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Bumble bee

A D Vaudo, D Stabler, H M Patch, J F Tooker, C M Grozinger, G A Wright
Bee population declines are linked to reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees may be adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and B...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Richard Schmuck, Gavin Lewis
The nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides, which include imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin, are widely used to control a range of important agricultural pests both by foliar applications and also as seed dressings and by soil application. Since they exhibit systemic properties, exposure of bees may occur as a result of residues present in the nectar and/or pollen of seed- or soil-treated crop plants and so they have been the subject of much debate about whether they cause adverse effects in pollinating insects under field conditions...
October 5, 2016: Ecotoxicology
F Como, E Carnesecchi, S Volani, J L Dorne, J Richardson, A Bassan, M Pavan, E Benfenati
Ecological risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) requires an understanding of both the toxicity and the extent of exposure to assess risks for a range of taxa of ecological importance including target and non-target species. Non-target species such as honey bees (Apis mellifera), solitary bees and bumble bees are of utmost importance because of their vital ecological services as pollinators of wild plants and crops. To improve risk assessment of PPPs in bee species, computational models predicting the acute and chronic toxicity of a range of PPPs and contaminants can play a major role in providing structural and physico-chemical properties for the prioritisation of compounds of concern and future risk assessments...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Guido Sterk, Britta Peters, Zhenglei Gao, Ulrich Zumkier
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Elado(®)-dressed winter oilseed rape (OSR, 10 g clothianidin & 2 g beta-cyfluthrin/kg seed) on the development, reproduction and behaviour of large earth bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) as part of a large-scale monitoring field study in Northern Germany, where OSR is usually cultivated at 25-33 % of the arable land. Both reference and test sites comprised 65 km(2) in which no other crops attractive to pollinating insects were present. Six study locations were selected per site and 10 bumble bee hives were placed at each location...
September 27, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Daniel Rolke, Markus Persigehl, Britta Peters, Guido Sterk, Wolfgang Blenau
This study was part of a large-scale monitoring project to assess the possible effects of Elado(®) (10 g clothianidin & 2 g β-cyfluthrin/kg seed)-dressed oilseed rape seeds on different pollinators in Northern Germany. Firstly, residues of clothianidin and its active metabolites thiazolylnitroguanidine and thiazolylmethylurea were measured in nectar and pollen from Elado(®)-dressed (test site, T) and undressed (reference site, R) oilseed rape collected by honey bees confined within tunnel tents. Clothianidin and its metabolites could not be detected or quantified in samples from R fields...
September 20, 2016: Ecotoxicology
Reet Karise, Gerit Dreyersdorff, Mona Jahani, Eve Veromann, Eve Runno-Paurson, Tanel Kaart, Guy Smagghe, Marika Mänd
Botrytis cinerea Pers.:Fr. is a major plant pathogen, and a new approach is needed for its control in strawberry to minimise the increasing use of synthetic fungicides. The biofungicide Prestop-Mix, which contains Gliocladium catenulatum, is effective against Botrytis infections; however, the need for frequent applications increases the costs for farmers. Here, we demonstrate that bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L., effectively disseminate the preparation onto flowers in open field conditions. Over the course of three years, we found a highly significant decrease in the rate of Botrytis infection...
2016: Scientific Reports
Taylor J Conroy, Evan C Palmer-Young, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
Bumble bees (genus Bombus) are globally important insect pollinators, and several species have experienced marked declines in recent years. Both nutritional limitation and pathogens may have contributed to these declines. While each of these factors may be individually important, there may also be synergisms where nutritional stress could decrease pathogen resistance. Understanding interactions between bumble bees, their parasites, and food availability may provide new insight into the causes of declines. In this study, we examined the combined impacts of pollen and nectar limitation on Crithidia, a common gut parasite in Bombus impatiens Cresson...
October 2016: Environmental Entomology
Carolyn Ma, Sébastien Kessler, Alexander Simpson, Geraldine Wright
Generalist pollinators like the buff-tailed bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, encounter both nutrients and toxins in the floral nectar they collect from flowering plants. Only a few studies have described the gustatory responses of bees toward toxins in food, and these experiments have mainly used the proboscis extension response on restrained honey bees. Here, a new behavioral assay is presented for measuring the feeding responses of freely-moving, individual worker bumble bees to nutrients and toxins. This assay measures the amount of solution ingested by each bumble bee and identifies how tastants in food influence the microstructure of the feeding behavior...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Angela E Gradish, G Christopher Cutler, Andrew J Frewin, Cynthia D Scott-Dupree
Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing...
2016: PeerJ
Jane E Ogilvie, James D Thomson
Plant species can influence the pollination and reproductive success of coflowering neighbors that share pollinators. Because some individual pollinators habitually forage in particular areas, it is also possible that plant species could influence the pollination of neighbors that bloom later. When flowers of a preferred forage plant decline in an area, site-fidelity may cause individual flower feeders to stay in an area and switch plant species rather than search for preferred plants in a new location. A newly blooming plant species may quickly inherit a set of visitors from a prior plant species, and therefore experience higher pollination success than it would in an area where the first species never bloomed...
June 2016: Ecology
John W Redhead, Stephanie Dreier, Andrew F G Bourke, Matthew S Heard, William C Jordan, Seirian Sumner, Jinliang Wang, Claire Carvell
Bumble bees (Bombus spp.) are important pollinators of both crops and wildflowers. Their contribution to this essential ecosystem service has been threatened over recent decades by changes in land use, which have led to declines in their populations. In order to design effective conservation measures, it is important to understand the effects of variation in landscape composition and structure on the foraging activities of worker bumble bees. This is because the viability of individual colonies is likely to be affected by the trade-off between the energetic costs of foraging over greater distances and the potential gains from access to additional resources...
