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Morphological plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646780/sem-eds-and-optical-microscopy-analyses-of-microplastics-in-ocean-trawl-and-fish-guts
#1
Zhong-Min Wang, Jeff Wagner, Sutapa Ghosal, Gagandeep Bedi, Stephen Wall
Microplastic particles from Atlantic and Pacific Ocean trawls, lab-fed fish guts and ocean fish guts have been characterized using optical microscopy and SEM/EDS in terms of size, morphology, and chemistry. We assessed whether these measurements could serve as a rapid screening process for subsequent identification of the likely microplastic candidates by micro-spectroscopy. Optical microscopy enabled morphological classification of the types of particles or fibers present in the sample, as well as the quantification of particle size ranges and fiber lengths...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646317/di-n-butyl-phthalate-prompts-interruption-of-spermatogenesis-steroidogenesis-and-fertility-associated-with-increased-testicular-oxidative-stress-in-adult-male-rats
#2
Giribabu Nelli, Sreenivasula Reddy Pamanji
Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is extensively used as plasticizer, and it was ubiquitary released into the environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of DBP on reproductive competence in adult male rats. Adult male rats were received corn oil or DBP injection intraperitoneally (ip) at 100 and 500 mg/kg body weight on 90, 97, 104, and 111 days. Following completion of the experimental period, adult male rats were cohabitated with untreated proestrus female rats for determination of fertilization capacity...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646147/whole-organ-vascular-casting-and-microct-examination-of-the-human-placental-vascular-tree-reveals-novel-alterations-associated-with-pregnancy-disease
#3
Toluwalope O Junaid, Robert S Bradley, Rohan M Lewis, John D Aplin, Edward D Johnstone
Experimental methods that allow examination of the intact vascular network of large organs, such as the human placenta are limited, preventing adequate comparison of normal and abnormal vascular development in pregnancy disease. Our aims were (i) to devise an effective technique for three-dimensional analyses of human placental vessels; (ii) demonstrate the utility of the technique in the comparison of placental vessel networks in normal and fetal growth restriction (FGR) complicated pregnancies. Radiopaque plastic vessel networks of normal and FGR placentas (n = 12/group) were created by filling the vessels with resin and corroding the surrounding tissues...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642683/object-phobia-and-altered-rhoa-signaling-in-amygdala-of-mice-lacking-rich2
#4
Tasnuva Sarowar, Stefanie Grabrucker, Tobias M Boeckers, Andreas M Grabrucker
RICH2 knockout (RICH2 KO) mice exhibit neophobia in the novel object test. To gain further insight into their anxiety-related phenotype, we subjected these mice to additional behavioral tests to elucidate whether the behavioral abnormality in these mice is a consequence of reduced exploratory motivation, and whether the neophobia is linked specifically to objects or also present for other modalities. RICH2 KO mice engage in normal exploration in a novel environment, suggesting that the anxiety-related phenotype is not due to reduced exploratory drive...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641933/the-role-of-sleep-in-regulating-structural-plasticity-and-synaptic-strength-implications-for-memory-and-cognitive-function
#5
REVIEW
Frank Raven, Eddy A Van der Zee, Peter Meerlo, Robbert Havekes
Dendritic spines are the major sites of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. Alterations in the strength of synaptic connections directly affect the neuronal communication, which is crucial for brain function as well as the processing and storage of information. Sleep and sleep loss bidirectionally alter structural plasticity, by affecting spine numbers and morphology, which ultimately can affect the functional output of the brain in terms of alertness, cognition, and mood. Experimental data from studies in rodents suggest that sleep deprivation may impact structural plasticity in different ways...
May 18, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640353/ecology-of-the-non-native-snail-sinotaia-cf-quadrata-caenogastropoda-viviparidae-a-study-in-a-lowland-stream-of-south-america-with-different-water-qualities
#6
Ana Clara Ferreira, Estefanía L Paz, Alejandra Rumi, Carolina Ocon, Paula Altieri, Alberto Rodrigues Capítulo
Sinotaia quadrata is a snail native from Asia recorded for the first time in South America in 2009 in central Argentina. In 2015, this species was also found in a lowland stream with different water qualities. Our aims were to contribute to the knowledge of its population ecology and to compare the individuals from the two locations anatomically. Snails were searched at 6 sites, where physicochemical and hydraulic parameters were measured. Biological samples were also taken at two sites (S3 and S4) to study the population traits of S...
