis Wesley Oliveira de Souza, Graziela Cristina Montanhim
Mixotrophy is a metabolic strategy in which an organism is autotrophic and heterotrophic simultaneously. Considering that the aquatic environment provides several organic sources of carbon, it is probably common for microalgae to perform mixotrophy and not only photoautotrophy, but little is known about microalgae mixotrophy. The present work aimed at investigating the growth, photosynthetic activity, morphology, and biochemical composition of the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana in mixotrophic and photo-mixotrophic conditions, comparing it with photoautotrophy...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
V Bonito, A I P M Smits, O J G M Goor, B D Ippel, A Driessen-Mol, T J A G Münker, A W Bosman, T Mes, P Y W Dankers, C V C Bouten
Hallmark of the in situ tissue engineering approach is the use of bioresorbable, synthetic, acellular scaffolds, which are designed to modulate the inflammatory response and actively trigger tissue regeneration by the body itself at the site of implantation. Much research is devoted to the design of synthetic materials modulating the polarization of macrophages, which are essential mediators of the early stages of the inflammatory response. Here, we present a novel method for the functionalization of elastomers based on synthetic peptide chemistry, supramolecular self-assembly, and immobilization of heparin and interleukin 4 (IL-4), which is known to skew the polarization of macrophages into the wound healing "M2" phenotype...
March 5, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
M Martinez-Morga, M P Quesada-Rico, C Bueno, S Martinez
AIM: To know the neural processes linked to the activity of brain circuits in order to understand the consequences of their dysfunction and their role in the development of neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT: The activity of neuronal circuits is the neurobiological basis of behavior and mental activity (emotions, memory and thoughts). The processes of differentiation of neural cells and the formation of circuits by synaptic contacts between neurons (synaptogenesis) occur in the central nervous system during the late stages of prenatal development and the first months after birth...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Ging Yang Siew, Wei Lun Ng, Sheau Wei Tan, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen, Soon Guan Tan, Swee Keong Yeap
Durian ( Durio zibethinus ) is one of the most popular tropical fruits in Asia. To date, 126 durian types have been registered with the Department of Agriculture in Malaysia based on phenotypic characteristics. Classification based on morphology is convenient, easy, and fast but it suffers from phenotypic plasticity as a direct result of environmental factors and age. To overcome the limitation of morphological classification, there is a need to carry out genetic characterization of the various durian types...
2018: PeerJ
Jinming Guo, Georg Haberfehlner, Julian Rosalie, Lei Li, María Jazmin Duarte, Gerald Kothleitner, Gerhard Dehm, Yunbin He, Reinhard Pippan, Zaoli Zhang
Oxygen contamination is a problem which inevitably occurs during severe plastic deformation of metallic powders by exposure to air. Although this contamination can change the morphology and properties of the consolidated materials, there is a lack of detailed information about the behavior of oxygen in nanocrystalline alloys. In this study, aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and associated techniques are used to investigate the behavior of oxygen during in situ heating of highly strained Cu-Fe alloys...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Tyler J Carrier, Adam M Reitzel
Morphological plasticity is a genotype-by-environment interaction that enables organisms to increase fitness across varying environments. Symbioses with diverse microbiota may aid in acclimating to this variation, but whether the associated bacteria community is phenotype specific remains understudied. Here we induce morphological plasticity in three species of sea urchin larvae and measure changes in the associated bacterial community. While each host species has unique bacterial communities, the expression of plasticity results in the convergence on a phenotype-specific microbiome that is, in part, driven by differential association with α- and γ-proteobacteria...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
J Stedehouder, D Brizee, G Shpak, S A Kushner
Axonal myelination of neocortical pyramidal neurons is dynamically modulated by neuronal activity. Recent studies have shown that a substantial proportion of neocortical myelin content is contributed by fast-spiking, parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons. However, it remains unknown whether the myelination of PV+ interneurons is also modulated by intrinsic activity. Here, we utilized cell-type specific Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) in adult male and female mice to activate a sparse population of medial prefrontal cortex PV+ interneurons...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jean-François Barczi, Hervé Rey, Sébastien Griffon, Christophe Jourdan
Background and Aims: Many studies exist in the literature dealing with mathematical representations of root systems, categorized, for example, as pure structure description, partial derivative equations or functional-structural plant models. However, in these studies, root architecture modelling has seldom been carried out at the organ level with the inclusion of environmental influences that can be integrated into a whole plant characterization. Methods: We have conducted a multidisciplinary study on root systems including field observations, architectural analysis, and formal and mathematical modelling...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Botany
Moya Meredith Smith, Charlie Underwood, Brett Clark, Jürgen Kriwet, Zerina Johanson
A defining feature of dentitions in modern sharks and rays is the regulated pattern order that generates multiple replacement teeth. These are arranged in labio-lingual files of replacement teeth that form in sequential time order both along the jaw and within successively initiated teeth in a deep dental lamina. Two distinct adult dentitions have been described: alternate, in which timing of new teeth alternates between two adjacent files, each erupting separately, and the other arranged as single files, where teeth of each file are timed to erupt together, in some taxa facilitating similarly timed teeth to join to form a cutting blade...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Muhammad Rouf Akram, Mahmood Ahmad, Asad Abrar, Rai Muhammad Sarfraz, Asif Mahmood
Background: The present work was conducted to prepare and evaluate transdermal patches with optimization of suitable polymeric blend of poly(meth) acrylates (Eudragit® ) (Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur) for sustained transdermal delivery of glimepiride. Method: Polymeric matrix transdermal films were prepared by using Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RL 100 and Ammonio Methacrylate Copolymer Ph Eur RS 100 as the film former, and dibutyl phthalate (30% w/w) as the plasticizer...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Martijn Wehrens, Dmitry Ershov, Rutger Rozendaal, Noreen Walker, Daniel Schultz, Roy Kishony, Petra Anne Levin, Sander J Tans
Our understanding of bacterial cell size control is based mainly on stress-free growth conditions in the laboratory [1-10]. In the real world, however, bacteria are routinely faced with stresses that produce long filamentous cell morphologies [11-28]. Escherichia coli is observed to filament in response to DNA damage [22-25], antibiotic treatment [11-14, 28], host immune systems [15, 16], temperature [17], starvation [20], and more [18, 19, 21], conditions which are relevant to clinical settings and food preservation [26]...
February 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
March 2018: Radiation Research
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