April 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jason Gibbs, Elizabeth Elle, Kyle Bobiwash, Tiia Haapalainen, Rufus Isaacs
Highbush blueberry yields are dependent on pollination by bees, and introduction of managed honey bees is the primary strategy used for pollination of this crop. Complementary pollination services are also provided by wild bees, yet highbush blueberry is increasingly grown in regions outside its native range where wild bee communities may be less adapted to the crop and growers may still be testing appropriate honey bee stocking densities. To contrast crop pollination in native and non-native production regions, we sampled commercial 'Bluecrop' blueberry fields in British Columbia and Michigan with grower-selected honey bee stocking rates (0-39...
2016: PloS One
Anthony D Vaudo, Harland M Patch, David A Mortensen, John F Tooker, Christina M Grozinger
To fuel their activities and rear their offspring, foraging bees must obtain a sufficient quality and quantity of nutritional resources from a diverse plant community. Pollen is the primary source of proteins and lipids for bees, and the concentrations of these nutrients in pollen can vary widely among host-plant species. Therefore we hypothesized that foraging decisions of bumble bees are driven by both the protein and lipid content of pollen. By successively reducing environmental and floral cues, we analyzed pollen-foraging preferences of Bombus impatiens in (i) host-plant species, (ii) pollen isolated from these host-plant species, and (iii) nutritionally modified single-source pollen diets encompassing a range of protein and lipid concentrations...
July 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shi-Guo Sun, W Scott Armbruster, Shuang-Quan Huang
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Floral traits that attract pollinators may also attract seed predators, which, in turn, may generate conflicting natural selection on such traits. Although such selection trade-offs are expected to vary geographically, few studies have investigated selection mediated by pollinators and seed predators across a geographic mosaic of environments and floral variation. METHODS: Floral traits were investigated in 14 populations of the bumble-bee-pollinated herb, Pedicularis rex, in which tubular flowers are subtended by cupular bracts holding rain water...
August 2016: Annals of Botany
Harold H Zakon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Feng-Ping Zhang, Qiu-Yun Yang, Gang Wang, Shi-Bao Zhang
Although the roles of volatile compounds have been examined separately in plant-herbivore or plant-pollinator interactions, few studies have focused on how plant scents can attract effective pollinators, repel ineffective pollinators, and defend against attacks by insect herbivores. We explored the functional significance of volatile compounds that impart a strong odor to Elsholtzia rugulosa, a shrub species in southwestern China. We monitored the pollinating honey bee Apis cerana, as well as two occasional visitors - Vespa velutina and a Bombus sp...
2016: Scientific Reports
K Jeannet Oyen, Susma Giri, Michael E Dillon
Organism critical thermal limits are often tightly linked to current geographic distribution and can therefore help predict future range shifts driven by changing environmental temperatures. Thermal tolerance of diverse organisms often varies predictably with latitude, with upper thermal limits changing little and lower thermal limits decreasing with latitude. Despite similarly steep gradients in environmental temperatures across altitude, few studies have investigated altitudinal variation in critical thermal limits...
July 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Anna K Wallingford, Heather L Connelly, Gabrielle Dore Brind'Amour, Matthew T Boucher, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Greg M Loeb
Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is a polyphagous, invasive pest of small fruits. Current management relies heavily on chemical insecticides, and an effective oviposition deterrent could contribute to alternative management approaches that reduce the need for these chemical insecticides. A novel deployment method for repelling Drosophila suzukii, thereby reducing D. suzukii oviposition in fall-bearing red raspberry, was evaluated in the field. Infestations occurring within 4 d after deployment were significantly lower in 2-m-long plots (Rubus idaeus 'Caroline') treated with the repellent (20% 1-octen-3-ol in specialized pheromone and lure application technology [SPLAT]) compared to control plots (blank SPLAT)...
August 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Nathalie Roger, Romain Moerman, Luísa Gigante Carvalheiro, Jesús Aguirre-Guitiérrez, Anne-Laure Jacquemart, David Kleijn, Georges Lognay, Laura Moquet, Muriel Quinet, Pierre Rasmont, Aurore Richel, Maryse Vanderplanck, Denis Michez
Several bee species are experiencing significant population declines. As bees exclusively rely on pollen for development and survival, such declines could be partly related to changes in their host-plant abundance and quality. Here we investigate whether generalist bumble bee species, with stable population trends over the past years, adapted their diets in response to changes in the distribution and chemical quality of their pollen resources. We selected five common species of bumble bee in NW Europe for which we had a precise description of their pollen diet through two time periods ("prior to1950″ and "2004-2005″)...
May 28, 2016: Global Change Biology
Shoko Nakamura, Gaku Kudo
Spatiotemporal variation in nectar distribution is a key factor affecting pollinator movements between flowers and plants within a population. Pollinators having systematic searching ability can flexibly respond to the reward condition of floral patches, and they tend to revisit rewarding patches. However, foraging behaviour may be influenced by the nectar distribution within populations. To evaluate the effects of unrewarding experiences and plant distribution, we compared bumble bee foraging behaviours between naturally rewarding and artificially rewardless (by nectary removal) patches in two aconite populations with different plant densities...
2016: AoB Plants
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