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Morphological plasticity

K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Michael M Kasumovic, Zhiliang Chen, Marc R Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Ecological and evolutionary model organisms have provided extensive insight into the ecological triggers, adaptive benefits, and evolution of life-history driven developmental plasticity. Despite this, we still have a poor understanding of the underlying genetic changes that occur during shifts towards different developmental trajectories. The goal of this study is to determine whether we can identify underlying gene expression patterns that can describe the different life-history trajectories individuals follow in response to social cues of competition...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
Kokkarachedu Varaprasad, Manuel Pariguana, Gownolla Malegowd Raghavendra, Tippabattini Jayaramudu, Emmanuel Rotimi Sadiku
The present investigation describes the development of metal-oxide polymer nanocomposite films from biodegradable poly-ε-caprolactone, disposed poly(ethylene terephthalate) oil bottles monomer and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles. The terephthalic acid and zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by using a temperature-dependent precipitation technique and double precipitation method, respectively. The terephthalic acid synthesized was confirmed by FTIR analysis and furthermore, it was characterized by thermal analysis...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Muhammad Shoaib Butt, Jing Bai, Xiaofeng Wan, Chenglin Chu, Feng Xue, Hongyan Ding, Guanghong Zhou
Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yamila V Vazquez, Silvia E Barbosa
The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves...
October 18, 2016: Waste Management
Sylwia Szotek, Joanna Dawidowicz, Brian Eyden, Natalia Matysiak, Aleksander Czogalla, Grzegorz Dudzik, Anna Leśniewicz, Krzysztof Maksymowicz
Fascia lata is an important element of the fascial system, which forms the continuum of connective tissue throughout the body. This deep fascia envelops the entire thigh and hip area and its main function is to transmit mechanical forces generated by the musculoskeletal system of the lower extremities. Fascia lata is also known as a useful and easily harvested graft material. Despite its crucial role in lower extremity biomechanics and wide-ranging applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, both the structure of fascia lata and particularly the cells populating this tissue are relatively unexplored and therefore poorly understood...
October 20, 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Jedsada Sukantamala, Kong-Wah Sing, Narong Jaturas, Raxsina Polseela, John-James Wilson
Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity...
October 19, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Michael Poteser, Gerd Leitinger, Elisabeth Pritz, Dieter Platzer, Irene Frischauf, Christoph Romanin, Klaus Groschner
Nanometer-spaced appositions between endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane (ER-PM junctions) stabilized by membrane-joining protein complexes are critically involved in cellular Ca(2+)-handling and lipid trafficking. ER-PM junctional architecture and plasticity associated with inter-membrane communication are as yet barely understood. Here, we introduce a method to precisely characterize ER-PM junction morphology and dynamics with high temporal resolution and minimal disturbance of junctional intermembrane communication...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jamie Y Kim, Chung H Kau, Terpsithea Christou, Maja Ovsenik, Young Guk Park
: The purpose of this study is to compare 3-dimensional facial averages of Asians (Koreans and Chinese) and Houstonian white faces using a (3-dimensional) surface imaging system. METHODS: Three-dimensional images of Korean adults (Seoul, Korea) with class I malocclusion captured using the 3dMDface. The images of 138 Koreans were processed to generate average male and female facial shells using Rapidform 2006 plus pack 2 software and then superimposed and compared with the average shells of Chinese adults (Xi' An, China) and white adults (Houston, Tex...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Rafael C Duarte, Martin Stevens, Augusto A V Flores
BACKGROUND: Colour and shape polymorphisms are important features of many species and may allow individuals to exploit a wider array of habitats, including through behavioural differences among morphs. In addition, differences among individuals in behaviour and morphology may reflect different strategies, for example utilising different approaches to camouflage. Hippolyte obliquimanus is a small shrimp species inhabiting different shallow-water vegetated habitats. Populations comprise two main morphs: homogeneous shrimp of variable colour (H) and transparent individuals with coloured stripes (ST)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Eamonn B Mallon, Harindra E Amarasinghe, Swidbert R Ott
Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) show a dramatic form of socially induced phenotypic plasticity known as phase polyphenism. In the absence of conspecifics, locusts occur in a shy and cryptic solitarious phase. Crowding with conspecifics drives a behavioural transformation towards gregariousness that occurs within hours and is followed by changes in physiology, colouration and morphology, resulting in the full gregarious phase syndrome. We analysed methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphisms (MS-AFLP) to compare the effect of acute and chronic crowding on DNA methylation in the central nervous system...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Donatas Samsanavičius, Vygintas Kaikaris, Simonas-Jonas Norvydas, Rokas Liubauskas, Skaidra Valiukevičienė, Jurgita Makštienė, Kęstutis Maslauskas, Rytis Rimdeika
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is a malignant epithelial cell tumor. CSCC has a tendency to spread via lymphogenic pathway. Metastases are found in 2%-6% of cases. Prognosis of patients with CSCC is directly related to the morphology and localization of primary tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recurrence-free survival of patients with CSCC after tumor excision and SLNB as well as to analyze morphologic CSCC features related to patient recurrence-free survival...