April 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637836/bacterial-cellulose-shifts-transcriptome-and-proteome-of-cultured-endothelial-cells-towards-native-differentiation
#7
Gerhard Feil, Ralf Horres, Julia Schulte, Andreas F Mack, Svenja Petzoldt, Caroline Arnold, Chen Meng, Lukas Jost, Jochen Boxleitner, Nicole Kiessling-Wolf, Ender Serbest, Dominic Helm, Bernhard Kuster, Isabel Hartmann, Thomas Korff, Hannes Hahne
Preserving the native phenotype of primary cells in vitro is a complex challenge. Recently, hydrogel-based cellular matrices have evolved as alternatives to conventional cell culture techniques. We developed a bacterial cellulose-based aqueous gel-like biomaterial, dubbed Xellulin, which mimics a cellular microenvironment and seems to maintain the native phenotype of cultured and primary cells. When applied to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), it allowed the continuous cultivation of cell monolayers for more than one year without degradation or dedifferentiation...
June 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637318/experience-dependent-regulation-of-cajal-retzius-cell-networks-in-the-developing-and-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#8
Max Anstötz, Sun Kyong Lee, Tamra I Neblett, Gabriele M Rune, Gianmaria Maccaferri
In contrast to their near-disappearance in the adult neocortex, Cajal-Retzius cells have been suggested to persist longer in the hippocampus. A distinctive feature of the mature hippocampus, not maintained by other cortical areas, is its ability to sustain adult neurogenesis. Here, we have investigated whether environmental manipulations affecting hippocampal postnatal neurogenesis have a parallel impact on Cajal-Retzius cells. We used multiple mouse reporter lines to unequivocally identify Cajal-Retzius cells and quantify their densities during postnatal development...
June 16, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637203/morphological-diversity-strongly-constrains-synaptic-connectivity-and-plasticity
#9
Michael W Reimann, Anna-Lena Horlemann, Srikanth Ramaswamy, Eilif B Muller, Henry Markram
Synaptic connectivity between neurons is naturally constrained by the anatomical overlap of neuronal arbors, the space on the axon available for synapses, and by physiological mechanisms that form synapses at a subset of potential synapse locations. What is not known is how these constraints impact emergent connectivity in a circuit with diverse morphologies. We investigated the role of morphological diversity within and across neuronal types on emergent connectivity in a model of neocortical microcircuitry...
June 20, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623238/a-normal-genetic-variation-modulates-synaptic-mmp-9-protein-levels-and-the-severity-of-schizophrenia-symptoms
#10
Katarzyna Lepeta, Katarzyna J Purzycka, Katarzyna Pachulska-Wieczorek, Marina Mitjans, Martin Begemann, Behnam Vafadari, Krystian Bijata, Ryszard W Adamiak, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Magdalena Dziembowska, Leszek Kaczmarek
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has recently emerged as a molecule that contributes to pathological synaptic plasticity in schizophrenia, but explanation of the underlying mechanisms has been missing. In the present study, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in > 1,000 schizophrenia patients from the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) data collection and found an association between the MMP-9 rs20544 C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 3'untranslated region (UTR) and the severity of a chronic delusional syndrome...
June 16, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618206/grazing-of-leaf-associated-cercomonads-protists-rhizaria-cercozoa-structures-bacterial-community-composition-and-function
#11
Sebastian Flues, David Bass, Michael Bonkowski
Preferential food selection in protists is well documented, but we still lack basic understanding on how protist predation modifies the taxonomic and functional composition of bacterial communities. We conducted feeding trials using leaf-associated cercomonad Cercozoa by incubating them on a standardized, diverse bacterial community washed from plant leaves. We used a shotgun metagenomics approach to investigate the taxonomic and functional changes of the bacterial community after five days protist predation upon bacteria...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616672/biological-effects-of-silk-fibroin-3d-scaffolds-on-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-sheds
#12
M Collado-González, M P Pecci-Lloret, D García-Bernal, S Aznar-Cervantes, R E Oñate-Sánchez, J M Moraleda, J L Cenis, F J Rodríguez-Lozano
The aim is to investigate in vitro biological effects of silk fibroin 3D scaffolds on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) in terms of proliferation, morphological appearance, cell viability, and expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers. Silk fibroin 3D scaffolding materials may represent promising suitable scaffolds for their application in regenerative endodontic therapy approaches. SHEDs were cultured in silk fibroin 3D scaffolds. Then, cell numbers were counted and the Alamar blue colorimetric assay was used to analyse cell proliferation after 24, 48, 72, and 168 h of culture...
