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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405304/reduced-abundance-and-earlier-collection-of-bumble-bee-workers-under-intensive-cultivation-of-a-mass-flowering-prairie-crop
#1
Paul Galpern, Sarah A Johnson, Jennifer L Retzlaff, Danielle Chang, John Swann
One of the most commonly seeded crops in Canada is canola, a cultivar of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). As a mass-flowering crop grown intensively throughout the Canadian Prairies, canola has the potential to influence pollinator success across tens of thousands of square kilometers of cropland. Bumble bees (Bombus sp.) are efficient pollinators of many types of native and crop plants. We measured the influence of this mass-flowering crop on the abundance and phenology of bumble bees, and on another species of social bee (a sweat bee; Halictus rubicundus), by continuously deploying traps at different levels of canola cultivation intensity, spanning the start and end of canola bloom...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392285/replication-of-honey-bee-associated-rna-viruses-across-multiple-bee-species-in-apple-orchards-of-georgia-germany-and-kyrgyzstan
#2
Rita Radzevičiūtė, Panagiotis Theodorou, Martin Husemann, George Japoshvili, Giorgi Kirkitadze, Aigul Zhusupbaeva, Robert J Paxton
The essential ecosystem service of pollination is provided largely by insects, which are considered threatened by diverse biotic and abiotic global change pressures. RNA viruses are one such pressure, and have risen in prominence as a major threat for honey bees (Apis mellifera) and global apiculture, as well as a risk factor for other bee species through pathogen spill-over between managed honey bees and sympatric wild pollinator communities. Yet despite their potential role in global bee decline, the prevalence of honey bee-associated RNA viruses in wild bees is poorly known from both geographic and taxonomic perspectives...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356567/fast-learning-in-free-foraging-bumble-bees-is-negatively-correlated-with-lifetime-resource-collection
#3
Lisa J Evans, Karen E Smith, Nigel E Raine
Despite widespread interest in the potential adaptive value of individual differences in cognition, few studies have attempted to address the question of how variation in learning and memory impacts their performance in natural environments. Using a novel split-colony experimental design we evaluated visual learning performance of foraging naïve bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) in an ecologically relevant associative learning task under controlled laboratory conditions, before monitoring the lifetime foraging performance of the same individual bees in the field...
March 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334127/managed-bumble-bees-bombus-impatiens-hymenoptera-apidae-caged-with-blueberry-bushes-at-high-density-did-not-increase-fruit-set-or-fruit-weight-compared-to-open-pollination
#4
J W Campbell, J O'Brien, J H Irvin, C B Kimmel, J C Daniels, J D Ellis
Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is an important crop grown throughout Florida. Currently, most blueberry growers use honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to provide pollination services for highbush blueberries even though bumble bees (Bombus spp.) have been shown to be more efficient at pollinating blueberries on a per bee basis. In general, contribution of bumble bees to the pollination of commercial highbush blueberries in Florida is unknown. Herein, we determined if managed bumble bees could contribute to highbush blueberry pollination...
April 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331597/pollinator-population-size-and-pollination-ecosystem-service-responses-to-enhancing-floral-and-nesting-resources
#5
Johanna Häussler, Ullrika Sahlin, Charlotte Baey, Henrik G Smith, Yann Clough
Modeling pollination ecosystem services requires a spatially explicit, process-based approach because they depend on both the behavioral responses of pollinators to the amount and spatial arrangement of habitat and on the within- and between-season dynamics of pollinator populations in response to land use. We describe a novel pollinator model predicting flower visitation rates by wild central-place foragers (e.g., nesting bees) in spatially explicit landscapes. The model goes beyond existing approaches by: (1) integrating preferential use of more rewarding floral and nesting resources; (2) considering population growth over time; (3) allowing different dispersal distances for workers and reproductives; (4) providing visitation rates for use in crop pollination models...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331591/synergistic-effects-of-floral-phytochemicals-against-a-bumble%C3%A2-bee-parasite
#6
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
Floral landscapes comprise diverse phytochemical combinations. Individual phytochemicals in floral nectar and pollen can reduce infection in bees and directly inhibit trypanosome parasites. However, gut parasites of generalist pollinators, which consume nectar and pollen from many plant species, are exposed to phytochemical combinations. Interactions between phytochemicals could augment or decrease effects of single compounds on parasites. Using a matrix of 36 phytochemical treatment combinations, we assessed the combined effects of two floral phytochemicals, eugenol and thymol, against four strains of the bumblebee gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158409/nectar-replenishment-maintains-the-neutral-effects-of-nectar-robbing-on-female-reproductive-success-of-salvia-przewalskii-lamiaceae-a-plant-pollinated-and-robbed-by-bumble-bees
#7
Zhong-Ming Ye, Xiao-Fang Jin, Qing-Feng Wang, Chun-Feng Yang, David W Inouye
Background and Aims: It has been suggested that the dynamics of nectar replenishment could differ for flowers after being nectar robbed or visited legitimately, but further experimental work is needed to investigate this hypothesis. This study aimed to assess the role of nectar replenishment in mediating the effects of nectar robbing on pollinator behaviour and plant reproduction. Methods: Plant-robber-pollinator interactions in an alpine plant, Salvia przewalskii , were studied...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148820/correction-bumble-bees-regulate-their-intake-of-essential-protein-and-lipid-pollen-macronutrients
#8
A D Vaudo, D Stabler, H M Patch, J F Tooker, C M Grozinger, G A Wright
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130453/high-elevation-refugia-for-bombus-terricola-hymenoptera-apidae-conservation-and-wild-bees-of-the-white-mountain-national-forest
#9
Erika M Tucker, Sandra M Rehan
Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire...
