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Kurtis H Dekker, Rubin Hazarika, Matheus A Silveira, Kevin J Jordan
Optical cone beam computed tomography (CT) scanning of radiochromic gel dosimeters, using a CCD camera and a low stray light convergent source, provides fast, truly 3D radiation dosimetry with high accuracy. However, a key limiting factor in radiochromic gel dosimetry at large (⩾10 cm diameter) volumes is the initial attenuation of the dosimeters. It is not unusual to observe a 5-10×  difference in signal intensity through the dosimeter center versus through the surrounding medium in pre-irradiation images...
March 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Azadeh Rahimi Chatri, Solmaz Torabi, Vincent Marc Le Corre, L Jan Anton Koster
In recent years, the efficiency of organic solar cells (OSCs) has increased to more than 13%, while different barriers are on the way for reaching higher efficiencies. One crucial barrier is the recombination of charge carriers, which can either occur as the bulk recombination of photogenerated charges or the recombination of photogenerated charges and electrodic induced charges (EICs). This work studies the impact of EICs on the recombination lifetime in OSCs. To this end, the net recombination lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers in the presence of EICs is measured by means of conventional and newly developed transient photovoltage techniques...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ze Yang, Xiangyan Shen, Ning Wang, Jianjiang He, Xiaodong Li, Xin Wang, Zhufeng Hou, Kun Wang, Juan Gao, Tonggang Jiu, Changshui Huang
The qualitative and quantitative nitrogen-doping strategy for carbon materials is reported here. Novel porous nanocarbon networks pyrimidine-graphdiyne (PM-GDY) and pyridine-graphdiyne (PY-GDY) films with large areas were successfully prepared. These films are self-supported, uniform, continuous, flexible, transparent, and quantitively doped with merely pyridine-like nitrogen (N) atoms through the facile chemical synthesis route. Theoretical predictions imply these N doped carbonaceous materials are much favorable for storing lithium (Li)-ions since the pyridinic N can enhance the interrelated binding energy...
March 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Catherine Delves-Yates, Andrea Stockl, Jenny Moore
BACKGROUND: Concept analysis is frequently the first step novice nurse researchers take when beginning their work. However, the value of concept analysis in generating theory is debated, and although there are many models researchers can use, few provide guidance for applying them or overviews of their philosophical underpinnings. AIM: To share learning about challenges encountered when undertaking concept analysis and to present an adaptation of Rodgers ( 1989 ) model created to overcome these...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
David Vernez, Sandrine Fraize-Frontier, Raymond Vincent, Stéphane Binet, Christophe Rousselle
OBJECTIVES: Assessment factors (AFs) are commonly used for deriving reference concentrations for chemicals. These factors take into account variabilities as well as uncertainties in the dataset, such as inter-species and intra-species variabilities or exposure duration extrapolation or extrapolation from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) to the noobserved- adverse-effect level (NOAEL). In a deterministic approach, the value of an AF is the result of a debate among experts and, often a conservative value is used as a default choice...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Rebecca L Cunningham, Kelly R Monk
The optical transparency of zebrafish larvae enables live imaging. Here we describe the methodology for live imaging and detail how to mount larvae for live imaging of Schwann cell development.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrew R Christiansen, Rami M Shorti, Cory D Smith, William C Prows, Jay T Bishoff
PURPOSE: Despite the increasing use of advanced 3D imaging techniques and 3D printing, these techniques have not yet been comprehensively compared in a surgical setting. The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of five different advanced imaging modalities during a complex renal surgical procedure. METHODS: A patient with a horseshoe kidney and multiple large, symptomatic stones that had failed Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) and ureteroscopy treatment was used for this evaluation...
March 15, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Peter Khooshabeh, Gale Lucas
The cyber domain of military operations presents many challenges. A unique element is the social dynamic between cyber operators and their leadership because of the novel subject matter expertise involved in conducting technical cyber tasks, so there will be situations where senior leaders might have much less domain knowledge or no experience at all relative to the warfighters who report to them. Nonetheless, it will be important for junior cyber operators to convey convincing information relevant to a mission in order to persuade or influence a leader to make informed decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Morgane Dolhen, Masayuki Tanaka, Vincent Couderc, Sébastien Chenu, Gaëlle Delaizir, Tomokatsu Hayakawa, Julie Cornette, François Brisset, Maggy Colas, Philippe Thomas, Jean-René Duclère
We report on the laser emission of the polycrystalline ceramic obtained from the full and congruent crystallization of the parent glass 1Nd3+ :75TeO2 -12.5Bi2 O3 -12.5Nb2 O5 composition. In particular, the current work underlines the importance of carefully controlling the heat treatment in order to solely crystallize the Bi0.8 Nb0.8 Te2.4 O8 cubic phase and consequently avoid the formation of the BiNbTe2 O8 orthorhombic phase that would be detrimental for optical purpose. The structure, microstructure and photoluminescence properties of the resulting transparent tellurite ceramics are characterized...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heidi Lourens, Brian Watermeyer, Leslie Swartz
PURPOSE: Scholars agree that effective rehabilitation relies on a bedrock of reciprocity, relational trust, and authenticity. It is therefore essential for practitioners to develop insight into the complex dynamics within helping relationships. This study aims to provide an in-depth understanding of visually impaired students' experience of informal helping relationships. METHODS: Ten visually impaired students at a South African university participated in one of two semi-structured focus group interviews (six and four in each group, respectively) wherein we explored their experience of informal helping relationships...