June 14, 2017: Odontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615717/image-based-machine-learning-for-identification-of-macrophage-subsets
#13
Hassan M Rostam, Paul M Reynolds, Morgan R Alexander, Nikolaj Gadegaard, Amir M Ghaemmaghami
Macrophages play a crucial rule in orchestrating immune responses against pathogens and foreign materials. Macrophages have remarkable plasticity in response to environmental cues and are able to acquire a spectrum of activation status, best exemplified by pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes at the two ends of the spectrum. Characterisation of M1 and M2 subsets is usually carried out by quantification of multiple cell surface markers, transcription factors and cytokine profiles. These approaches are time-consuming, require large numbers of cells and are resource intensive...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614694/the-flow-properties-and-presence-of-crystals-in-drug-polymer-mixtures-rheological-investigation-combined-with-light-microscopy
#14
J Aho, J Van Renterghem, L Arnfast, T De Beer, J Rantanen
The presence of solid matter in polymer melts affects the rheological properties of a drug-polymer mixture, and thus the processability of these mixtures in melt-based processes. The particle morphological changes related to dissolution and crystal growth in the mixtures of paracetamol and ibuprofen with polyethylene oxide and methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit(®) E PO) were observed by polarized microscopy simultaneously while measuring their rheological properties within temperature ranges relevant for melt processes, such as hot melt extrusion and fused deposition modeling 3D printing...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614425/polyploidy-as-a-chromosomal-component-of-stochastic-noise-variable-scalar-multiples-of-the-diploid-chromosome-complement-in-the-invertebrate-species-girardia-schubarti-from-brazil
#15
E G F Benya, A M Leal-Zanchet, J Hauser
Chromosome stoichiometry, a form of genetic plasticity, specifically refers to variation in the standard diploid genomic composition of an individual or species. In the present work, freshwater planarians (Girardia schubarti) were analyzed to recognize variations in chromosomal stoichiometry especially of complete ploidal change between specimens, within specimens and between cells within specimens and any relations they might have with selected components of phenotypic plasticity. Homoploid polyploids for the group reached rational scalar multiples (e...
June 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613376/genetic-variability-of-garlic-accessions-as-revealed-by-agro-morphological-traits-evaluated-under-different-environments
#16
E S S Hoogerheide, J A Azevedo Filho, R Vencovsky, M I Zucchi, B W Zago, J B Pinheiro
The cultivated garlic (Allium sativum L.) displays a wide phenotypic diversity, which is derived from natural mutations and phenotypic plasticity, due to dependence on soil type, moisture, latitude, altitude and cultural practices, leading to a large number of cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the genetic variability shown by 63 garlic accessions belonging to Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and the Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" germplasm collections. We evaluated ten quantitative characters in experimental trials conducted under two localities of the State of São Paulo: Monte Alegre do Sul and Piracicaba, during the agricultural year of 2007, in a randomized blocks design with five replications...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611359/chloroplast-genomic-resource-of-paris-for-species-discrimination
#17
Yun Song, Shaojun Wang, Yuanming Ding, Jin Xu, Ming Fu Li, Shuifang Zhu, Naizhong Chen
Paris is famous in China for its medicinal value and has been included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Inaccurate identification of these species could confound their effective exploration, conservation, and domestication. Due to the plasticity of the morphological characteristics, correct identification among Paris species remains problematic. In this regard, we report the complete chloroplast genome of P. thibetica and P. rugosa to develop highly variable molecular markers. Comparing three chloroplast genomes, we sought out the most variable regions to develop the best cpDNA barcodes for Paris...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607171/astrocyte-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-protects-synapses-against-a%C3%AE-oligomers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model
#18
Luan Pereira Diniz, Vanessa Tortelli, Isadora Matias, Juliana Morgado, Ana Paula Bérgamo Araujo, Helen M Melo, Gisele S Seixas da Silva, Soniza V Alves-Leon, Jorge M de Souza, Sergio T Ferreira, Fernanda G De Felice, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, increasingly attributed to neuronal dysfunction induced by amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs). Although the impact of AβOs on neurons has been extensively studied, only recently have the possible effects of AβOs on astrocytes begun to be investigated. Given the key roles of astrocytes in synapse formation, plasticity and function, we sought to investigate the impact of AβOs on astrocytes, and to determine if this impact is related to the deleterious actions of AβOs on synapses...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607044/regulation-of-spinogenesis-in-mature-purkinje-cells-via-mglur-pkc-mediated-phosphorylation-of-camkii%C3%AE
#19
Takeyuki Sugawara, Chihiro Hisatsune, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Naoko Ogawa, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
Dendritic spines of Purkinje cells form excitatory synapses with parallel fiber terminals, which are the primary sites for cerebellar synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, how density and morphology of these spines are properly maintained in mature Purkinje cells is not well understood. Here we show an activity-dependent mechanism that represses excessive spine development in mature Purkinje cells. We found that CaMKIIβ promotes spine formation and elongation in Purkinje cells through its F-actin bundling activity...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605033/the-befuddling-nature-of-mouse-lemur-hands-and-feet-at-bez%C3%A3-mahafaly-sw-madagascar
#20
Gina Agostini, Emilienne Rasoazanabary, Laurie R Godfrey
The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
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