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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926592/polish-physicians-cooperation-with-the-pharmaceutical-industry-and-its-potential-impact-on-public-health
#1
Marta Makowska
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health. METHODS: It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians' website (Medycyna Praktyczna) between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926390/misconceptions-misuses-and-misinterpretations-of-p-values-and-significance-testing
#2
Joel J Gagnier, Hal Morgenstern
The interpretation and reporting of p values and significance testing in biomedical research are fraught with misconceptions and inaccuracies. Publications of peer-reviewed research in orthopaedics are not immune to such problems. The American Statistical Association (ASA) recently published an official statement on the use, misuse, and misinterpretation of statistical testing and p values in applied research. The ASA statement discussed 6 principles: (1) "P-values can indicate how incompatible the data are with a specified statistical model...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926344/the-effect-of-severity-of-illness-on-spine-surgery-costs-across-new-york-state-hospitals-an-analysis-of-69-831-cases
#3
I David Kaye, Murillo Adrados, Raj J Karia, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Joseph A Bosco
STUDY DESIGN: Observational database review. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of patient severity of illness (SOI) on the cost of spine surgery among New York state hospitals. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: National health care spending has risen at an unsustainable rate with musculoskeletal care, and spine surgery in particular, accounting for a significant portion of this expenditure. In an effort towards cost-containment, health care payers are exploring novel payment models some of which reward cost savings but penalize excessive spending...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926070/surface-immobilized-azomethine-for-multiple-component-exchange
#4
Michael Lerond, Daniel Bélanger, W G Skene
Diazonium chemistry concomitant with in situ electrochemical reduction was used to graft an aryl aldehyde to indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. This served as an anchor for preparing electroactive azomethines that were covalently bonded to the transparent electrode. The immobilized azomethines could undergo multiple step-wise component exchanges with different arylamines. The write-erase-write sequences were electrochemically confirmed. The azomethines could also be reversibly hydrolyzed. This was exploited for multiple azomethine-hydrolysis cycles resulting in discrete electroactive immobilized azomethines...
September 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925967/enabling-large-scale-iot-based-services-through-elastic-publish-subscribe
#5
Sergio Vavassori, Javier Soriano, Rafael Fernández
In this paper, we report an algorithm that is designed to leverage the cloud as infrastructure to support Internet of Things (IoT) by elastically scaling in/out so that IoT-based service users never stop receiving sensors' data. This algorithm is able to provide an uninterrupted service to end users even during the scaling operation since its internal state repartitioning is transparent for publishers or subscribers; its scaling operation is time-bounded and depends only on the dimension of the state partitions to be transmitted to the different nodes...
September 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925951/transparent-pullulan-mica-nanocomposite-coatings-with-outstanding-oxygen-barrier-properties
#6
Ilke Uysal Unalan, Derya Boyacı, Silvia Trabattoni, Silvia Tavazzi, Stefano Farris
This study presents a new bionanocomposite coating on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) made of pullulan and synthetic mica. Mica nanolayers have a very high aspect ratio (α), at levels much greater than that of conventional exfoliated clay layers (e.g., montmorillonite). A very small amount of mica (0.02 wt %, which is ϕ ≈ 0.00008) in pullulan coatings dramatically improved the oxygen barrier performance of the nanocomposite films under dry conditions, however, this performance was partly lost as the environmental relative humidity (RH) increased...
