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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324841/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-nurses-do-not-consume-pollens-based-on-their-nutritional-quality
#1
Vanessa Corby-Harris, Lucy Snyder, Charlotte Meador, Trace Ayotte
Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy as to whether foragers can evaluate the nutritional value of pollens, especially if they do not consume it...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322640/conserved-roles-of-osiris-genes-in-insect-development-polymorphism-and-protection
#2
Chris R Smith, Claire Morandin, Moataz Noureddine, Swati Pant
Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been molded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304093/the-genomes-of-crithidia-bombi-and-c-expoeki-common-parasites-of-bumblebees
#3
Paul Schmid-Hempel, Markus Aebi, Seth Barribeau, Toshihiko Kitajima, Louis du Plessis, Regula Schmid-Hempel, Stefan Zoller
Trypanosomatids (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) are flagellated protozoa containing many parasites of medical or agricultural importance. Among those, Crithidia bombi and C. expoeki, are common parasites in bumble bees around the world, and phylogenetically close to Leishmania and Leptomonas. They have a simple and direct life cycle with one host, and partially castrate the founding queens greatly reducing their fitness. Here, we report the nuclear genome sequences of one clone of each species, extracted from a field-collected infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244130/effects-of-neonicotinoid-imidacloprid-exposure-on-bumble-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-queen-survival-and-nest-initiation
#4
Judy Wu-Smart, Marla Spivak
Neonicotinoids are highly toxic to insects and may systemically translocate to nectar and pollen of plants where foraging bees may become exposed. Exposure to neonicotinoids can induce detrimental sublethal effects on individual and colonies of bees and may have long-term impacts, such as impaired foraging, reduced longevity, and reduced brood care or production. Less well-studied are the potential effects on queen bumble bees that may become exposed while foraging in the spring during colony initiation. This study assessed queen survival and nest founding in caged bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae)] after chronic (18-d) dietary exposure of imidacloprid in syrup (1, 5, 10, and 25 ppb) and pollen (0...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233893/diversification-of-type-vi-secretion-system-toxins-reveals-ancient-antagonism-among-bee-gut-microbes
#5
Margaret I Steele, Waldan K Kwong, Marvin Whiteley, Nancy A Moran
Microbial communities are shaped by interactions among their constituent members. Some Gram-negative bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to inject protein toxins into neighboring cells. These interactions have been theorized to affect the composition of host-associated microbiomes, but the role of T6SSs in the evolution of gut communities is not well understood. We report the discovery of two T6SSs and numerous T6SS-associated Rhs toxins within the gut bacteria of honey bees and bumble bees. We sequenced the genomes of 28 strains of Snodgrassella alvi, a characteristic bee gut microbe, and found tremendous variability in their Rhs toxin complements: altogether, these strains appear to encode hundreds of unique toxins...
December 12, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220412/do-managed-bees-have-negative-effects-on-wild-bees-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Rachel E Mallinger, Hannah R Gaines-Day, Claudio Gratton
Managed bees are critical for crop pollination worldwide. As the demand for pollinator-dependent crops increases, so does the use of managed bees. Concern has arisen that managed bees may have unintended negative impacts on native wild bees, which are important pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. The goal of this study was to synthesize the literature documenting the effects of managed honey bees and bumble bees on wild bees in three areas: (1) competition for floral and nesting resources, (2) indirect effects via changes in plant communities, including the spread of exotic plants and decline of native plants, and (3) transmission of pathogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176720/invasive-plants-as-potential-food-resource-for-native-pollinators-a-case-study-with-two-invasive-species-and-a-generalist-bumble-bee
#7
Maxime Drossart, Denis Michez, Maryse Vanderplanck
It is now well established that invasive plants may induce drifts in the quantity and/or quality of floral resources. They are then often pointed out as a potential driver of bee decline. However, their impact on bee population remains quite unclear and still controversial, as bee responses are highly variable among species. Here, we compared the amino acid composition of pollen from three native and two invasive plant species included in diets of common pollinators in NW Europe. Moreover, the nutritional intake (i...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137123/proteomic-characterization-of-the-venom-of-five-bombus-thoracobombus-species
#8
Nezahat Pınar Barkan, Mustafa Bilal Bayazit, Duygu Ozel Demiralp
Venomous animals use venom, a complex biofluid composed of unique mixtures of proteins and peptides, to act on vital systems of the prey or predator. In bees, venom is solely used for defense against predators. However, the venom composition of bumble bees (Bombus sp.) is largely unknown. The Thoracobombus subgenus of Bombus sp. is a diverse subgenus represented by 14 members across Turkey. In this study, we sought out to proteomically characterize the venom of five Thoracobombus species by using bottom-up proteomic techniques...
