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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137123/proteomic-characterization-of-the-venom-of-five-bombus-thoracobombus-species
#1
Nezahat Pınar Barkan, Mustafa Bilal Bayazit, Duygu Ozel Demiralp
Venomous animals use venom, a complex biofluid composed of unique mixtures of proteins and peptides, to act on vital systems of the prey or predator. In bees, venom is solely used for defense against predators. However, the venom composition of bumble bees (Bombus sp.) is largely unknown. The Thoracobombus subgenus of Bombus sp. is a diverse subgenus represented by 14 members across Turkey. In this study, we sought out to proteomically characterize the venom of five Thoracobombus species by using bottom-up proteomic techniques...
November 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133226/the-effect-of-dietary-neonicotinoid-pesticides-on-non-flight-thermogenesis-in-worker-bumble-bees-bombus-terrestris
#2
Robert Potts, Rebecca M Clarke, Sophie E Oldfield, Lisa K Wood, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, James E Cresswell
For bumble bees (genus Bombus), the capacity for non-flight thermogenesis is essential for two fundamental processes undertaken by adult workers, namely recovery from torpor after chilling and brood incubation. Farmland bees can be widely exposed to dietary residues of neurotoxic neonicotinoid insecticides that appear in the nectar and pollen of treated bee-attractive crops, which may harm them. An earlier study shows that dietary neonicotinoids cause complex alterations to thermoregulation in honey bees, but their effects on the thermogenic capabilities of individual bumble bees has been untested previously...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118643/an-early-miocene-bumble-bee-from-northern-bohemia-hymenoptera-apidae
#3
Jakub Prokop, Manuel Dehon, Denis Michez, Michael S Engel
A new species of fossil bumble bee (Apinae: Bombini) is described and figured from Early Miocene (Burdigalian) deposits of the Most Basin at the Bílina Mine, Czech Republic. Bombus trophoniussp. n., is placed within the subgenus Cullumanobombus Vogt and distinguished from the several species groups therein. The species is apparently most similar to the Nearctic B. (Cullumanobombus) rufocinctus Cresson, the earliest-diverging species within the clade and the two may be related only by symplesiomorphies. The age of the fossil is in rough accordance with divergence estimations for Cullumanobombus...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102645/caste-differences-in-the-association-between-dopamine-and-reproduction-in-the-bumble-bee-bombus-ignitus
#4
Ken Sasaki, Hinako Matsuyama, Naruaki Morita, Masato Ono
A society of bumble bees is primitively eusocial, with an annual life cycle, and can be used as a physiological model of social bees for comparative studies with highly eusocial hymenopterans. We investigated the dynamics of biogenic amine levels in the brain, meso-metathoracic ganglia, terminal abdominal ganglion, and hemolymph in queens 1 day after mating (1DAM), during diapause (Dp), and during colony founding (CF) in the bumble bee, Bombus ignitus. Dopamine levels in the brain of CF queens were significantly lower than in 1DAM and Dp queens, and the levels in the thoracic ganglia and hemolymph in CF queens were lower than in 1DAM queens, but did not differ from other groups in the abdominal ganglion...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075439/evaluation-of-pollinator-effectiveness-based-on-pollen-deposition-and-seed-production-in-a-gynodieocious-alpine-plant-cyananthus-delavayi
#5
Hao Wang, Guo-Xing Cao, Lin-Lin Wang, Yong-Ping Yang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Yuan-Wen Duan
Examining variations in pollinator effectiveness can enhance our understanding of how pollinators and plants interact. Pollen deposition and seed production after a single visit by a pollinator are often used to estimate pollinator effectiveness. However, seed production is not always directly related to pollen deposition because not all pollen grains that are deposited on a stigma are compatible or conspecific. In the field, we tested pollinator effectiveness based on pollen deposition and the resulting seed production after single visits by different pollinator groups in a gynodieocious alpine plant Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae)...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069524/small-but-attractive-female-biased-nectar-production-and-floral-visitors-in-a-dimorphic-shrub
#6
Cinthya Cervantes, Anai Alvarez, Eduardo Cuevas
In sexually dimorphic species, hermaphrodite flowers in gynodioecious species, or male flowers in dioecious species, often are larger and produce more nectar than their conspecific female flowers. As a consequence, hermaphrodite or male flowers frequently receive more pollinator visits. Sex ratio, flower size, floral display, nectar production and floral visits were evaluated in two natural populations of Fuchsia thymifolia, a morphologically gynodioecious but functionally subdioecious insect-pollinated shrub...
