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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149234/calcium-dependent-hydrolysis-of-supported-planar-lipids-was-triggered-by-honey-bee-venom-phospholipase-a2-with-the-right-orientation-at-the-interface
#1
Siqi Kai, Xu Li, Bolin Li, Xiaofeng Han, Xiaolin Lu
Hydrolysis of planar phospholipids catalyzed by honey bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) was studied. Experiments demonstrated that Ca(2+) ions mediated between the lipids and bvPLA2, induced reorientation of bvPLA2, and activated hydrolysis. One of the hydrolysis products, fatty acids, was desorbed, and the other one, lysophospholipids, self-organized at the interface.
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147977/are-isomeric-alkenes-used-in-species-recognition-among-neo-tropical-stingless-bees-melipona-spp
#2
Stephen J Martin, Sue Shemilt, Cândida B da S Lima, Carlos A L de Carvalho
Our understanding of the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) in recognition is based largely on temperate ant species and honey bees. The stingless bees remain relatively poorly studied, despite being the largest group of eusocial bees, comprising more than 400 species in some 60 genera. The Meliponini and Apini diverged between 80-130 Myr B.P. so the evolutionary trajectories that shaped the chemical communication systems in ants, honeybees and stingless bees may be very different. The aim of this study was to study if a unique species CHC signal existed in Neotropical stingless bees, as has been shown for many temperate species, and what compounds are involved...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147780/the-effect-of-removing-numerically-dominant-non-native-honey-bees-on-seed-set-of-a-native-plant
#3
Annika J Nabors, Henry J Cen, Keng-Lou J Hung, Joshua R Kohn, David A Holway
Pollination services are compromised by habitat destruction, land-use intensification, pesticides, and introduced species. How pollination services respond to such stressors depends on the capacity of pollinator assemblages to function in the face of environmental disruption. Here, we quantify how pollination services provided to a native plant change upon removal of the non-native, western honey bee (Apis mellifera)-a numerically dominant floral visitor in the native bee-rich ecosystems of southern California...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145627/bacterial-communities-associated-with-the-ectoparasitic-mites-varroa-destructor-and-tropilaelaps-mercedesae-of-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#4
Chonthicha Pakwan, Martin Kaltenpoth, Benjamin Weiss, Panuwan Chantawannakul, Guo Jun, Terd Disayathanoowat
Varroa and Tropilaelaps mites have been reported as serious ectoparasites of honey bees (Apis mellifera). In this study, bacterial communities associated with Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps mercedesae from Northern Thailand were determined, using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Adult female mites were collected from apiaries in Chiang Mai and Lampang provinces. Culturable bacteria were isolated from individual mites. On average, we observed approximately 1340 and 1140 CFU/mite in Varroa and Tropilaelaps, respectively...
November 14, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143171/neonicotinoid-insecticides-in-pollen-honey-and-adult-bees-in-colonies-of-the-european-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-in-egypt
#5
Garry Codling, Yahya Al Naggar, John P Giesy, Albert J Robertson
Honeybee losses have been attributed to multiple stressors and factors including the neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs). Much of the study of hive contamination has been focused upon temperate regions such as Europe, Canada and the United States. This study looks for the first time at honey, pollen and bees collected from across the Nile Delta in Egypt in both the spring and summer planting season of 2013. There is limited information upon the frequency of use of NIs in Egypt but the ratio of positive identification and concentrations of NIs are comparable to other regions...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141565/radio-modulatory-potential-ofcaffeic-acid-phenethyl-ester-a-therapeutic-perspective
#6
Km Anjaly, Ashu Tiku
Use of natural agents is an upcoming area of research in cancer biology. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester has received great attention because of its therapeutic potential in various conditions including cancer. It is an active/abundant component of propolis. Propolis is a honey bee hive product produced by bees using their enzyme-rich digestive secretions on resinous mix, bee wax and pollen from plants. It is used to protect the beehive against bacteria and other infections.Although a lot of work has been done on chemotherapeutic aspects of CAPE, its role as a radiomodulator is yet to be delineated...
November 13, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138626/efficient-method-for-the-rapid-purification-of-nosema-ceranae-spores
#7
Dong-Jun Kim, Hwi-Geon Yun, In-Hui Kim, Won-Seok Gwak, Soo-Dong Woo
Nosema ceranae is an obligate intracellular fungal parasite that causes mortality in honey bees and enhances the susceptibility of honey bees to other pathogens. Efficient purification of Nosema spores from the midgut of infected honey bees is very important because Nosema is non-culturable and only seasonably available. To achieve a higher yield of spores from honey bees, in this study, we considered that the initial release of spores from the midgut tissues was the most critical step. The use of 2 mm beads along with enzymatic treatment with collagenase and trypsin enhanced the homogenization of tissues and the yield of released spores by approximately 2...