January 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069631/pollination-reservoirs-in-lowbush-blueberry-ericales-ericaceae
#10
E M Venturini, F A Drummond, A K Hoshide, A C Dibble, L B Stack
Pollinator-dependent agriculture heavily relies upon a single pollinator-the honey bee. To diversify pollination strategies, growers are turning to alternatives. Densely planted reservoirs of pollen- and nectar-rich flowers (pollination reservoirs, hereafter "PRs") may improve pollination services provided by wild bees. Our focal agroecosystem, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton), exists in a simple landscape uniquely positioned to benefit from PRs. First, we contrast bee visitation rates and use of three types of PR...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006002/unbiased-rna-shotgun-metagenomics-in-social-and-solitary-wild-bees-detects-associations-with-eukaryote-parasites-and-new-viruses
#11
Karel Schoonvaere, Lina De Smet, Guy Smagghe, Andy Vierstraete, Bart P Braeckman, Dirk C de Graaf
The diversity of eukaryote organisms and viruses associated with wild bees remains poorly characterized in contrast to the well-documented pathosphere of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. Using a deliberate RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing strategy in combination with a dedicated bioinformatics workflow, we identified the (micro-)organisms and viruses associated with two bumble bee hosts, Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum, and two solitary bee hosts, Osmia cornuta and Andrena vaga. Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing generated approximately 3...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883009/bumble-bee-parasite-strains-vary-in-resistance-to-phytochemicals
#12
Evan C Palmer-Young, Ben M Sadd, Philip C Stevenson, Rebecca E Irwin, Lynn S Adler
Nectar and pollen contain diverse phytochemicals that can reduce disease in pollinators. However, prior studies showed variable effects of nectar chemicals on infection, which could reflect variable phytochemical resistance among parasite strains. Inter-strain variation in resistance could influence evolutionary interactions between plants, pollinators, and pollinator disease, but testing direct effects of phytochemicals on parasites requires elimination of variation between bees. Using cell cultures of the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, we determined (1) growth-inhibiting effects of nine floral phytochemicals and (2) variation in phytochemical resistance among four parasite strains...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859127/consequences-of-toxic-secondary-compounds-in-nectar-for-mutualist%C3%A2-bees-and-antagonist-butterflies
#13
Patricia L Jones, Anurag A Agrawal
Attraction of mutualists and defense against antagonists are critical challenges for most organisms and can be especially acute for plants with pollinating and non-pollinating flower visitors. Secondary compounds in flowers have been hypothesized to adaptively mediate attraction of mutualists and defense against antagonists, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. The tissues of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) contain toxic cardenolides that have long been studied as chemical defenses against herbivores. Milkweed nectar also contains cardenolides, and we have examined the impact of manipulating cardenolides in nectar on the foraging choices of two flower visitors: generalist bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, which are mutualistic pollinators, and specialist monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, which are herbivores as larvae and ineffective pollinators as adults...
