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Morphological plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531954/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-fungi-facilitate-rapid-adaptation-of-elsholtzia-splendens-to-copper
#1
Junmin Li, Huijuan Liang, Ming Yan, Luxi Chen, Huating Zhang, Jie Liu, Suizi Wang, Zexin Jin
Closely associated microbes have been shown to drive local adaptation of plants. However, few studies provide direct evidence, disclosing the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) in their rapid adaptation of plants toward heavy metal tolerance. Elsholtzia splendens is a Cu-tolerant plant that was used as a model plant to study seed morphological traits as well as traits related to seed germination and seedling growth. This was achieved after acclimation for two generations with 1000mg/kg CuSO4 in either absence or presence of AMF...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531875/elaboration-of-antibacterial-plastic-surfaces-by-a-combination-of-antiadhesive-and-biocidal-coatings-of-natural-products
#2
Jean-Baptiste Paris, Damien Seyer, Thierry Jouenne, Pascal Thébault
Antibacterial polyolefins surfaces, combining biocidal and antiadhesive properties, were elaborated by a covalent grafting of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), able to kill adherent bacteria, on a pre-immobilized hyaluronic acid (HA) layer, able to repel the micro-organisms. Different HA activation rate for its immobilization, were used to change HA layer morphology and number of residual free carboxylic acid functions for AMPs grafting. Based on adhesion tests on Staphylococcus epidermidis and microscopy fluorescent observations, the presence of the two combined properties was shown to be depended on the HA activation rate...
May 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523996/micro-rnas-exercise-and-cellular-plasticity-in-humans-the-impact-of-dietary-factors-and-hypoxia
#3
Timothée Watier, Anthony Mj Sanchez
Physical exercise is a stress that modulates a plethora of cellular mechanisms to promote morphological and metabolic adaptations. Substantial efforts have been made to better understand the modulation of pathways involved in cell plasticity during exercise, but human explorations may be limited because invasive procedures are often required. In recent years, minimally invasive methods for the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation in response to exercise have been developed. miRNAs are small molecules that belong to a family of non-coding RNAs...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520436/controlling-structure-and-function-of-polymeric-drug-delivery-nanoparticles-using-microfluidics
#4
Aman Bains, Yimeng Cao, Sundiata Kly, Jeremy E Wulff, Matthew G Moffitt
We demonstrate control of multiscale structure and drug delivery function for paclitaxel (PAX)-loaded polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) via synthesis and flow-directed shear processing in a two-phase gas-liquid microfluidic reactor. This strategy takes a page from the engineering of commodity plastics, where processing rather than polymer chemistry provides an experimental handle on properties and function. PNPs formed from copolymers with three different PCL block lengths show sizes, morphologies, and loading efficiencies that depend on both the PCL block length and the microfluidic flow rate...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515458/floccular-fossa-size-is-not-a-reliable-proxy-of-ecology-and-behaviour-in-vertebrates
#5
S Ferreira-Cardoso, R Araújo, N E Martins, G G Martins, S Walsh, R M S Martins, N Kardjilov, I Manke, A Hilger, R Castanhinha
The cerebellar floccular and parafloccular lobes are housed in fossae of the periotic region of the skull of different vertebrates. Experimental evidence indicates that the lobes integrate visual and vestibular information and control the vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-collic reflex, smooth pursuit and gaze holding. Multiple paleoneuroanatomy studies have deduced the behaviour of fossil vertebrates by measuring the floccular fossae (FF). These studies assumed that there are correlations between FF volume and behaviour...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515428/cell-morphology-governs-directional-control-in-swimming-bacteria
#6
Òscar Guadayol, Katie L Thornton, Stuart Humphries
The ability to rapidly detect and track nutrient gradients is key to the ecological success of motile bacteria in aquatic systems. Consequently, bacteria have evolved a number of chemotactic strategies that consist of sequences of straight runs and reorientations. Theoretically, both phases are affected by fluid drag and Brownian motion, which are themselves governed by cell geometry. Here, we experimentally explore the effect of cell length on control of swimming direction. We subjected Escherichia coli to an antibiotic to obtain motile cells of different lengths, and characterized their swimming patterns in a homogeneous medium...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514633/why-have-multiple-plastic-responses-interactions-between-color-change-and-heat-avoidance-behavior-in-battus-philenor-larvae
#7
Matthew E Nielsen, Daniel R Papaj
Having multiple plastic responses to a change in the environment, such as increased temperature, can be adaptive for two major reasons: synergy (the plastic responses perform better when expressed simultaneously) or complementarity (each plastic response provides a greater net benefit in a different environmental context). We investigated these hypotheses for two forms of temperature-induced plasticity of Battus philenor caterpillars in southern Arizona populations: color change (from black to red at high temperatures) and heat avoidance behavior (movement from host to elevated refuges at high host temperatures)...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512658/effect-of-the-material-properties-on-the-crumpling-of-a-thin-sheet
#8
Mehdi Habibi, Mokhtar Adda-Bedia, Daniel Bonn
While simple at first glance, the dense packing of sheets is a complex phenomenon that depends on material parameters and the packing protocol. We study the effect of plasticity on the crumpling of sheets of different materials by performing isotropic compaction experiments on sheets of different sizes and elasto-plastic properties. First, we quantify the material properties using a dimensionless foldability index. Then, the compaction force required to crumple a sheet into a ball as well as the average number of layers inside the ball are measured...