November 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133226/the-effect-of-dietary-neonicotinoid-pesticides-on-non-flight-thermogenesis-in-worker-bumble-bees-bombus-terrestris
#9
Robert Potts, Rebecca M Clarke, Sophie E Oldfield, Lisa K Wood, Natalie Hempel de Ibarra, James E Cresswell
For bumble bees (genus Bombus), the capacity for non-flight thermogenesis is essential for two fundamental processes undertaken by adult workers, namely recovery from torpor after chilling and brood incubation. Farmland bees can be widely exposed to dietary residues of neurotoxic neonicotinoid insecticides that appear in the nectar and pollen of treated bee-attractive crops, which may harm them. An earlier study shows that dietary neonicotinoids cause complex alterations to thermoregulation in honey bees, but their effects on the thermogenic capabilities of individual bumble bees has been untested previously...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118643/an-early-miocene-bumble-bee-from-northern-bohemia-hymenoptera-apidae
#10
Jakub Prokop, Manuel Dehon, Denis Michez, Michael S Engel
A new species of fossil bumble bee (Apinae: Bombini) is described and figured from Early Miocene (Burdigalian) deposits of the Most Basin at the Bílina Mine, Czech Republic. Bombus trophoniussp. n., is placed within the subgenus Cullumanobombus Vogt and distinguished from the several species groups therein. The species is apparently most similar to the Nearctic B. (Cullumanobombus) rufocinctus Cresson, the earliest-diverging species within the clade and the two may be related only by symplesiomorphies. The age of the fossil is in rough accordance with divergence estimations for Cullumanobombus...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102645/caste-differences-in-the-association-between-dopamine-and-reproduction-in-the-bumble-bee-bombus-ignitus
#11
Ken Sasaki, Hinako Matsuyama, Naruaki Morita, Masato Ono
A society of bumble bees is primitively eusocial, with an annual life cycle, and can be used as a physiological model of social bees for comparative studies with highly eusocial hymenopterans. We investigated the dynamics of biogenic amine levels in the brain, meso-metathoracic ganglia, terminal abdominal ganglion, and hemolymph in queens 1 day after mating (1DAM), during diapause (Dp), and during colony founding (CF) in the bumble bee, Bombus ignitus. Dopamine levels in the brain of CF queens were significantly lower than in 1DAM and Dp queens, and the levels in the thoracic ganglia and hemolymph in CF queens were lower than in 1DAM queens, but did not differ from other groups in the abdominal ganglion...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075439/evaluation-of-pollinator-effectiveness-based-on-pollen-deposition-and-seed-production-in-a-gynodieocious-alpine-plant-cyananthus-delavayi
#12
Hao Wang, Guo-Xing Cao, Lin-Lin Wang, Yong-Ping Yang, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Yuan-Wen Duan
Examining variations in pollinator effectiveness can enhance our understanding of how pollinators and plants interact. Pollen deposition and seed production after a single visit by a pollinator are often used to estimate pollinator effectiveness. However, seed production is not always directly related to pollen deposition because not all pollen grains that are deposited on a stigma are compatible or conspecific. In the field, we tested pollinator effectiveness based on pollen deposition and the resulting seed production after single visits by different pollinator groups in a gynodieocious alpine plant Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae)...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069524/small-but-attractive-female-biased-nectar-production-and-floral-visitors-in-a-dimorphic-shrub
#13
Cinthya Cervantes, Anai Alvarez, Eduardo Cuevas
In sexually dimorphic species, hermaphrodite flowers in gynodioecious species, or male flowers in dioecious species, often are larger and produce more nectar than their conspecific female flowers. As a consequence, hermaphrodite or male flowers frequently receive more pollinator visits. Sex ratio, flower size, floral display, nectar production and floral visits were evaluated in two natural populations of Fuchsia thymifolia, a morphologically gynodioecious but functionally subdioecious insect-pollinated shrub...
October 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069309/vegetation-management-and-host-density-influence-bee-parasite-interactions-in-urban-gardens
#14
Hamutahl Cohen, Robyn D Quistberg, Stacy M Philpott
Apocephalus borealis phorid flies, a parasitoid of bumble bees and yellow jacket wasps in North America, was recently reported as a novel parasitoid of the honey bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Little is known about the ecology of this interaction, including phorid fecundity on bee hosts, whether phorid-bee parasitism is density dependent, and which local habitat and landscape features may correlate with changes in parasitism rates for either bumble or honey bees. We examined the impact of local and landscape drivers and host abundance on phorid parasitism of A...
