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Children who travel

Meimei Ji, Amber Tang, Yefu Zhang, Jiaojiao Zou, Guangyu Zhou, Jing Deng, Lina Yang, Mingzhi Li, