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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904775/how-shrub-encroachment-under-climate-change-could-threaten-pollination-services-for-alpine-wildflowers-a-case-study-using-the-alpine-skypilot-polemonium-viscosum
#1
Jessica A Kettenbach, Nicole Miller-Struttmann, Zoë Moffett, Candace Galen
Under climate change, shrubs encroaching into high altitude plant communities disrupt ecosystem processes. Yet effects of encroachment on pollination mutualisms are poorly understood. Here, we probe potential fitness impacts of interference from encroaching Salix (willows) on pollination quality of the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. Overlap in flowering time of Salix and Polemonium is a precondition for interference and was surveyed in four extant and 25 historic contact zones. Pollinator sharing was ascertained from observations of willow pollen on bumble bees visiting Polemonium flowers and on Polemonium pistils...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889327/a-linkage-between-flowering-phenology-and-fruit-set-success-of-alpine-plant-communities-with-reference-to-the-seasonality-and-pollination-effectiveness-of-bees-and-flies
#2
Yuki Mizunaga, Gaku Kudo
To clarify the linkage between flowering phenology and pollination success in alpine plant communities, we quantified the seasonality of flower visitors, the temporal transition of floral resources, and the variation in pollination success of alpine plants in northern Japan. Bumble bees, syrphid flies, and non-syrphid flies were the predominant flower visitors. Foraging activity of bumble bees increased toward the late flowering period reflecting the life cycle of colony development. The activity of syrphid flies was sensitive to ambient temperature, while that of non-syrphid flies remained high throughout the season...
September 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887455/neonicotinoids-act-like-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-newly-emerged-bees-and-winter-bees
#3
Danica Baines, Emily Wilton, Abbe Pawluk, Michael de Gorter, Nora Chomistek
Accumulating evidence suggests that neonicotinoids may have long-term adverse effects on bee health, yet our understanding of how this could occur is incomplete. Pesticides can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in animals providing characteristic multiphasic dose-response curves and non-lethal endpoints in toxicity studies. However, it is not known if neonicotinoids act as EDCs in bees. To address this issue, we performed oral acute and chronic toxicity studies including concentrations recorded in nectar and pollen, applying acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to bumble bees, honey bees and leafcutter bees, the three most common bee species managed for pollination...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878636/do-insects-have-emotions-some-insights-from-bumble-bees
#4
David Baracchi, Mathieu Lihoreau, Martin Giurfa
While our conceptual understanding of emotions is largely based on human subjective experiences, research in comparative cognition has shown growing interest in the existence and identification of "emotion-like" states in non-human animals. There is still ongoing debate about the nature of emotions in animals (especially invertebrates), and certainly their existence and the existence of certain expressive behaviors displaying internal emotional states raise a number of exciting and challenging questions. Interestingly, at least superficially, insects (bees and flies) seem to fulfill the basic requirements of emotional behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834436/landscape-scale-study-of-the-net-effect-of-proximity-to-a-neonicotinoid-treated-crop-on-bee-colony-health
#5
Nicholas J Balfour, Hasan Al Toufailia, Luciano Scandian, Héloïse E Blanchard, Matthew P Jesse, Norman L Carreck, Francis L W Ratnieks
Since 2013, the European Commission has restricted the use of three neonicotinoid insecticides as seed dressings on bee-attractive crops. Such crops represent an important source of forage for bees, which is often scarce in agro-ecosystems. However, this benefit has often been overlooked in the design of previous field studies, leaving the net impact of neonicotinoid treated crops on bees relatively unknown. Here, we determine the combined benefit (forage) and cost (insecticide) of oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seeds on Bombus terrestris and Apis mellifera colonies...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832668/context-dependent-medicinal-effects-of-anabasine-and-infection-dependent-toxicity-in-bumble-bees
#6
Evan C Palmer-Young, Alison Hogeboom, Alexander J Kaye, Dash Donnelly, Jonathan Andicoechea, Sara June Connon, Ian Weston, Kimberly Skyrm, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
BACKGROUND: Floral phytochemicals are ubiquitous in nature, and can function both as antimicrobials and as insecticides. Although many phytochemicals act as toxins and deterrents to consumers, the same chemicals may counteract disease and be preferred by infected individuals. The roles of nectar and pollen phytochemicals in pollinator ecology and conservation are complex, with evidence for both toxicity and medicinal effects against parasites. However, it remains unclear how consistent the effects of phytochemicals are across different parasite lineages and environmental conditions, and whether pollinators actively self-medicate with these compounds when infected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831701/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-and-incomplete-clearance-of-ingested-imidacloprid-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#7
Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Luc Belzunces, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
A previous study claimed a differential behavioural resilience between spring or summer honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) after exposure to syrup contaminated with 125 µg L(-1) imidacloprid for 8 days. The authors of that study based their assertion on the lack of body residues and toxic effects in honey bees, whereas bumble bees showed body residues of imidacloprid and impaired locomotion during the exposure. We have reproduced their experiment using winter honey bees subject to the same protocol...