October 23, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053686/empirical-metagenomic-and-computational-techniques-illuminate-the-mechanisms-by-which-fungicides-compromise-bee-health
#15
Shawn A Steffan, Prarthana S Dharampal, Luis Diaz-Garcia, Cameron R Currie, Juan Zalapa, Chris Todd Hittinger
Growers often use fungicide sprays during bloom to protect crops against disease, which exposes bees to fungicide residues. Although considered "bee-safe," there is mounting evidence that fungicide residues in pollen are associated with bee declines (for both honey and bumble bee species). While the mechanisms remain relatively unknown, researchers have speculated that bee-microbe symbioses are involved. Microbes play a pivotal role in the preservation and/or processing of pollen, which serves as nutrition for larval bees...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991419/synergistic-interactions-between-a-variety-of-insecticides-and-an-ebi-fungicide-in-dietary-exposures-of-bumble-bees-bombus-terrestris-l
#16
Risto Raimets, Reet Karise, Marika Mänd, Tanel Kaart, Sally Ponting, Jimao Song, James E Cresswell
BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over honey bee colony losses, and also among wild bees there is evidence for extinctions and range contractions in Europe and North America. Pesticides have been proposed as a potential cause of this decline. Bees are exposed simultaneously to variety of agrochemicals, which may cause synergistically detrimental impacts, which are incompletely understood. We investigated the toxicity of the fungicide imazalil in mixture with four common insecticides: fipronil (phenylpyrazoid); cypermethrin (pyrethroid); thiamethoxam; and imidacloprid (neonicotinoids)...
October 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973006/modelling-patterns-of-pollinator-species-richness-and-diversity-using-satellite-image-texture
#17
Sylvia Hofmann, Jeroen Everaars, Oliver Schweiger, Mark Frenzel, Lutz Bannehr, Anna F Cord
Assessing species richness and diversity on the basis of standardised field sampling effort represents a cost- and time-consuming method. Satellite remote sensing (RS) can help overcome these limitations because it facilitates the collection of larger amounts of spatial data using cost-effective techniques. RS information is hence increasingly analysed to model biodiversity across space and time. Here, we focus on image texture measures as a proxy for spatial habitat heterogeneity, which has been recognized as an important determinant of species distributions and diversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957466/queens-and-workers-contribute-differently-to-adaptive-evolution-in-bumble-bees-and-honey-bees
#18
Brock A Harpur, Alivia Dey, Jennifer R Albert, Sani Patel, Heather M Hines, Martin Hasselmann, Laurence Packer, Amro Zayed
Eusociality represents a major transition in evolution and is typified by cooperative brood care and reproductive division of labor between generations. In bees, this division of labor allows queens and workers to phenotypically specialize. Worker traits associated with helping are thought to be crucial to the fitness of a eusocial lineage, and recent studies of honey bees (genus Apis) have found that adaptively evolving genes often have worker-biased expression patterns. It is unclear however if worker-biased genes are disproportionately acted on by strong positive selection in all eusocial insects...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904775/how-shrub-encroachment-under-climate-change-could-threaten-pollination-services-for-alpine-wildflowers-a-case-study-using-the-alpine-skypilot-polemonium-viscosum
#19
Jessica A Kettenbach, Nicole Miller-Struttmann, Zoë Moffett, Candace Galen
Under climate change, shrubs encroaching into high altitude plant communities disrupt ecosystem processes. Yet effects of encroachment on pollination mutualisms are poorly understood. Here, we probe potential fitness impacts of interference from encroaching Salix (willows) on pollination quality of the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. Overlap in flowering time of Salix and Polemonium is a precondition for interference and was surveyed in four extant and 25 historic contact zones. Pollinator sharing was ascertained from observations of willow pollen on bumble bees visiting Polemonium flowers and on Polemonium pistils...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889327/a-linkage-between-flowering-phenology-and-fruit-set-success-of-alpine-plant-communities-with-reference-to-the-seasonality-and-pollination-effectiveness-of-bees-and-flies
#20
Yuki Mizunaga, Gaku Kudo
To clarify the linkage between flowering phenology and pollination success in alpine plant communities, we quantified the seasonality of flower visitors, the temporal transition of floral resources, and the variation in pollination success of alpine plants in northern Japan. Bumble bees, syrphid flies, and non-syrphid flies were the predominant flower visitors. Foraging activity of bumble bees increased toward the late flowering period reflecting the life cycle of colony development. The activity of syrphid flies was sensitive to ambient temperature, while that of non-syrphid flies remained high throughout the season...
November 2017: Oecologia
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