October 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069309/vegetation-management-and-host-density-influence-bee-parasite-interactions-in-urban-gardens
#7
Hamutahl Cohen, Robyn D Quistberg, Stacy M Philpott
Apocephalus borealis phorid flies, a parasitoid of bumble bees and yellow jacket wasps in North America, was recently reported as a novel parasitoid of the honey bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Little is known about the ecology of this interaction, including phorid fecundity on bee hosts, whether phorid-bee parasitism is density dependent, and which local habitat and landscape features may correlate with changes in parasitism rates for either bumble or honey bees. We examined the impact of local and landscape drivers and host abundance on phorid parasitism of A...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053686/empirical-metagenomic-and-computational-techniques-illuminate-the-mechanisms-by-which-fungicides-compromise-bee-health
#8
Shawn A Steffan, Prarthana S Dharampal, Luis Diaz-Garcia, Cameron R Currie, Juan Zalapa, Chris Todd Hittinger
Growers often use fungicide sprays during bloom to protect crops against disease, which exposes bees to fungicide residues. Although considered "bee-safe," there is mounting evidence that fungicide residues in pollen are associated with bee declines (for both honey and bumble bee species). While the mechanisms remain relatively unknown, researchers have speculated that bee-microbe symbioses are involved. Microbes play a pivotal role in the preservation and/or processing of pollen, which serves as nutrition for larval bees...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991419/synergistic-interactions-between-a-variety-of-insecticides-and-an-ebi-fungicide-in-dietary-exposures-of-bumble-bees-bombus-terrestris-l
#9
Risto Raimets, Reet Karise, Marika Mänd, Tanel Kaart, Sally Ponting, Jimao Song, James E Cresswell
BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over honey bee colony losses, and also among wild bees there is evidence for extinctions and range contractions in Europe and North America. Pesticides have been proposed as a potential cause of this decline. Bees are exposed simultaneously to variety of agrochemicals, which may cause synergistically detrimental impacts, which are incompletely understood. We investigated the toxicity of the fungicide imazalil in mixture with four common insecticides: fipronil (phenylpyrazoid); cypermethrin (pyrethroid); thiamethoxam; and imidacloprid (neonicotinoids)...
October 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973006/modelling-patterns-of-pollinator-species-richness-and-diversity-using-satellite-image-texture
#10
Sylvia Hofmann, Jeroen Everaars, Oliver Schweiger, Mark Frenzel, Lutz Bannehr, Anna F Cord
Assessing species richness and diversity on the basis of standardised field sampling effort represents a cost- and time-consuming method. Satellite remote sensing (RS) can help overcome these limitations because it facilitates the collection of larger amounts of spatial data using cost-effective techniques. RS information is hence increasingly analysed to model biodiversity across space and time. Here, we focus on image texture measures as a proxy for spatial habitat heterogeneity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of species distributions and diversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957466/queens-and-workers-contribute-differently-to-adaptive-evolution-in-bumble-bees-and-honey-bees
#11
Brock A Harpur, Alivia Dey, Jennifer R Albert, Sani Patel, Heather M Hines, Martin Hasselmann, Laurence Packer, Amro Zayed
Eusociality represents a major transition in evolution and is typified by cooperative brood care and reproductive division of labor between generations. In bees, this division of labor allows queens and workers to phenotypically specialize. Worker traits associated with helping are thought to be crucial to the fitness of a eusocial lineage, and recent studies of honey bees (genus Apis) have found that adaptively evolving genes often have worker-biased expression patterns. It is unclear however if worker-biased genes are disproportionately acted on by strong positive selection in all eusocial insects...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904775/how-shrub-encroachment-under-climate-change-could-threaten-pollination-services-for-alpine-wildflowers-a-case-study-using-the-alpine-skypilot-polemonium-viscosum
#12
Jessica A Kettenbach, Nicole Miller-Struttmann, Zoë Moffett, Candace Galen
Under climate change, shrubs encroaching into high altitude plant communities disrupt ecosystem processes. Yet effects of encroachment on pollination mutualisms are poorly understood. Here, we probe potential fitness impacts of interference from encroaching Salix (willows) on pollination quality of the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. Overlap in flowering time of Salix and Polemonium is a precondition for interference and was surveyed in four extant and 25 historic contact zones. Pollinator sharing was ascertained from observations of willow pollen on bumble bees visiting Polemonium flowers and on Polemonium pistils...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889327/a-linkage-between-flowering-phenology-and-fruit-set-success-of-alpine-plant-communities-with-reference-to-the-seasonality-and-pollination-effectiveness-of-bees-and-flies
#13
Yuki Mizunaga, Gaku Kudo
To clarify the linkage between flowering phenology and pollination success in alpine plant communities, we quantified the seasonality of flower visitors, the temporal transition of floral resources, and the variation in pollination success of alpine plants in northern Japan. Bumble bees, syrphid flies, and non-syrphid flies were the predominant flower visitors. Foraging activity of bumble bees increased toward the late flowering period reflecting the life cycle of colony development. The activity of syrphid flies was sensitive to ambient temperature, while that of non-syrphid flies remained high throughout the season...