May 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511007/thicker-lamellae-and-higher-crystallinity-of-poly-lactic-acid-via-applying-shear-flow-and-pressure-and-adding-poly-ethylene-glycol
#9
Jia-Feng Ru, Shu-Gui Yang, Jun Lei, Zhong-Ming Li
In this work, we explored the crystallization of Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blended with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) under two inevitable processing fields (i.e., flow and pressure) that coexist in almost all processing for the first time. Here, the PEG was incorporated into PLA as a molecular chain activity promoter to induce PLA crystallization. A home-made pressuring and shearing device (PSD) was utilized to prepare samples and necessary characterization methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and synchrotron radiation, were used to investigated the joint effects of PEG, pressure and shear flow on the crystallization behaviors and morphologies of PLA/PEG samples...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508360/genome-to-phenome-a-systems-biology-approach-to-ptsd-using-an-animal-model
#10
Nabarun Chakraborty, James Meyerhoff, Marti Jett, Rasha Hammamieh
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating illness that imposes significant emotional and financial burdens on military families. The understanding of PTSD etiology remains elusive; nonetheless, it is clear that PTSD is manifested by a cluster of symptoms including hyperarousal, reexperiencing of traumatic events, and avoidance of trauma reminders. With these characteristics in mind, several rodent models have been developed eliciting PTSD-like features. Animal models with social dimensions are of particular interest, since the social context plays a major role in the development and manifestation of PTSD...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508316/trpc-channels-and-neuron-development-plasticity-and-activities
#11
Yilin Tai, Yichang Jia
In this chapter, we mainly focus on the functions of TRPC channels in brain development, including neural progenitor proliferation, neurogenesis, neuron survival, axon guidance, dendritic morphology, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity. We also notice emerging advances in understanding the functions of TRPC channels in periphery, especially their functions in sensation and nociception in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Because TRPC channels are expressed in all major types of glial cells, which account for at least half of total cells in the brain, TRPC channels may act as modulators for glial functions as well...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507166/matrix-stiffness-regulates-migration-of-human-lung-fibroblasts
#12
Shuichi Asano, Satoru Ito, Kota Takahashi, Kishio Furuya, Masashi Kondo, Masahiro Sokabe, Yoshinori Hasegawa
In patients with pulmonary diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, progressive pulmonary fibrosis is caused by dysregulated wound healing via activation of fibroblasts after lung inflammation or severe damage. Migration of fibroblasts toward the fibrotic lesions plays an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic tissue in the lung is much stiffer than normal lung tissue. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that the stiffness of the matrix is not only a consequence of fibrosis, but also can induce fibroblast activation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506709/behavior-of-macrophage-and-osteoblast-cell-lines-in-contact-with-the-%C3%AE-tcp-biomaterial-beta-tricalcium-phosphate
#13
B Arbez, H Libouban
Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a synthetic ceramic used for filling bone defects. It is a good alternative to autologous grafts since it is biocompatible, resorbable and osteoconductive. Previous in vivo studies have shown that macrophages are one of the first cells coming in contact with the biomaterial followed by osteoclasts and osteoblasts that will elaborate new bone packets. Studies have focused on osteoclast morphology and very few of them have investigated the role of macrophages. The aims of this study were to characterize (i) the biomaterial surface; (ii) the in vitro behavior of macrophages (J774...
May 12, 2017: Morphologie: Bulletin de L'Association des Anatomistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504918/sheep-placenta-cotyledons-a-noninvasive-source-of-ovine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Iris Ribitsch, Souyet Chang-Rodriguez, Monika Egerbacher, Simone Gabner, Sinan Gueltekin, Johann Huber, Therese Schuster, Florien Jenner
Sheep are one of the most frequently used large animal models in stem cell research. However, minimal invasive or noninvasive sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in sheep are scarce. In the light of the principles of the 3Rs (reduce, refine, replace), it would therefore be desirable to identify a minimally invasive or noninvasive ovine MSC source. In humans, the chorionic villi of the placenta, which can be noninvasively harvested as part of the afterbirth, have been identified as a rich source of MSCs...