September 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134493/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-select-macrocyclic-lactones-insecticides-on-forager-worker-honey-bees-under-laboratory-experimental-conditions
#8
Gamal A M Abdu-Allah, Barry R Pittendrigh
Selective insecticide application is one important strategy for more precisely targeting harmful insects while avoiding or mitigating collateral damage to beneficial insects like honey bees. Recently, macrocyclic lactone-class insecticides have been introduced into the market place as selective bio-insecticides for controlling many arthropod pests, but how to target this selectivity only to harmful insects has yet to be achieved. In this study, the authors investigated the acute toxicity of fourmacrocyclic lactone insecticides (commercialized as abamectin, emamectin benzoate, spinetoram, and spinosad) both topically and through feeding studies with adult forager honey bees...
November 13, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133661/the-sting-of-a-honey-bee-an-unusual-subconjunctival-foreign-body
#9
Sushank A Bhalerao, Prabhakar Singh, Padmaja Kumari Rani, Varsha Rathi
Ocular foreign bodies (FBs) are often encountered in clinical practices. However, there are cases in which the presence of the FB is difficult to diagnose based on mere history taking and/or clinical examination. We herein present a case of unusual subconjunctival foreign body in the form of the sting of a honey bee in a 63-year-old farmer. This was removed from the superior forniceal subconjunctival space in toto with forceps under a microscope in the operation theater. This case emphasizes the need to elicit a complete history and a careful ocular examination with double eversion of the eyelid to avoid missing any foreign body lodged in the fornices and subconjunctival space in patients who complained of foreign body sensation...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133226/the-effect-of-dietary-neonicotinoid-pesticides-on-non-flight-thermogenesis-in-worker-bumble-bees-bombus-terrestris
#10
Robert Potts, Rebecca M Clarke, Sophie E Oldfield, Lisa K Wood, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, James E Cresswell
For bumble bees (genus Bombus), the capacity for non-flight thermogenesis is essential for two fundamental processes undertaken by adult workers, namely recovery from torpor after chilling and brood incubation. Farmland bees can be widely exposed to dietary residues of neurotoxic neonicotinoid insecticides that appear in the nectar and pollen of treated bee-attractive crops, which may harm them. An earlier study shows that dietary neonicotinoids cause complex alterations to thermoregulation in honey bees, but their effects on the thermogenic capabilities of individual bumble bees has been untested previously...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126172/native-honey-bees-outperform-adventive-honey-bees-in-increasing-pyrus-bretschneideri-rosales-rosaceae-pollination
#11
Tolera Kumsa Gemeda, Youquan Shao, Wenqin Wu, Huipeng Yang, Jiaxing Huang, Jie Wu
The foraging behavior of different bee species is a key factor influencing the pollination efficiency of different crops. Most pear species exhibit full self-incompatibility and thus depend entirely on cross-pollination. However, as little is known about the pear visitation preferences of native Apis cerana (Fabricius; Hymenoptera: Apidae) and adventive Apis mellifera (L.; Hymenoptera: Apidae) in China. A comparative analysis was performed to explore the pear-foraging differences of these species under the natural conditions of pear growing areas...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125851/new-evidence-showing-that-the-destruction-of-gut-bacteria-by-antibiotic-treatment-could-increase-the-honey-bee-s-vulnerability-to-nosema-infection
#12
Jiang Hong Li, Jay D Evans, Wen Feng Li, Ya Zhou Zhao, Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Shao Kang Huang, Zhi Guo Li, Michele Hamilton, Yan Ping Chen
It has become increasingly clear that gut bacteria play vital roles in the development, nutrition, immunity, and overall fitness of their eukaryotic hosts. We conducted the present study to investigate the effects of gut microbiota disruption on the honey bee's immune responses to infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae. Newly emerged adult workers were collected and divided into four groups: Group I-no treatment; Group II-inoculated with N. ceranae, Group III-antibiotic treatment, and Group IV-antibiotic treatment after inoculation with N...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124866/characterization-of-the-toxin-plx2a-a-rhoa-targeting-adp-ribosyltransferase-produced-by-the-honey-bee-pathogen-paenibacillus-larvae
#13
Julia Ebeling, Anne Fünfhaus, Henriette Knispel, Dan Krska, Ravikiran Ravulapalli, Kayla A Heney, Miguel R Lugo, A Rod Merrill, Elke Genersch
The toxin Plx2A is an important virulence factor of Paenibacillus larvae, the etiological agent of American Foulbrood, the most destructive bacterial disease of honey bees. Biochemical and functional analyses as well as the crystal structure of Plx2A revealed that it belongs to the C3 mono-ADP-ribosylating toxin subgroup. RhoA was identified as the cellular target of Plx2A activity. The kinetic parameters (KM, kcat) were established for both the transferase and glycohydrolase (GH) reactions. When expressed in yeast, Plx2A was cytotoxic for eukaryotic cells and catalytic variants confirmed that the cytotoxicity of Plx2A depends on its enzymatic activity...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123189/a-common-neonicotinoid-pesticide-thiamethoxam-alters-honey-bee-activity-motor-functions-and-movement-to-light
#14
S Tosi, J C Nieh