September 19, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925929/canadian-guidelines-for-controlled-pediatric-donation-after-circulatory-determination-of-death-summary-report
#7
Matthew J Weiss, Laura Hornby, Bram Rochwerg, Michael van Manen, Sonny Dhanani, V Ben Sivarajan, Amber Appleby, Mary Bennett, Daniel Buchman, Catherine Farrell, Aviva Goldberg, Rebecca Greenberg, Ram Singh, Thomas A Nakagawa, William Witteman, Jill Barter, Allon Beck, Kevin Coughlin, Alf Conradi, Cynthia Cupido, Rosanne Dawson, Anne Dipchand, Darren Freed, Karen Hornby, Valerie Langlois, Cheryl Mack, Meagan Mahoney, Deepak Manhas, Christopher Tomlinson, Samara Zavalkoff, Sam D Shemie
OBJECTIVES: Create trustworthy, rigorous, national clinical practice guidelines for the practice of pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death in Canada. METHODS: We followed a process of clinical practice guideline development based on World Health Organization and Canadian Medical Association methods. This included application of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Questions requiring recommendations were generated based on 1) 2006 Canadian donation after circulatory determination of death guidelines (not pediatric specific), 2) a multidisciplinary symposium of national and international pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death leaders, and 3) a scoping review of the pediatric donation after circulatory determination of death literature...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924688/the-barrier-to-informed-choice-in-cancer-screening-statistical-illiteracy-in-physicians-and-patients
#8
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924230/two-step-excitation-in-hot-atomic-sodium-vapor
#9
Bernd Docters, Jörg Wrachtrup, Ilja Gerhardt
A two step excitation scheme in hot atomic sodium vapor is experimentally investigated. The observed effects reflect a coupling between the 3(2)S, 3(2)P and the 3(2)D states. We present the relative dependence on detuning of the two utilized lasers around λ = 589 nm and 819 nm. Unlike expected, we achieve a higher detuning dependence of the probe and the coupling laser by a factor of approximately three. The presented work aimed for a Rydberg excitation and quantum light storage. Such schemes are usually implemented with a red laser on the D-line transition and a coupling laser of shorter (typically blue) wavelength...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924173/interfacial-origin-of-the-magnetisation-suppression-of-thin-film-yttrium-iron-garnet
#10
A Mitra, O Cespedes, Q Ramasse, M Ali, S Marmion, M Ward, R M D Brydson, C J Kinane, J F K Cooper, S Langridge, B J Hickey
Yttrium iron garnet has a very high Verdet constant, is transparent in the infrared and is an insulating ferrimagnet leading to its use in optical and magneto-optical applications. Its high Q-factor has been exploited to make resonators and filters in microwave devices, but it also has the lowest magnetic damping of any known material. In this article we describe the structural and magnetic properties of single crystal thin-film YIG where the temperature dependence of the magnetisation reveals a decrease in the low temperature region...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924055/what-does-expert-opinion-in-guidelines-mean-a-meta-epidemiological-study
#11
Oscar J Ponce, Neri Alvarez-Villalobos, Raj Shah, Khaled Mohammed, Rebecca L Morgan, Shahnaz Sultan, Yngve Falck-Ytter, Larry J Prokop, Philipp Dahm, Reem A Mustafa, Mohammad H Murad
Guidelines often use the term expert opinion (EO) to qualify recommendations. We sought to identify the rationale and evidence type in EO recommendations. We searched multiple databases and websites for contemporary guidelines published in the last decade that used the term EO. We identified 1106 references, of which 69 guidelines were included (2390 recommendations, of which 907 were qualified as EO). A rationale for using EO designation was not provided in most (91%) recommendations. The most commonly cited evidence type was extrapolated from studies that did not answer guideline question (40% from randomised trials, 38% from observational studies and 2% from case reports or series)...
September 18, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923968/soft-tubular-microfluidics-for-2d-and-3d-applications
#12
Wang Xi, Fang Kong, Joo Chuan Yeo, Longteng Yu, Surabhi Sonam, Ming Dao, Xiaobo Gong, Chwee Teck Lim
Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923928/transparent-conformable-active-multielectrode-array-using-organic-electrochemical-transistors
#13
Wonryung Lee, Dongmin Kim, Naoji Matsuhisa, Masae Nagase, Masaki Sekino, George G Malliaras, Tomoyuki Yokota, Takao Someya
Mechanically flexible active multielectrode arrays (MEA) have been developed for local signal amplification and high spatial resolution. However, their opaqueness limited optical observation and light stimulation during use. Here, we show a transparent, ultraflexible, and active MEA, which consists of transparent organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) and transparent Au grid wirings. The transparent OECT is made of Au grid electrodes and has shown comparable performance with OECTs with nontransparent electrodes/wirings...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923006/repeat-a-framework-to-assess-empirical-reproducibility-in-biomedical-research
#14
Leslie D McIntosh, Anthony Juehne, Cynthia R H Vitale, Xiaoyan Liu, Rosalia Alcoser, J Christian Lukas, Bradley Evanoff
BACKGROUND: The reproducibility of research is essential to rigorous science, yet significant concerns of the reliability and verifiability of biomedical research have been recently highlighted. Ongoing efforts across several domains of science and policy are working to clarify the fundamental characteristics of reproducibility and to enhance the transparency and accessibility of research. METHODS: The aim of the proceeding work is to develop an assessment tool operationalizing key concepts of research transparency in the biomedical domain, specifically for secondary biomedical data research using electronic health record data...