May 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501494/focused-microwave-irradiation-assisted-immunohistochemistry-to-study-effects-of-ketamine-on-perk-expression-in-the-mouse-brain
#15
Alda Fernandes, Yu-Wen Li
Ketamine produces rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in depressive patients. Preclinical studies demonstrate that ketamine stimulates AMPA receptor transmission and activates BDNF/TrkB-Akt/ERK-mTOR signaling cascades, leading to a sustained increase in synaptic protein synthesis and strengthening of synaptic plasticity, a potential mechanism underlying the antidepressant effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive and reliable immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to map the distribution of ERK phosphorylation in the mouse brain in response to systemic ketamine treatment...
May 10, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497849/differential-investment-in-body-girths-by-sex-evidence-from-3d-photonic-scanning-in-a-thai-cohort
#16
Meghan K Shirley, Tim J Cole, Supiya Charoensiriwath, Philip Treleaven, Jonathan C K Wells
OBJECTIVES: Life history trade-offs may manifest between competing organs and tissues in the body. Sexual dimorphism in tissue investment is well-established in humans, with sex-associated body shape differences linked to natural and sexual selection. This study uses three-dimensional (3D) photonic scanning to test whether males and females differentially invest energy in various body regions in relation to two independent proxies of growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body shape data (multiple girths) came from a Thai cohort (n = 11,610; 53% female; age range 21-88 years)...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486656/canopy-gradients-in-leaf-functional-traits-for-species-that-differ-in-growth-strategies-and-shade-tolerance
#17
Adam P Coble, Marilyn L Fogel, Geoffrey G Parker
In temperate deciduous forests, vertical gradients in leaf mass per area (LMA) and area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea) are strongly controlled by gradients in light availability. While there is evidence that hydrostatic constraints on leaf development may diminish LMA and Narea responses to light, inherent differences among tree species may also influence leaf developmental and morphological response to light. We investigated vertical gradients in LMA, Narea and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ13C) for three temperate deciduous species (Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh...
May 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486496/phenotypic-heterogeneity-promotes-adaptive-evolution
#18
Zoltán Bódi, Zoltán Farkas, Dmitry Nevozhay, Dorottya Kalapis, Viktória Lázár, Bálint Csörgő, Ákos Nyerges, Béla Szamecz, Gergely Fekete, Balázs Papp, Hugo Araújo, José L Oliveira, Gabriela Moura, Manuel A S Santos, Tamás Székely, Gábor Balázsi, Csaba Pál
Genetically identical cells frequently display substantial heterogeneity in gene expression, cellular morphology and physiology. It has been suggested that by rapidly generating a subpopulation with novel phenotypic traits, phenotypic heterogeneity (or plasticity) accelerates the rate of adaptive evolution in populations facing extreme environmental challenges. This issue is important as cell-to-cell phenotypic heterogeneity may initiate key steps in microbial evolution of drug resistance and cancer progression...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485068/wear-resistance-of-poly-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-phosphorylcholine-grafted-carbon-fiber-reinforced-poly-ether-ether-ketone-liners-against-metal-and-ceramic-femoral-heads
#19
Shihori Yamane, Masayuki Kyomoto, Toru Moro, Masami Hashimoto, Yoshio Takatori, Sakae Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishihara
Younger, active patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) have increasing needs for wider range of motion and improved stability of the joint. Therefore, bearing materials having not only higher wear resistance but also mechanical strength are required. Carbon fiber-reinforced poly(ether ether ketone) (CFR-PEEK) is known as a super engineering plastic that has great mechanical strength. In this study, we focused on poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC)-grafted CFR-PEEK and investigated the effects of PMPC grafting and the femoral heads materials on the wear properties of CFR-PEEK liners...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484469/long-term-overgrazing-induced-memory-decreases-photosynthesis-of-clonal-offspring-in-a-perennial-grassland-plant
#20
Weibo Ren, Ningning Hu, Xiangyang Hou, Jize Zhang, Huiqin Guo, Zhiying Liu, Lingqi Kong, Zinian Wu, Hui Wang, Xiliang Li
Previous studies of transgenerational plasticity have demonstrated that long-term overgrazing experienced by Leymus chinensis, an ecologically dominant, rhizomatous grass species in eastern Eurasian temperate grassland, significantly affects its clonal growth in subsequent generations. However, there is a dearth of information on the reasons underlying this overgrazing-induced memory effect in plant morphological plasticity. We characterized the relationship between a dwarf phenotype and photosynthesis function decline of L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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