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Honey bee

Catherine Jumarie, Philippe Aras, Monique Boily
The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees...
October 22, 2016: Chemosphere
Douglas B Sponsler, Reed M Johnson
The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. We submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: (1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees and (2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Zachary Y Huang, Stephanie Lin, Kiheung Ahn
Methoprene, a juvenile hormone (JH) analog, is a widely used insecticide that also accelerates behavioral development in honey bees (Apis mellifera). JH regulates the transition from nursing to foraging in adult worker bees, and treatment with JH or methoprene have both been shown to induce precocious foraging. To determine how methoprene changes honey bee behavior, we compared JH titers of methoprene-treated and untreated bees. Behavioral observations confirmed that methoprene treatment significantly increased the number of precocious foragers in 3 out of 4 colonies...
October 20, 2016: Insect Science
Guangda Peng, Makiko Kashio, Tianbang Li, Xiaofeng Dong, Makoto Tominaga, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki
The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) is conserved between many arthropods, and in some has been shown to function as a chemosensor for noxious compounds. Activation of arthropod TRPA1 channels by temperature fluctuations has been tested in only a few insect species, and all of them were shown to be activated by heat. The recent identification of chemosensitive TRPA1 channels from two honey bee ectoparasitic mite species (VdTRPA1 and TmTRPA1) have provided an opportunity to study the temperature-dependent activation and the temperature-associated physiological functions of TRPA1 channels in non-insect arthropods...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Gillian Hertlein, Marlene Seiffert, Sebastian Gensel, Eva Garcia-Gonzalez, Julia Ebeling, Ranko Skobalj, Anja Kuthning, Roderich D Süssmuth, Elke Genersch
The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is the causative agent of a deadly honey bee brood disease called American Foulbrood (AFB). AFB is a notifiable epizootic in most countries and, hence, P. larvae is of considerable relevance for veterinarians and apiculturists alike. Over the last decade, much progress has been made in the understanding of the (patho)biology of P. larvae. Recently, several non-ribosomally produced peptides (NRP) and peptide/polyketide (NRP/PK) hybrids produced by P...
2016: PloS One
Soledad Sagastume, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Mariano Higes, Nuno Henriques-Gil
BACKGROUND: There is great controversy as to whether Microsporidia undergo a sexual cycle. In the paradigmatic case of Nosema ceranae, although there is no morphological evidence of sex, some meiosis-specific genes are present in its reduced genome and there is also high intraspecific variability, with incongruent phylogenies having been systematically obtained. The possibility of sexual recombination is important from an epidemiological standpoint, particularly as N. ceranae is considered to be a major factor in the current disquieting epidemic of widespread bee colony losses...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Nadja Danner, Anna Maria Molitor, Susanne Schiele, Stephan Härtel, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) show a large variation in foraging distances and use a broad range of plant species as pollen resources, even in regions with intensive agriculture. However, it is unknown how increasing areas of mass-flowering crops like oilseed rape (Brassica napus; OSR) or a decrease of seminatural habitats (SNH) change the temporal and spatial availability of pollen resources for honey bee colonies, and thus foraging distances and frequency in different habitat types. We studied pollen foraging of honey bee colonies in 16 agricultural landscapes with independent gradients of OSR and SNH area within 2 km and used waggle dances and digital geographic maps with major land cover types to reveal the distance and visited habitat type on a landscape level...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Hasan Al Toufailia, Denise A Alves, José M S Bento, Luis C Marchini, Francis L W Ratnieks
Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear brood in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood...
October 17, 2016: Biology Open
Vincent Doublet, Robert J Paxton, Cynthia M McDonnell, Emeric Dubois, Sabine Nidelet, Robin F A Moritz, Cédric Alaux, Yves Le Conte
Regulation of gene expression in the brain plays an important role in behavioral plasticity and decision making in response to external stimuli. However, both can be severely affected by environmental factors, such as parasites and pathogens. In honey bees, the emergence and re-emergence of pathogens and potential for pathogen co-infection and interaction have been suggested as major components that significantly impaired social behavior and survival. To understand how the honey bee is affected and responds to interacting pathogens, we co-infected workers with two prevalent pathogens of different nature, the positive single strand RNA virus Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and the Microsporidia Nosema ceranae, and explored gene expression changes in brains upon single infections and co-infections...
December 2016: Genomics Data
D Wianowska, S Garbaczewska, A Cieniecka-Roslonkiewicz, A L Dawidowicz, A Jankowska
This study discusses the similarities and differences between the antifungal activity of extracts from walnut green husks of Lake, Koszycki, UO1, UO2 and non-grafted cultivars as well as juglone against the plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Phytophthora infestans as well as Ascosphaera apis causing chalkbrood disease in honey bees. The obtained data show that the antifungal activities of the extracts do not always depend on the antifungal activity of juglone, and that they can be modulated by their other components...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Aneta A Ptaszyńska, Jerzy Paleolog, Grzegorz Borsuk
BACKGROUND: Nosema ceranae infection not only damages honey bee (Apis melifera) intestines, but we believe it may also affect intestinal yeast development and its seasonal pattern. In order to check our hypothesis, infection intensity versus intestinal yeast colony forming units (CFU) both in field and cage experiments were studied. METHODS/FINDINGS: Field tests were carried out from March to October in 2014 and 2015. N. ceranae infection intensity decreased more than 100 times from 7...
