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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764668/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-health-and-disease-of-adult-honey-bee-workers
#1
REVIEW
Kasie Raymann, Nancy A Moran
The role of the gut microbiome in animal health has become increasingly evident. Unlike most other insects, honey bees possess a highly conserved and specialized core gut microbiome, which consists of nine bacterial species and is acquired mostly through social transmission. Five of these species are ubiquitous in honey bees and are also present in bumble bees. Recent studies have shown that the bee gut microbiome plays a role in metabolism, immune function, growth and development, and protection against pathogens...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764666/relevance-of-wild-and-managed-bees-for-human-well-being
#2
REVIEW
Alexandra-Maria Klein, Virginie Boreux, Felix Fornoff, Anne-Christine Mupepele, Gesine Pufal
Wild and managed bees provide pollination services to both crops and wild plants, and a variety of other services from which humans benefit. We summarize the most important and recent findings on bees as providers of provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services. With comprehensive literature searches, we first identified ten important bee species for global pollination of crops, which include wild and managed honey bees, bumble bees, orchard-, cucumber- and longhorn bees. We second summarized bee-dependent ecosystem services to show how bees substantially contribute to food security, medical resources, soil formation or spiritual practices, highlighting their wide range of benefits for human well-being and to identify future research needs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738731/toxicology-bee-p450s-take-the-sting-out-of-cyanoamidine-neonicotinoids
#3
René Feyereisen
The neonicotinoid insecticides have raised concerns regarding the health of bee pollinators. New research has identified a P450 enzyme that protects honey bees and bumble bees from the toxicity of two neonicotinoids, thiacloprid and acetamiprid. This P450 enzyme provides a margin of safety to bees.
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615611/spatial-fidelity-of-workers-predicts-collective-response-to-disturbance-in-a-social-insect
#4
James D Crall, Nick Gravish, Andrew M Mountcastle, Sarah D Kocher, Robert L Oppenheimer, Naomi E Pierce, Stacey A Combes
Individuals in social insect colonies cooperate to perform collective work. While colonies often respond to changing environmental conditions by flexibly reallocating workers to different tasks, the factors determining which workers switch and why are not well understood. Here, we use an automated tracking system to continuously monitor nest behavior and foraging activity of uniquely identified workers from entire bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) colonies foraging in a natural outdoor environment. We show that most foraging is performed by a small number of workers and that the intensity and distribution of foraging is actively regulated at the colony level in response to forager removal...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608282/genetic-engineering-of-bee-gut-microbiome-bacteria-with-a-toolkit-for-modular-assembly-of-broad-host-range-plasmids
#5
Sean P Leonard, Jiri Perutka, J Elijah Powell, Peng Geng, Darby Richhart, Michelle Byrom, Shaunak Kar, Bryan W Davies, Andrew D Ellington, Nancy Moran, Jeffrey E Barrick
Engineering the bacteria present in animal microbiomes promises to lead to breakthroughs in medicine and agriculture, but progress is hampered by a dearth of tools for genetically modifying the diverse species that comprise these communities. Here we present a toolkit of genetic parts for the modular construction of broad-host-range plasmids built around the RSF1010 replicon. Golden Gate assembly of parts in this toolkit can be used to rapidly test various antibiotic resistance markers, promoters, fluorescent reporters and other coding sequences in newly isolated bacteria...
April 2, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576476/unravelling-the-molecular-determinants-of-bee-sensitivity-to-neonicotinoid-insecticides
#6
Cristina Manjon, Bartlomiej J Troczka, Marion Zaworra, Katherine Beadle, Emma Randall, Gillian Hertlein, Kumar Saurabh Singh, Christoph T Zimmer, Rafael A Homem, Bettina Lueke, Rebecca Reid, Laura Kor, Maxie Kohler, Jürgen Benting, Martin S Williamson, T G Emyr Davies, Linda M Field, Chris Bass, Ralf Nauen
The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on the health of bee pollinators is a topic of intensive research and considerable current debate [1]. As insecticides, certain neonicotinoids, i.e., N-nitroguanidine compounds such as imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are as intrinsically toxic to bees as to the insect pests they target. However, this is not the case for all neonicotinoids, with honeybees orders of magnitude less sensitive to N-cyanoamidine compounds such as thiacloprid [2]. Although previous work has suggested that this is due to rapid metabolism of these compounds [2-5], the specific gene(s) or enzyme(s) involved remain unknown...
March 13, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575300/the-costs-and-benefits-of-pollinator-dependence-empirically-based-simulations-predict-raspberry-fruit-quality
#7
Agustín Sáez, Juan M Morales, Carolina L Morales, Lawrence D Harder, Marcelo A Aizen
Globally, agriculture increasingly depends on pollinators to produce many seed and fruit crops. However, what constitutes optimal pollination service for pollinator-dependent crops remains unanswered. We developed a simulation model to identify the optimal pollination service that maximizes fruit quality in crops. The model depicts the pollination (i.e. autonomous self-fertilization, pollen deposition) and post-pollination (i.e. pollen germination, and time from germination to ovule fertilization) processes leading to fruit and seed set and allows for negative flower-pollinator interactions, specifically pistil damage...
March 24, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566159/seasonal-occurrence-of-key-arthropod-pests-and-beneficial-insects-in-michigan-high-tunnel-and-field-grown-raspberries
#8
Heather Leach, Rufus Isaacs
Berry crops are increasingly produced in high tunnels, which provide growers with the opportunity to extend their production season. This is particularly beneficial for the northern region of the United States with short and unpredictable growing seasons and where rainfall limits fruit quality. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnels on the community of pests, natural enemies, or pollinators, especially in berry crops, and there are few reports of the insect community in raspberries in this region...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557238/genetic-variations-of-dna-barcoding-region-of-bumble-bees-hymenoptera-apidae-from-south-korea
#9
Taeman Han, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, In Gyun Park, Haechul Park
We reassessed species diversity and genetic structure in Korean bumble bees using DNA barcode analyses of 484 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 24 morphospecies. Based on COI, all of the Korean species formed distinct clades in the phylogenetic trees, except for Bombus (Megabombus) koreanus in the maximum likelihood tree. Five species exhibited low interspecific genetic distances (range: 1.2-2.7%), indicating that they are recently diverged species. COI data could not be used to identify bumble bees at the subspecies level...
March 20, 2018: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550403/novel-multiplex-pcr-reveals-multiple-trypanosomatid-species-infecting-north-american-bumble-bees-hymenoptera-apidae-bombus
#10
Amber D Tripodi, Allen L Szalanski, James P Strange
Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki (Trypanosomatidae) are common parasites of bumble bees (Bombus spp.). Crithidia bombi was described in the 1980s, and C. expoeki was recently discovered using molecular tools. Both species have cosmopolitan distributions among their bumble bee hosts, but there have been few bumble bee studies that have identified infections to species since the original description of C. expoeki in 2010. Morphological identification of species is difficult due to variability within each stage of their complex lifecycles, although they can be easily differentiated through DNA sequencing...
March 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547374/rarely-reported-widely-distributed-and-unexpectedly-diverse-molecular-characterization-of-mermithid-nematodes-nematoda-mermithidae-infecting-bumble-bees-hymenoptera-apidae-bombus-in-the-usa
#11
Amber D Tripodi, James P Strange
Mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithida: Mermithidae) parasitize a wide range of both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate hosts, yet are recorded in bumble bees (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) only six times historically. Little is known about the specific identity of these parasites. In a single-season nationwide survey of internal parasites of 3646 bumble bees, we encountered six additional instances of mermithid parasitism in four bumble bee species and genetically characterized them using two regions of 18S to identify the specific host-parasite relationships...
March 16, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530975/critical-thermal-limits-of-bumblebees-bombus-impatiens-are-marked-by-stereotypical-behaviors-and-are-unchanged-by-acclimation-age-or-feeding-status
#12
K Jeannet Oyen, Michael E Dillon
Critical thermal limits often determine species distributions for diverse ectotherms and have become a useful tool for understanding past and predicting future range shifts in response to changing climates. Despite recently documented population declines and range shifts of bumblebees (genus Bombus ), the few measurements of thermal tolerance available for the group have relied on disparate measurement approaches. We describe a novel stereotypical behavior expressed by bumblebee individuals during entry into chill coma...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495110/complementary-crops-and-landscape-features-sustain-wild-bee-communities
#13
Kyle T Martins, Cécile H Albert, Martin J Lechowicz, Andrew Gonzalez
Wild bees, which are important for commercial pollination, depend on floral and nesting resources both at farms and in the surrounding landscape. Mass-flowering crops are only in bloom for a few weeks and unable to support bee populations that persist throughout the year. Farm fields and orchards that flower in succession potentially can extend the availability of floral resources for pollinators. However, it is unclear whether the same bee species or genera will forage from one crop to the next, which bees specialize on particular crops, and to what degree inter-crop visitation patterns will be mediated by landscape context...