September 18, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922479/highly-conductive-and-transparent-large-area-bilayer-graphene-realized-by-mocl5-intercalation
#15
Hiroki Kinoshita, Il Jeon, Mina Maruyama, Kenji Kawahara, Yuri Terao, Dong Ding, Rika Matsumoto, Yutaka Matsuo, Susumu Okada, Hiroki Ago
Bilayer graphene (BLG) comprises a 2D nanospace sandwiched by two parallel graphene sheets that can be used to intercalate molecules or ions for attaining novel functionalities. However, intercalation is mostly demonstrated with small, exfoliated graphene flakes. This study demonstrates intercalation of molybdenum chloride (MoCl5 ) into a large-area, uniform BLG sheet, which is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This study reveals that the degree of MoCl5 intercalation strongly depends on the stacking order of the graphene; twist-stacked graphene shows a much higher degree of intercalation than AB-stacked...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922328/minor-salivary-gland-transplantation-for-severe-dry-eyes
#16
Tais Hitomi Wakamatsu, Ana Estela Besteti Pires Ponce SantʼAnna, Priscila Cardoso Cristovam, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira Alves, Alda Wakamatsu, José Alvaro Pereira Gomes
Dry eye is a multifactorial disease comprising a wide spectrum of ocular surface alterations and symptoms of discomfort. In most patients with aqueous-deficient dry eye, pharmaceutical tear substitutes are used to control symptoms and prevent ocular surface damage. However, in severe dry eye conditions caused by cicatricial disorders, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and ocular cicatricial mucous membrane pemphigoid, noninvasive treatments are insufficient, and patients are at risk of developing complications that can lead to blindness...
September 15, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922126/functional-contour-following-via-haptic-perception-and-reinforcement-learning
#17
Randall B Hellman, Cem Tekin, Mihaela van der Schaar, Veronica J Santos
Many tasks involve the fine manipulation of objects despite limited visual feedback. In such scenarios, tactile and proprioceptive feedback can be leveraged for task completion. We present an approach for real-time haptic perception and decision-making for a haptics-driven, functional contour-following task: the closure of a ziplock bag. This task is challenging for robots because the bag is deformable, transparent, and visually occluded by artificial fingertip sensors that are also compliant. A deep neural net classifier was trained to estimate the state of a zipper within a robot's pinch grasp...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922062/online-educational-tool-to-promote-bone-health-in-cancer-survivors
#18
Jude K A des Bordes, Maria E Suarez-Almazor, Robert J Volk, Huifang Lu, Beatrice Edwards, Maria A Lopez-Olivo
Osteoporosis burden is significant in cancer survivors. Websites providing health information abound, but their development, quality, and source of information remain unclear. Our aim was to use a systematic and transparent approach to create an educational website on bone health, and to evaluate its potential to improve knowledge, self-management, and awareness in prostate cancer (PCa) and breast cancer (BCa) survivors. Guided by the Health Belief Model, we created a website using international standards and evaluated it in 10 PCa and 10 BCa survivors with self-administered questionnaire before, after, and 1 month after navigating the website...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921802/environmental-dna-metabarcoding-transforming-how-we-survey-animal-and-plant-communities
#19
Kristy Deiner, Holly M Bik, Elvira Mächler, Mathew Seymour, Anaïs Lacoursière-Roussel, Florian Altermatt, Simon Creer, Iliana Bista, David M Lodge, Natasha de Vere, Michael E Pfrender, Louis Bernatchez
The genomic revolution has fundamentally changed how we survey biodiversity on earth. High-throughput sequencing ('HTS') platforms now enable the rapid sequencing of DNA from diverse kinds of environmental samples (termed 'environmental DNA' or 'eDNA'). Coupling HTS with our ability to associate sequences from eDNA with a taxonomic name is called 'eDNA metabarcoding' and offers a powerful molecular tool capable of non-invasively surveying species richness from many ecosystems. Here, we review the use of eDNA metabarcoding for surveying animal and plant richness, and the challenges in using eDNA approaches to estimate relative abundance...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920715/the-mixed-message-behind-medication-assisted-treatment-for-substance-use-disorder
#20
Sean M Robinson, Bryon Adinoff
The gap between treatment utilization and treatment need for substance use disorders (SUDs) remains a significant concern in our field. While the growing call to bridge this gap often takes the form of more treatment services and/or better integration of existing services, this perspective proposes that more effective labels for and transparent descriptions of existing services would also have a meaningful impact. Adopting the perspective of a consumer-based health-care model (wherein treatments and services are products and patients are consumers) allows us to consider how labels like Addiction-focused Medical Management, Medication-Assisted Treatment, Medication-Assisted Therapy, and others may actually be contributing to the underutilization problem rather than alleviating it...
September 18, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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