March 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Freeda Yesudas, Mark Mero, Janina Kneipp, Zsuzsanna Heiner
Broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation (BB-VSFG) spectroscopy has become a well-established surface analytical tool capable of identifying the orientation and structure of molecular layers. A straightforward way to boost the sensitivity of the technique could be to increase the laser repetition rate beyond that of standard BB-VSFG spectrometers, which rely on Ti:sapphire lasers operating at repetition rates of 1-5 kHz. Nevertheless, possible thermally induced artifacts in the vibrational spectra due to higher laser average powers are unexplored...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alberto Gómez, Manuel Nieto-Díaz, Ángela Del Águila, Enrique Arias
Transparency in science is increasingly a hot topic. Scientists are required to show not only results but also evidence of how they have achieved these results. In experimental studies of spinal cord injury, there are a number of standardized tests, such as the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale for rats and Basso Mouse Scale for mice, which researchers use to study the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury and to evaluate the effects of experimental therapies. Although the standardized data from the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan locomotor rating scale and the Basso Mouse Scale are particularly suited for storage and sharing in databases, systems of data acquisition and repositories are still lacking...
March 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Coleen T Nemes, John R Swierk, Charles A Schmuttenmaer
Terahertz spectroscopy is broadly applicable for the study of a wide variety of materials, but spectroelectrochemistry has not been performed in the THz range due to the lack of a THz-transparent electrochemical cell. While THz-transparent electrodes do exist, they had never been utilized in a complete three-electrode cell, which is the configuration required for accurate potential control in aqueous media. We have designed and constructed a THz-transparent three-electrode elec-trochemical cell and have performed THz spectroelectrochemistry of a SnO2 thin film...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Debanti Sengupta, Tae Jin Kim, Sepideh Almasi, Stuart Miller, Zsolt Marton, Vivek Nagarkar, Guillem Pratx
Radioluminescence microscopy is an emerging modality that can be used to image radionuclide probes with micron-scale resolution. This technique is particularly useful as a way to probe the metabolic behavior of single cells and to screen and characterize radiopharmaceuticals, but the quality of the images is critically dependent on the scintillator material used to image the cells. In this paper, we detail the development of a microscopy dish made of a thin-film scintillating material, Lu2O3:Eu, that could be used as the blueprint for a future consumable product...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Junling Long, H S Ku, Xian Wu, Xiu Gu, Russell E Lake, Mustafa Bal, Yu-Xi Liu, David P Pappas
Quantum networks will enable extraordinary capabilities for communicating and processing quantum information. These networks require a reliable means of storage, retrieval, and manipulation of quantum states at the network nodes. A node receives one or more coherent inputs and sends a conditional output to the next cascaded node in the network through a quantum channel. Here, we demonstrate this basic functionality by using the quantum interference mechanism of electromagnetically induced transparency in a transmon qubit coupled to a superconducting resonator...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Michele J Upvall, Jeanne M Leffers
OBJECTIVES: Models to guide global health partnerships are rare in the nursing literature. The Conceptual Model for Partnership and Sustainability in Global Health while significant was based on Western perspectives. The purpose of this study was to revise the model to include the voice of nurses from low- and middle-resource countries. DESIGN AND SAMPLE: Grounded theory was used to maintain fidelity with the design in the original model. A purposive sample of 15 participants from a variety of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia and having extensive experience in global health partnerships were interviewed...
March 15, 2018: Public Health Nursing
Hitoyoshi Yasuo, Alex McDougall
Phallusia mammillata has recently emerged as a new ascidian model. Its unique characteristics, including the optical transparency of eggs and embryos and efficient translation of exogenously introduced mRNA in eggs, make the Phallusia system suitable for fluorescent protein (FP)-based imaging approaches. In addition, genomic and transcriptomic resources are readily available for this ascidian species, facilitating functional gene studies. Microinjection is probably the most versatile technique for introducing exogenous molecules such as plasmids, mRNAs, and proteins into ascidian eggs/embryos...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
O A Smolyanskaya, I J Schelkanova, M S Kulya, E L Odlyanitskiy, I S Goryachev, A N Tcypkin, Ya V Grachev, Ya G Toropova, V V Tuchin
The optical clearing method has been widely used for different spectral ranges where it provides tissue transparency. In this work, we observed the enhanced penetration of the terahertz waves inside biological samples (skin, kidney, and cornea) treated with glycerol solutions inducing changes of optical and dielectric properties. It was supported by the observed trend of free-to-bound water ratio measured by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method. The terahertz clearing efficiency was found to be less for diabetic samples than for normal ones...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Ina Willemsen, Jan Kluytmans
Background: Infection control needs user-friendly standardized instruments to measure the compliance to guidelines and to implement targeted improvement actions. This abstract describes a tool to measure the quality of infection control and antimicrobial use, the Infection Risk Scan (IRIS). It has been applied in a hospital, several nursing homes and a rehabilitation clinic in the Netherlands. Method: The IRIS consists of a set of objective reproducible measurements, combining patient- and healthcare related variables, such as: hand hygiene compliance, environmental contamination using ATP measurements, prevalence of resistant microorganisms by active screening, availability of infection control preconditions, personal hygiene of healthcare workers, appropriate use of indwelling medical devices and appropriate use of antimicrobials...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Iain Rankin, Haroon Rehman, Mark Frame
Background: Traditional ACL reconstruction with non-anatomic techniques can demonstrate unsatisfactory long-term outcomes with regards instability and the degenerative knee changes observed with these results. Anatomic ACL reconstruction attempts to closely reproduce the patient's individual anatomic characteristics with the aim of restoring knee kinematics, in order to improve patient short and long-term outcomes. We designed an arthroscopic, patient-specific, ACL femoral tunnel guide to aid anatomical placement of the ACL graft within the femoral tunnel...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
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