2016: PloS One
Nicola Cicero, Clara Naccari, Gaetano Cammilleri, Giuseppe Giangrosso, Antonello Cicero, Teresa Gervasi, Alessia Tropea, Ambrogina Albergamo, Vincenzo Ferrantelli
The decline of pollinating species is correlated to the extensive use of neonicotinoids against pest insects for crop protection. In this study, the concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides were determined in honeybees, honeycomb and honey samples, collected in Spring 2015 (blooming period) from different areas in Sicily (IT), to carry out an evaluation of bees products' safety and an overview of neonicotinoid contamination in beekeeping. The results obtained showed only the presence of clothianidin in bee samples and these concentrations don't represent a risk for bees' vitality and safety...
October 13, 2016: Natural Product Research
Başak Akyıldız, Serkan Özsoylu, Mehmet Adnan Öztürk, Abdullah İnci, Önder Düzlü, Alparslan Yıldırım
Bee venom is a complex substance which acts in different ways; local or systemic anaphylaxis associated with IgE and direct toxic effects of the large volume of injected venom. We report a 10- year-old boy who was the vulnerable of 5989 honey bee attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this case had the ultimate number of honey bee stings in the literature, until now. He was admitted to pediatric intensive care unit after 3 hours of incident. Plasmapheresis was started to remove circulating venom that can cause many systemic side effects...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Jan Hubert, Martina Bicianova, Ondrej Ledvinka, Martin Kamler, Philip J Lester, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Kopecky, Tomas Erban
The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is a globally important species that suffers from a variety of pathogens and parasites. These parasites and pathogens may have sublethal effects on their bee hosts via an array of mechanisms, including through a change in symbiotic bacterial taxa. Our aim was to assess the influence of four globally widespread parasites and pathogens on the honey bee bacteriome. We examined the effects of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, the fungal pathogens Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and the trypanosome Lotmaria passim...
October 11, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Viktor Ulicsni, Ingvar Svanberg, Zsolt Molnár
BACKGROUND: There is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation. METHODS: We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising small-scale, traditional agriculture. We studied "all" invertebrate species (species groups) potentially occurring in the vicinity of the settlements...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Dilip M Rampure, Sravanthi Uppalapati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Irene Asensio, Marina Vicente-Rubiano, María Jesús Muñoz, Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Matilde Carballo
We analyzed six apiaries in several natural environments with a Mediterranean ecosystem in Madrid, central Spain, in order to understand how landscape and management characteristics may influence apiary health and bee production in the long term. We focused on five criteria (habitat quality, landscape heterogeneity, climate, management and health), as well as 30 subcriteria, and we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to rank them according to relevance. Habitat quality proved to have the highest relevance, followed by beehive management...
2016: PloS One
Denyse Cavalcante Lago, Fernanda Carvalho Humann, Angel Roberto Barchuk, Kuruvilla Joseph Abraham, Klaus Hartfelder
Adult honey bee queens and workers drastically differ in ovary size. This adult ovary phenotype difference becomes established during the final larval instar, when massive programmed cell death leads to the degeneration of 95-99% of the ovariole anlagen in workers. The higher juvenile hormone (JH) levels in queen larvae protect the ovaries against such degeneration. To gain insights into the molecular architecture underlying this divergence critical for adult caste fate and worker sterility, we performed a microarray analysis on fourth and early fifth instar queen and worker ovaries...
October 5, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Olav Rueppell, Denise Aumer, Robin Fa Moritz
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the best studied model of ageing among the social insects. As in other social insects, the reproductive queen far outlives her non-reproductive workers despite developing from the same genome in the same colony environment. Thus, the different social roles of the two female castes are critical for the profound phenotypic plasticity. In several special cases, such as the reproductive workers of Apis mellifera capensis, within-caste plasticity enables further studies of the fecundity-longevity syndrome in honey bees...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Judith Korb
Social insects are characterized by an apparent reshaping of the fecundity/longevity trade-off with sociality. Currently, we have only sketchy information about the potential underlying causes and mechanisms of aging and senescence which in addition are restricted to few model insect organisms (mainly the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the honey bee Apis mellifera). How can we gain a more thorough understanding how sociality shapes senescence and the fecundity/longevity trade-off? By reviewing available literature, I propose a comparative approach that offers the opportunity to gain fundamental insights into uncovering the basis for this life history trade-off and its reshaping with sociality...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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