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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339344/analysis-and-evaluation-of-neuro-peptides-in-honey-bees-exposed-to-pesticides-in-field-conditions
#1
María Del Mar Gómez-Ramos, María José Gómez Ramos, María Martínez Galera, María Dolores Gil García, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
During the last years, declines in honey bee colonies are being registered worldwide. Cholinergic pesticides and their extensive use have been correlated to the decline of pollinators and there is evidence that pesticides act as neuroendocrine disruptors affecting the metabolism of neuropeptides. However, there is a big absence of studies with quantitative results correlating the effect of pesticide exposure with changes on neuropeptides insects, and most of them are conducted under laboratory conditions, typically with individual active ingredients...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330449/lithium-chloride-effectively-kills-the-honey-bee-parasite-varroa-destructor-by-a-systemic-mode-of-action
#2
Bettina Ziegelmann, Elisabeth Abele, Stefan Hannus, Michaela Beitzinger, Stefan Berg, Peter Rosenkranz
Honey bees are increasingly important in the pollination of crops and wild plants. Recent reports of the weakening and periodical high losses of managed honey bee colonies have alarmed beekeeper, farmers and scientists. Infestations with the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in combination with its associated viruses have been identified as a crucial driver of these health problems. Although yearly treatments are required to prevent collapses of honey bee colonies, the number of effective acaricides is small and no new active compounds have been registered in the past 25 years...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325643/the-secret-life-of-exosomes-what-bees-can-teach-us-about-next-generation-therapeutics
#3
REVIEW
Eduardo Marbán
Mechanistic exploration has pinpointed nanosized extracellular vesicles, known as exosomes, as key mediators of the benefits of cell therapy. Exosomes appear to recapitulate the benefits of cells and more. As durable azoic entities, exosomes have numerous practical and conceptual advantages over cells. Will cells end up just being used to manufacture exosomes, or will they find lasting value as primary therapeutic agents? Here, a venerable natural process-the generation of honey-serves as an instructive parable...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324841/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-nurses-do-not-consume-pollens-based-on-their-nutritional-quality
#4
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Lucy Snyder, Charlotte Meador, Trace Ayotte
Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy as to whether foragers can evaluate the nutritional value of pollens, especially if they do not consume it...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324040/neonicotinoids-and-other-insect-nicotinic-receptor-competitive-modulators-progress-and-prospects
#5
John E Casida
Neonicotinoids (neonics) are remarkably effective as plant systemics to control sucking insects and for flea control on dogs and cats. The nitroimines imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran are the leaders among the seven commercial neonics that also include the nitromethylene nitenpyram, the nitromethylene-derived cycloxaprid, and the cyanoimines acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Honey bees are highly sensitive to the nitroimines and nitromethylenes, but the cyanoimines are less toxic. All neonics are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists with a common mode of action, target-site cross-resistance, and much higher potency on insect than mammalian nAChRs at defined binding sites...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321884/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-environmental-landscape-in-honey-bees
#6
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Falk Hildebrand, Hasan Al Toufalilia, Nicholas J Balfour, Peer Bork, Philipp Engel, Francis Lw Ratnieks, William Oh Hughes
There is growing recognition that the gut microbial community regulates a wide variety of important functions in its animal hosts, including host health. However, the complex interactions between gut microbes and environment are still unclear. Honey bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that host a core gut microbial community that is thought to be constant across populations. Here, we examined whether the composition of the gut microbial community of honey bees is affected by the environmental landscape the bees are exposed to...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321298/the-worldwide-importance-of-honey-bees-as-pollinators-in-natural-habitats
#7
Keng-Lou James Hung, Jennifer M Kingston, Matthias Albrecht, David A Holway, Joshua R Kohn
The western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most frequent floral visitor of crops worldwide, but quantitative knowledge of its role as a pollinator outside of managed habitats is largely lacking. Here we use a global dataset of 80 published plant-pollinator interaction networks as well as pollinator effectiveness measures from 34 plant species to assess the importance of A. mellifera in natural habitats. Apis mellifera is the most frequent floral visitor in natural habitats worldwide, averaging 13% of floral visits across all networks (range 0-85%), with 5% of plant species recorded as being exclusively visited by A...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321240/pigment-dispersing-factor-expressing-neurons-convey-circadian-information-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#8