September 28, 2016: Medicina
W Ma, B St-Jacques, U Rudakou, Y N Kim
BACKGROUND: Persistent peripheral sensitization contributes to chronic pain. Plasticity of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (nociceptors) induced by pro-inflammatory mediators contributes to sensitization. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enriched in injured tissues is known not only directly to sensitize DRG neurons, but also to potentiate sensitizing effects of other pain mediators such as capsaicin and its receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). It remains unknown whether PGE2 potentiates TRPV1 activity by stimulating its synthesis, cell surface and axonal trafficking in DRG neurons...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Kerstin Kick, Katharina Nekolla, Markus Rehberg, Angelika M Vollmar, Stefan Zahler
OBJECTIVE: Cell-matrix interactions are crucial for regulating cellular activities, such as migration. This is of special importance for morphogenic processes, such as angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels). Most of our understanding of cell migration relies on 2-dimensional (2D) experiments. However, the awareness that 3D settings might elicit different results has increased. Knowledge about endothelial cell (EC) behavior in 3D environments and the influence of matrix composition on EC migration, in particular, is still limited...
October 13, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Marianna Zanatelli, Ana M G Custodio, Manoel F Biancardi, Fernanda C A Santos, Rejane M Góes, Luiz R Falleiros-Jr, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
The female prostate is a reproductive gland that typically presents a morphology similar to that of the male gland and is highly developed in female Mongolian gerbils. Two main cell populations compose the epithelium gland: basal and secretory luminal cells. However, during postnatal development, diverse secretory cell phenotypes are distributed among the typical ones. Prostate homeostasis is under the control of sexual hormones, such as oestrogen and progesterone. After hormonal deprivation the female gland undergoes several morphophysiological changes...
October 14, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Richard L Jantz, Lee Meadows Jantz
Secular changes in stature, weight, or other components of the body that can be obtained from historical records have been extensively studied. Cranial change has been central to anthropology for more than a century, but the focus has normally been on change measured in centuries or millennia. Cranial change measured in decades, normally considered to result from plastic response to the environment, has been less studied. This article reports on change in cranial vault dimensions in white Americans. Variables were glabello-occipital length (GOL), basion-bregma height (BBH), basion-nasion length (BNL), maximum cranial breadth (XCB), and biauricular breadth (AUB)...
January 2016: Human Biology
Minhan Ka, Yeon-Hee Kook, Ke Liao, Shilpa Buch, Woo-Yang Kim
Cocaine is a highly addictive narcotic associated with dendritic spine plasticity in the striatum. However, it remains elusive whether cocaine modifies spines in a cell type-specific or region-specific manner or whether it alters different types of synapses in the brain. In addition, there is a paucity of data on the regulatory mechanism(s) involved in cocaine-induced modification of spine density. In the current study, we report that cocaine exposure differentially alters spine density, spine morphology, and the types of synapses in hippocampal and cortical neurons...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
A Leyte-Manrique, U Hernández-Salinas, A Ramírez-Bautista, V Mata-Silva, J C Marshall
Studies on habitat use have often helped explain observed variation in morphology, behavior, and reproductive characteristics among populations within a single species. Here we analyze morphological and ecological characteristics of individuals from the Sceloporus grammicus species complex from seven different localities (El Cerezo: CER, Pachuca: PAC, Huichapan: HUI, Emiliano Zapata: EZA, San Miguel Regla: SMR, La Mojonera: LMJ, and La Manzana: LMZ) in the state of Hidalgo, and one locality (Cahuacán) in the State of México...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Tatyana Darienko, Lydia Gustavs, Thomas Pröschold
The genera Elliptochloris and Pseudochlorella were erected for Chlorella-like green algae producing two types of autospores and cell packages, respectively. Both genera are widely distributed in different soil habitats, either free-living or as photobionts of lichens. The species of these genera are often difficult to identify because of the high phenotypic plasticity and sometimes lack of characteristic features. The taxonomic and nomenclatural status of these species therefore remains unclear. In this study, 34 strains were investigated using an integrative approach...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Rony Huys, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, María de Lourdes Serrano-Sánchez, Elena Centeno-García, Francisco J Vega
Copepods are aquatic microcrustaceans and represent the most abundant metazoans on Earth, outnumbering insects and nematode worms. Their position of numerical world predominance can be attributed to three principal radiation events, i.e. their major habitat shift into the marine plankton, the colonization of freshwater and semiterrestrial environments, and the evolution of parasitism. Their variety of life strategies has generated an incredible morphological plasticity and disparity in body form and shape that are arguably unrivalled among the Crustacea...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
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