August 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828241/an-updated-understanding-of-texas-bumble-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-species-presence-and-potential-distributions-in-texas-usa
#8
Jessica L Beckham, Samuel Atkinson
Texas is the second largest state in the United States of America, and the largest state in the contiguous USA at nearly 700,000 sq. km. Several Texas bumble bee species have shown evidence of declines in portions of their continental ranges, and conservation initiatives targeting these species will be most effective if species distributions are well established. To date, statewide bumble bee distributions for Texas have been inferred primarily from specimen records housed in natural history collections. To improve upon these maps, and help inform conservation decisions, this research aimed to (1) update existing Texas bumble bee presence databases to include recent (2007-2016) data from citizen science repositories and targeted field studies, (2) model statewide species distributions of the most common bumble bee species in Texas using MaxEnt, and (3) identify conservation target areas for the state that are most likely to contain habitat suitable for multiple declining species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822493/interactions-between-bee-foraging-and-floral-resource-phenology-shape-bee-populations-and-communities
#9
REVIEW
Jane E Ogilvie, Jessica Rk Forrest
Flowers are ephemeral, yet bees rely on them for food throughout their lives. Floral resource phenology - which can be altered by changes in climate and land-use - is therefore key to bee fitness and community composition. Here, we discuss the interactions between floral resource phenology, bee foraging behaviour, and traits such as diet breadth, sociality, and body size. Recent research on bumble bees has examined behavioural responses to local floral turnover and effects of landscape-scale floral resource phenology on fitness, abundance, and foraging distances...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805631/bumble-bee-ecophysiology-integrating-the-changing-environment-and-the-organism
#10
REVIEW
S Hollis Woodard
Bumble bees are among the most ecologically and economically important pollinators worldwide, yet many of their populations are being threatened by a suite of interrelated, human-mediated environmental changes. Here, I discuss recent progress in our understanding of bumble bee ecophysiology, including advances related to thermal biology in light of global warming; nutritional biology in the context of declining food resources; and the capacity for bumble bees to exhibit physiological plasticity or adaptations to novel or extreme environments, with reference to their evolutionary history and current biogeography...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798863/pollination-success-following-loss-of-a-frequent-pollinator-the-role-of-compensatory-visitation-by-other-effective-pollinators
#11
Allysa C Hallett, Randall J Mitchell, Evan R Chamberlain, Jeffrey D Karron
Pollinator abundance is declining worldwide and may lower the quantity and quality of pollination services to flowering plant populations. Loss of an important pollinator is often assumed to reduce the amount of pollen received by stigmas of a focal species (pollination success), yet this assumption has rarely been tested experimentally. The magnitude of the effect, if any, may depend on the relative efficiency of the remaining pollinators, and on whether the loss of one pollinator leads to changes in visitation patterns by other pollinators...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753659/melanic-variation-underlies-aposematic-color-variation-in-two-hymenopteran-mimicry-systems
#12
Heather M Hines, Paige Witkowski, Joseph S Wilson, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
The stinging hymenopteran velvet ants (Mutillidae) and bumble bees (Apidae: Bombus spp.) have both undergone extensive diversification in aposematic color patterns, including yellow-red hues and contrasting dark-light body coloration, as a result of Müllerian mimicry. Understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying shifts in these mimetic colors requires characterization of their pigmentation. In this study, a combination of solubility, spectrophotometry, and melanin degradation analysis are applied to several color forms and species of these lineages to determine that orange-red colors in both lineages are comprised of primarily dopamine-derived pheomelanins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706063/bumble-bees-create-a-buzz
#13
Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666863/evaluating-the-molecular-physiological-and-behavioral-impacts-of-co2-narcosis-in-bumble-bees-bombus-impatiens
#14
Etya Amsalem, Christina M Grozinger
Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) has pleiotropic effects in many insect species, ranging from eliciting rapid behavioral responses such as attraction, to dramatic physiological changes, including ovary activation. In bumble bees, CO2 narcosis causes queens to bypass diapause and initiate egg laying, but its mode of action is not well-understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of CO2 narcosis on the behavior, physiology and immune function of virgin bumble bee queens (Bombus impatiens). We tested the hypothesis that CO2 induces these changes by stimulating oxidative stress response pathways...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662451/a-spatial-framework-for-targeting-urban-planning-for-pollinators-and-people-with-local-stakeholders-a-route-to-healthy-blossoming-communities
#15
Chloe C Bellamy, Alexander P N van der Jagt, Shelley Barbour, Mike Smith, Darren Moseley
Pollinators such as bees and hoverflies are essential components of an urban ecosystem, supporting and contributing to the biodiversity, functioning, resilience and visual amenity of green infrastructure. Their urban habitats also deliver health and well-being benefits to society, by providing important opportunities for accessing nature nearby to the homes of a growing majority of people living in towns and cities. However, many pollinator species are in decline, and the loss, degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats are some of the key drivers of this change...