Honey bees provide key ecosystem services. To pollinate and to sustain the colony, workers must walk, climb, and use phototaxis as they move inside and outside the nest. Phototaxis, orientation to light, is linked to sucrose responsiveness and the transition of work from inside to outside the nest, and is also a key component of division of labour. However, the sublethal effects of pesticides on locomotion and movement to light are relatively poorly understood. Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a common neonicotinoid pesticide that bees can consume in nectar and pollen...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118416/protein-nutrition-governs-within-host-race-of-honey-bee-pathogens
#15
Manuel Tritschler, Jutta J Vollmann, Orlando Yañez, Nor Chejanovsky, Karl Crailsheim, Peter Neumann
Multiple infections are common in honey bees, Apis mellifera, but the possible role of nutrition in this regard is poorly understood. Microsporidian infections, which are promoted by protein-fed, can negatively correlate with virus infections, but the role of protein nutrition for the microsporidian-virus interface is unknown. Here, we challenged naturally deformed wing virus - B (DWV-B) infected adult honey bee workers fed with or without pollen ( = protein) in hoarding cages, with the microsporidian Nosema ceranae...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117379/inhibitory-effect-of-indole-analogs-against-paenibacillus-larvae-the-causal-agent-of-american-foulbrood-disease
#16
Israel Alvarado, Joseph W Margotta, Mai M Aoki, Fernando Flores, Fresia Agudelo, Guillermo Michel, Michelle M Elekonich, Ernesto Abel-Santos
Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive bacterium, causes American foulbrood (AFB) in honey bee larvae (Apis mellifera Linnaeus [Hymenoptera: Apidae]). P. larvae spores exit dormancy in the gut of bee larvae, the germinated cells proliferate, and ultimately bacteremia kills the host. Hence, spore germination is a required step for establishing AFB disease. We previously found that P. larvae spores germinate in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid in vitro. Additionally, we determined that indole and phenol blocked spore germination...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117371/influence-of-the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiamethoxam-on-mirna-expression-in-the-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae
#17
Teng-Fei Shi, Yu-Fei Wang, Fang Liu, Lei Qi, Lin-Sheng Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding single-stranded RNAs regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. They play important roles in regulating caste differentiation, behavior development, and immune defences in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus) (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In this study, we explored the effect of the neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, on miRNA expression in this species using deep small RNA sequencing. The results showed that seven miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed (q-value <0...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117233/dietary-amino-acid-and-vitamin-complex-protects-honey-bee-from-immunosuppression-caused-by-nosema-ceranae
#18
Uros Glavinic, Biljana Stankovic, Vladimir Draskovic, Jevrosima Stevanovic, Tamas Petrovic, Nada Lakic, Zoran Stanimirovic
Microsporidium Nosema ceranae is well known for exerting a negative impact on honey bee health, including down-regulation of immunoregulatory genes. Protein nutrition has been proven to have beneficial effects on bee immunity and other aspects of bee health. Bearing this in mind, the aim of our study was to evaluate the potential of a dietary amino acid and vitamin complex "BEEWELL AminoPlus" to protect honey bees from immunosuppression induced by N. ceranae. In a laboratory experiment bees were infected with N...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114209/the-biogenic-amine-tyramine-and-its-receptor-amtyr1-in-olfactory-neuropils-in-the-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-brain
#19
Irina T Sinakevitch, Sasha M Daskalova, Brian H Smith
This article describes the cellular sources for tyramine and the cellular targets of tyramine via the Tyramine Receptor 1 (AmTyr1) in the olfactory learning and memory neuropils of the honey bee brain. Clusters of approximately 160 tyramine immunoreactive neurons are the source of tyraminergic fibers with small varicosities in the optic lobes, antennal lobes, lateral protocerebrum, mushroom body (calyces and gamma lobes), tritocerebrum and subesophageal ganglion (SEG). Our tyramine mapping study shows that the primary sources of tyramine in the antennal lobe and calyx of the mushroom body are from at least two Ventral Unpaired Median neurons (VUMmd and VUMmx) with cell bodies in the SEG...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113738/quantitative-pcr-assessment-of-lotmaria-passim-in-apis-mellifera-colonies-co-infected-naturally-with-nosema-ceranae
#20
Branislav Vejnovic, Jevrosima Stevanovic, Ryan S Schwarz, Nevenka Aleksic, Milorad Mirilovic, Nemanja M Jovanovic, Zoran Stanimirovic
A recently described trypanosomatid species Lotmaria passim and the microsporidium Nosema ceranae infect the honey bee (Apis mellifera), but the interspecific dynamic of these two common gut parasites is unknown. In this study, a real-time qPCR assay was developed to enable the specific detection and quantification of L. passim. The annual dynamics of N. ceranae and L. passim infections were evaluated in ten A. mellifera colonies naturally infected with both parasites at one apiary in Serbia from March 2016 to March 2017...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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