November 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887455/neonicotinoids-act-like-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-newly-emerged-bees-and-winter-bees
#14
Danica Baines, Emily Wilton, Abbe Pawluk, Michael de Gorter, Nora Chomistek
Accumulating evidence suggests that neonicotinoids may have long-term adverse effects on bee health, yet our understanding of how this could occur is incomplete. Pesticides can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in animals providing characteristic multiphasic dose-response curves and non-lethal endpoints in toxicity studies. However, it is not known if neonicotinoids act as EDCs in bees. To address this issue, we performed oral acute and chronic toxicity studies including concentrations recorded in nectar and pollen, applying acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to bumble bees, honey bees and leafcutter bees, the three most common bee species managed for pollination...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878636/do-insects-have-emotions-some-insights-from-bumble-bees
#15
David Baracchi, Mathieu Lihoreau, Martin Giurfa
While our conceptual understanding of emotions is largely based on human subjective experiences, research in comparative cognition has shown growing interest in the existence and identification of "emotion-like" states in non-human animals. There is still ongoing debate about the nature of emotions in animals (especially invertebrates), and certainly their existence and the existence of certain expressive behaviors displaying internal emotional states raise a number of exciting and challenging questions. Interestingly, at least superficially, insects (bees and flies) seem to fulfill the basic requirements of emotional behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834436/landscape-scale-study-of-the-net-effect-of-proximity-to-a-neonicotinoid-treated-crop-on-bee-colony-health
#16
Nicholas J Balfour, Hasan Al Toufailia, Luciano Scandian, Héloïse E Blanchard, Matthew P Jesse, Norman L Carreck, Francis L W Ratnieks
Since 2013, the European Commission has restricted the use of three neonicotinoid insecticides as seed dressings on bee-attractive crops. Such crops represent an important source of forage for bees, which is often scarce in agro-ecosystems. However, this benefit has often been overlooked in the design of previous field studies, leaving the net impact of neonicotinoid treated crops on bees relatively unknown. Here, we determine the combined benefit (forage) and cost (insecticide) of oilseed rape grown from thiamethoxam-treated seeds on Bombus terrestris and Apis mellifera colonies...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832668/context-dependent-medicinal-effects-of-anabasine-and-infection-dependent-toxicity-in-bumble-bees
#17
Evan C Palmer-Young, Alison Hogeboom, Alexander J Kaye, Dash Donnelly, Jonathan Andicoechea, Sara June Connon, Ian Weston, Kimberly Skyrm, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
BACKGROUND: Floral phytochemicals are ubiquitous in nature, and can function both as antimicrobials and as insecticides. Although many phytochemicals act as toxins and deterrents to consumers, the same chemicals may counteract disease and be preferred by infected individuals. The roles of nectar and pollen phytochemicals in pollinator ecology and conservation are complex, with evidence for both toxicity and medicinal effects against parasites. However, it remains unclear how consistent the effects of phytochemicals are across different parasite lineages and environmental conditions, and whether pollinators actively self-medicate with these compounds when infected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831701/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-and-incomplete-clearance-of-ingested-imidacloprid-in-honey-bees-apis-mellifera
#18
Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Luc Belzunces, Jean-Marc Bonmatin
A previous study claimed a differential behavioural resilience between spring or summer honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) after exposure to syrup contaminated with 125 µg L(-1) imidacloprid for 8 days. The authors of that study based their assertion on the lack of body residues and toxic effects in honey bees, whereas bumble bees showed body residues of imidacloprid and impaired locomotion during the exposure. We have reproduced their experiment using winter honey bees subject to the same protocol...
November 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828241/an-updated-understanding-of-texas-bumble-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-species-presence-and-potential-distributions-in-texas-usa
#19
Jessica L Beckham, Samuel Atkinson
Texas is the second largest state in the United States of America, and the largest state in the contiguous USA at nearly 700,000 sq. km. Several Texas bumble bee species have shown evidence of declines in portions of their continental ranges, and conservation initiatives targeting these species will be most effective if species distributions are well established. To date, statewide bumble bee distributions for Texas have been inferred primarily from specimen records housed in natural history collections. To improve upon these maps, and help inform conservation decisions, this research aimed to (1) update existing Texas bumble bee presence databases to include recent (2007-2016) data from citizen science repositories and targeted field studies, (2) model statewide species distributions of the most common bumble bee species in Texas using MaxEnt, and (3) identify conservation target areas for the state that are most likely to contain habitat suitable for multiple declining species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822493/interactions-between-bee-foraging-and-floral-resource-phenology-shape-bee-populations-and-communities
#20
REVIEW
Jane E Ogilvie, Jessica Rk Forrest
Flowers are ephemeral, yet bees rely on them for food throughout their lives. Floral resource phenology - which can be altered by changes in climate and land-use - is therefore key to bee fitness and community composition. Here, we discuss the interactions between floral resource phenology, bee foraging behaviour, and traits such as diet breadth, sociality, and body size. Recent research on bumble bees has examined behavioural responses to local floral turnover and effects of landscape-scale floral resource phenology on fitness, abundance, and foraging distances...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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