October 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851750/whole-genome-sequence-analysis-of-bombella-intestini-lmg-28161t-a-novel-acetic-acid-bacterium-isolated-from-the-crop-of-a-red-tailed-bumble-bee-bombus-lapidarius
#14
Leilei Li, Koen Illeghems, Simon Van Kerrebroeck, Wim Borremans, Ilse Cleenwerck, Guy Smagghe, Luc De Vuyst, Peter Vandamme
The whole-genome sequence of Bombella intestini LMG 28161T, an endosymbiotic acetic acid bacterium (AAB) occurring in bumble bees, was determined to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying its metabolic capabilities. The draft genome sequence of B. intestini LMG 28161T was 2.02 Mb. Metabolic carbohydrate pathways were in agreement with the metabolite analyses of fermentation experiments and revealed its oxidative capacity towards sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol, but not ethanol and glycerol...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846310/improving-mitochondrial-function-protects-bumblebees-from-neonicotinoid-pesticides
#15
Michael B Powner, Thomas E Salt, Chris Hogg, Glen Jeffery
Global pollination is threatened by declining insect pollinator populations that may be linked to neonicotinoid pesticide use. Neonicotinoids over stimulate neurons and depolarize their mitochondria, producing immobility and death. However, mitochondrial function can be improved by near infrared light absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration. In flies, daily exposure to 670nm light throughout life increases average lifespan and aged mobility, and reduces systemic inflammation. Here we treat bumble bees with Imidacloprid a common neonicotinoid...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803186/metabolism-of-toxic-sugars-by-strains-of-the-bee-gut-symbiont-gilliamella-apicola
#16
Hao Zheng, Alex Nishida, Waldan K Kwong, Hauke Koch, Philipp Engel, Margaret I Steele, Nancy A Moran
Social bees collect carbohydrate-rich food to support their colonies, and yet, certain carbohydrates present in their diet or produced through the breakdown of pollen are toxic to bees. The gut microbiota of social bees is dominated by a few core bacterial species, including the Gram-negative species Gilliamella apicola We isolated 42 strains of G. apicola from guts of honey bees and bumble bees and sequenced their genomes. All of the G. apicola strains share high 16S rRNA gene similarity, but they vary extensively in gene repertoires related to carbohydrate metabolism...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783434/evolution-of-resistance-to-single-and-combined-floral-phytochemicals-by-a-bumble-bee-parasite
#17
E C Palmer-Young, B M Sadd, L S Adler
Repeated exposure to inhibitory compounds can drive the evolution of resistance, which weakens chemical defence against antagonists. Floral phytochemicals in nectar and pollen have antimicrobial properties that can ameliorate infection in pollinators, but evolved resistance among parasites could diminish the medicinal efficacy of phytochemicals. However, multicompound blends, which occur in nectar and pollen, present simultaneous chemical challenges that may slow resistance evolution. We assessed evolution of resistance by the common bumble bee gut parasite Crithidia bombi to two floral phytochemicals, singly and combined, over 6 weeks (~100 generations) of chronic exposure...
February 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742891/bumble-bees-regulate-their-intake-of-essential-protein-and-lipid-pollen-macronutrients
#18
A D Vaudo, D Stabler, H M Patch, J F Tooker, C M Grozinger, G A Wright
Bee population declines are linked to the reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees with their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees might have adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, to regulate protein and lipid intake...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709399/review-of-field-and-monitoring-studies-investigating-the-role-of-nitro-substituted-neonicotinoid-insecticides-in-the-reported-losses-of-honey-bee-colonies-apis-mellifera
#19
REVIEW
Richard Schmuck, Gavin Lewis
The nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides, which include imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin, are widely used to control a range of important agricultural pests both by foliar applications and also as seed dressings and by soil application. Since they exhibit systemic properties, exposure of bees may occur as a result of residues present in the nectar and/or pollen of seed- or soil-treated crop plants and so they have been the subject of much debate about whether they cause adverse effects in pollinating insects under field conditions...
November 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705831/predicting-acute-contact-toxicity-of-pesticides-in-honeybees-apis-mellifera-through-a-k-nearest-neighbor-model
#20
F Como, E Carnesecchi, S Volani, J L Dorne, J Richardson, A Bassan, M Pavan, E Benfenati
Ecological risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) requires an understanding of both the toxicity and the extent of exposure to assess risks for a range of taxa of ecological importance including target and non-target species. Non-target species such as honey bees (Apis mellifera), solitary bees and bumble bees are of utmost importance because of their vital ecological services as pollinators of wild plants and crops. To improve risk assessment of PPPs in bee species, computational models predicting the acute and chronic toxicity of a range of PPPs and contaminants can play a major role in providing structural and physico-chemical properties for the prioritisation of compounds of concern and future risk assessments...
January 2017: Chemosphere
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