Katharina Beer, Esther Kolbe, Noa B Kahana, Nadav Yayon, Ron Weiss, Pamela Menegazzi, Guy Bloch, Charlotte Helfrich-Förster
Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is an important neuropeptide in the brain circadian network of Drosophila and other insects, but its role in bees in which the circadian clock influences complex behaviour is not well understood. We combined high-resolution neuroanatomical characterizations, quantification of PDF levels over the day and brain injections of synthetic PDF peptide to study the role of PDF in the honey bee Apis mellifera We show that PDF co-localizes with the clock protein Period (PER) in a cluster of laterally located neurons and that the widespread arborizations of these PER/PDF neurons are in close vicinity to other PER-positive cells (neurons and glia)...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319821/probiotic-potency-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-kx519413-and-kx519414-isolated-from-honey-bee-gut
#9
C Honey Chandran, T R Keerthi
The Indian honey bee-Apis cerana indica, which harbors an abundant and diverse range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in their gut with beneficial effects was used as the source for the isolation of LAB. In the present study, two LAB isolates from honey bee gut were selected primarily based on their phenotypic and selective biochemical characterization, further PCR and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum and were registered in National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession number KX519413 and KX519414...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315331/epormenis-cestri-secretions-in-sebastiania-schottiana-trees-cause-mass-death-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-larvae-in-uruguay
#10
Ciro Invernizzi, Enrique Nogueira, Pablo Juri, Estela Santos, Daniela Arredondo, Belén Branchiccela, Yamandú Mendoza, Karina Antúnez
For more than 60 years, sporadic cases of massive summer honey bee larvae mortality in colonies located near freshwater systems with abundant riparian vegetation have been reported in Uruguay. This odd phenomenon, known as "River disease" by beekeepers, can lead to colony death by depopulation. The aim of this study was to detect the causes of larvae death. Different experiments and analyses were performed using affected apiaries located between two important water courses. 1 day old larvae were the most susceptible and substances that killed the larvae were present in the nectar but not in the pollen...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309997/functional-roles-and-metabolic-niches-in-the-honey-bee-gut-microbiota
#11
REVIEW
Germán Bonilla-Rosso, Philipp Engel
Gut microbiota studies on diverse animals facilitate our understanding of the general principles governing microbiota-host interactions. The honey bee adds a relevant study system due to the simplicity and experimental tractability of its gut microbiota, but also because bees are important pollinators that suffer from population declines worldwide. The use of gnotobiotic bees combined with genetic tools, 'omics' analysis, and experimental microbiology has recently provided important insights about the impact of the microbiota on bee health and the general functioning of gut ecosystems...
January 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298300/neonicotinoid-residues-in-uk-honey-despite-european-union-moratorium
#12
Ben A Woodcock, Lucy Ridding, Stephen N Freeman, M Gloria Pereira, Darren Sleep, John Redhead, David Aston, Norman L Carreck, Richard F Shore, James M Bullock, Matthew S Heard, Richard F Pywell
Due to concerns over negative impacts on insect pollinators, the European Union has implemented a moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings for mass-flowering crops. We assessed the effectiveness of this policy in reducing the exposure risk to honeybees by collecting 130 samples of honey from bee keepers across the UK before (2014: N = 21) and after the moratorium was in effect (2015: N = 109). Neonicotinoids were present in about half of the honey samples taken before the moratorium, and they were present in over a fifth of honey samples following the moratorium...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291561/occurrence-of-agrochemical-residues-in-beeswax-samples-collected-in-italy-during-2013-2015
#13
Monia Perugini, Serena M R Tulini, Daniela Zezza, Stefano Fenucci, Annamaria Conte, Michele Amorena
Considering the importance of honey bees for pollination activity and biodiversity preservation different studies have dealt with the impact of pesticides on honeybee health. Within the hive, beeswax is a matrix of particular interest because most of the chemicals used in agricultural and beekeeping activities can easily accumulate and persist in this matrix long after treatment has ceased, affecting honeybees survival. However, chemical analyses of pesticide residues in beeswax are not mandatory, so there are no residue limits, for beeswax...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289505/impact-of-nosema-ceranae-and-nosema-apis-on-individual-worker-bees-of-the-two-host-species-apis-cerana-and-apis-mellifera-and-regulation-of-host-immune-response
#14
Chainarong Sinpoo, Robert J Paxton, Terd Disayathanoowat, Sasiprapa Krongdang, Panuwan Chantawannakul
Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting midgut epithelial cells of host adult honey bees, originally Apis mellifera and Apis cerana respectively. Each microsporidia cross-infects the other host and both microsporidia nowadays have a worldwide distribution. In this study, cross-infection experiments using both N. apis and N. ceranae in both A. mellifera and A. cerana were carried out to compare pathogen proliferation and impact on hosts, including host immune response...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287787/digestibility-and-nutritional-value-of-fresh-and-stored-pollen-for-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-scutellata
#15
Susan W Nicolson, Susana Da Silva Das Neves, Hannelie Human, Christian W W Pirk
Pollen, the main protein source for honey bees, is mixed with regurgitated nectar or honey during collection and then stored as 'bee bread' before its consumption, mainly by young nurse workers. It has been suggested that storage of pollen improves its nutritional value and digestibility, but there is little evidence for such changes. We fed two fresh pollen types of different protein content (aloe and sunflower), and two stored pollen types (sunflower and a mixed pollen), to young caged worker bees. We measured daily consumption of pollen and sucrose solution, and survival after 14 days...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287194/potential-role-of-propolis-in-wound-healing-biological-properties-and-therapeutic-activities
#16
REVIEW
Ahmad Oryan, Esmat Alemzadeh, Ali Moshiri
Propolis is a resinous mixture that honey bees collect from the tree buds, sap flows, or other botanical sources. The chemical composition of propolis varies and depends on the geographical area, time of collection, seasonality, illumination, altitude, and food availability during propolis exploitation. The goal of this review is to discuss important concepts including mechanisms of action and therapeutic activities of propolis. The PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for the literature published from January the 1st 2000 to October the 1st 2017...
December 26, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286367/monitoring-colony-level-effects-of-sublethal-pesticide-exposure-on-honey-bees
#17
William G Meikle, Milagra Weiss
The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure to honey bee colonies may be significant but difficult to detect in the field using standard visual assessment methods. Here we describe methods to measure the quantities of adult bees, brood, and food resources by weighing hives and hive parts, by photographing frames, and by installing hives on scales and with internal sensors. Data from these periodic evaluations are then combined with running average and daily detrended data on hive weight and internal hive temperature...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282526/triplex-real-time-pcr-for-detection-of-crithidia-mellificae-and-lotmaria-passim-in-honey-bees
#18
Guang Xu, Evan Palmer-Young, Kim Skyrm, Timothy Daly, Martha Sylvia, Anne Averill, Stephen Rich
Currently, light microscopic examination of cell morphology cannot discriminate Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim with 100% certainty. Here, a minor groove-binding (MGB) probe-based multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed for the simultaneous and quantitative detection of C. mellificae and L. passim in honey bees. A conserved Hymenoptera 18S rRNA gene was built in as an internal control that allows accurate detection of PCR inhibition and failure of DNA extraction. The newly developed assay was also applied to field samples...
December 27, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281653/genetic-diversity-and-differentiation-among-insular-honey-bee-populations-in-the-southwest-indian-ocean-likely-reflect-old-geographical-isolation-and-modern-introductions
#19
Maéva Angélique Techer, Johanna Clémencet, Christophe Simiand, Patrick Turpin, Lionel Garnery, Bernard Reynaud, Hélène Delatte
With globalization the Western honey bee has become a nearly cosmopolitan species, but it was originally restricted to the Old World. This renowned model of biodiversity has diverged into five evolutionary lineages and several geographic "subspecies." If Apis mellifera unicolor is indubitably an African subspecies endemic to Madagascar, its relationship with honey bees from three archipelagos in the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) hotspot of biodiversity is misunderstood. We compared recent mtDNA diversity data to an original characterization of the nuclear diversity from honey bees in the Mascarenes and Comoros archipelagos, using 14 microsatellites, but also additional mtDNA tRNALeu-cox2 analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280145/comparative-analysis-of-volatile-compound-profiles-of-propolis-from-different-provenances
#20
Lina G Mohtar, Sergio A Rodríguez, Mónica A Nazareno
BACKGROUND: Propolis is a complex mixture that honey bees produce from the exudates of various plants and presents many medicinal properties. Its chemical compositions varies according to the phytogeography characteristics of each region, among others. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in Venezuelan propolis and compare with reference samples such as Brazilian and Argentinian ones. RESULTS: A total of 90 VOCs were identified in a series of propolis samples using both Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) and Dynamic Headspace (DHS), both coupled to C-EI-MS...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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