March 1, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491467/lack-of-spatial-structure-for-phenotypic-and-genetic-variation-despite-high-self-fertilization-in-aquilegia-canadensis-ranunculaceae
#14
M P Bartkowska, Ay-C Wong, S P Sagar, L Zeng, C G Eckert
By reducing genetically effective population size and gene flow, self-fertilization should lead to strong spatial genetic structure (SGS). Although the short-lived plant Aquilegia canadensis produces large, complex, nectar-rich flowers, 75% of seed, on average, are self-fertilized. Previous experimental results are consistent with the fine-scale SGS expected in selfing populations. In contrast, key floral traits show no evidence of SGS, despite a significant genetic basis to phenotypic variation within populations...
March 1, 2018: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488039/identification-of-floral-volatiles-and-pollinator-responses-in-kiwifruit-cultivars-actinidia-chinensis-var-chinensis
#15
A M Twidle, D Barker, A G Seal, B Fedrizzi, D M Suckling
Volatiles emitted from unpollinated in situ flowers were collected from two male cultivars, 'M33', 'M91', and one female cultivar 'Zesy002' (Gold3) of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. chinensis). The samples were found to contain 48 compounds across the three cultivars with terpenes and straight chain alkenes dominating the headspace. Electrophysiological responses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) to the headspace of the kiwifruit flowers were recorded. Honey bees consistently responded to 11 floral volatiles from Gold3 pistillate flowers while bumble bees consistently responded to only five compounds from the pistillate flowers...
April 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391545/effects-of-the-floral-phytochemical-eugenol-on-parasite-evolution-and-bumble-bee-infection-and-preference
#16
Evan C Palmer-Young, Austin C Calhoun, Anastasiya Mirzayeva, Ben M Sadd
Ecological and evolutionary pressures on hosts and parasites jointly determine infection success. In pollinators, parasite exposure to floral phytochemicals may influence between-host transmission and within-host replication. In the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, strains vary in phytochemical resistance, and resistance increases under in vitro selection, implying that resistance/infectivity trade-offs could maintain intraspecific variation in resistance. We assessed costs and benefits of in vitro selection for resistance to the floral phytochemical eugenol on C...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385500/fruit-set-and-single-visit-stigma-pollen-deposition-by-managed-bumble-bees-and-wild-bees-in-citrullus-lanatus-cucurbitales-cucurbitaceae
#17
Joshua W Campbell, Jaret C Daniels, James D Ellis
Pollinators provide essential services for watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.; Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). Managed bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson; Hymenoptera: Apidae), have been shown to be a useful watermelon pollinator in some areas. However, the exact contribution bumble bees make to watermelon pollination and how their contribution compares to that of other bees is unclear. We used large cages (5.4 × 2.5 × 2.4 m) to confine bumble bee hives to watermelon plants and compared fruit set in those cages to cages containing watermelons but no pollinators, and to open areas of field next to cages (allows all pollinators)...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377451/alternative-splicing-associated-with-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-bumble-bee-bombus-terrestris
#18
J Price, M C Harrison, R L Hammond, S Adams, J F Gutierrez-Marcos, E B Mallon
Phenotypic plasticity is when one genome can produce more than one phenotype. The caste system found in many social insects is an important example of plasticity. Several studies have examined gene expression in social insect developmental and caste differences. Changes in gene expression, however, are not the only source of phenotypic plasticity. Here, we investigate the role of alternative splicing in the buff-tailed bumble bee Bombus terrestris. We found that 5,458 genes in B. terrestris (40%) express more than one isoform...
February 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374030/microbiome-structure-influences-infection-by-the-parasite-crithidia-bombi-in-bumble-bees
#19
Blair K Mockler, Waldan K Kwong, Nancy A Moran, Hauke Koch
Recent declines in bumble bee populations are of great concern, and have prompted critical evaluations of the role of pathogen introductions and host resistance in bee health. One factor that may influence host resilience when facing infection is the gut microbiota. Previous experiments with Bombus terrestris , a European bumble bee, showed that the gut microbiota can protect against Crithidia bombi , a widespread trypanosomatid parasite of bumble bees. However, the particular characteristics of the microbiome responsible for this protective effect have thus far eluded identification...
January 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324841/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-nurses-do-not-consume-pollens-based-on-their-nutritional-quality
#20
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Lucy Snyder, Charlotte Meador, Trace Ayotte
Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy as to whether foragers can evaluate the nutritional value of pollens, especially if they do not consume it...
2018: PloS One
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