October 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649467/larval-exposure-to-field-realistic-concentrations-of-clothianidin-has-no-effect-on-development-rate-over-winter-survival-or-adult-metabolic-rate-in-a-solitary-bee-osmia-bicornis
#16
Elizabeth Nicholls, Robert Fowler, Jeremy E Niven, James D Gilbert, Dave Goulson
There is widespread concern regarding the effects of agro-chemical exposure on bee health, of which neonicotinoids, systemic insecticides detected in the pollen and nectar of both crops and wildflowers, have been the most strongly debated. The majority of studies examining the effect of neonicotinoids on bees have focussed on social species, namely honey bees and bumble bees. However, most bee species are solitary, their life histories differing considerably from these social species, and thus it is possible that their susceptibility to pesticides may be quite different...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647839/do-bumble-bee-bombus-impatiens-queens-signal-their-reproductive-and-mating-status-to-their-workers
#17
Etya Amsalem, Mario Padilla, Paul M Schreiber, Naomi S Altman, Abraham Hefetz, Christina M Grozinger
Reproduction in social insect societies reflects a delicate balance between cooperation and conflict over offspring production, and worker reproduction is widespread even in species showing strong reproductive skew in favor of the queen. To navigate these conflicts, workers are predicted to develop the means to estimate the queen's fecundity - potentially through behavioral and/or chemical cues - and to adjust their reproduction to maximize their fitness. Here, we introduced bumble bee, Bombus impatiens, workers to queens of different mating and reproductive status and examined worker reproduction and expression levels of two genes which were previously shown to be sensitive to the presence of the queen, vitellogenin and Krüppel-homolog 1...
June 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591213/flight-of-the-bumble-bee-buzzes-predict-pollination-services
#18
Nicole E Miller-Struttmann, David Heise, Johannes Schul, Jennifer C Geib, Candace Galen
Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency) and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573023/big-city-bombus-using-natural-history-and-land-use-history-to-find-significant-environmental-drivers-in-bumble-bee-declines-in-urban-development
#19
Paul Glaum, Maria-Carolina Simao, Chatura Vaidya, Gordon Fitch, Benjamin Iulinao
Native bee populations are critical sources of pollination. Unfortunately, native bees are declining in abundance and diversity. Much of this decline comes from human land-use change. While the effects of large-scale agriculture on native bees are relatively well understood, the effects of urban development are less clear. Understanding urbanity's effect on native bees requires consideration of specific characteristics of both particular bee species and their urban landscape. We surveyed bumble-bee (Bombus spp...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533203/floral-traits-influencing-plant-attractiveness-to-three-bee-species-consequences-for-plant-reproductive-success
#20
Austin A Bauer, Murray K Clayton, Johanne Brunet
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The ability to attract pollinators is crucial to plants that rely on insects for pollination. We contrasted the roles of floral display size and flower color in attracting three bee species and determined the relationships between plant attractiveness (number of pollinator visits) and seed set for each bee species. METHODS: We recorded pollinator visits to plants, measured plant traits, and quantified plant reproductive success. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model indicated plant traits associated with pollinator attraction...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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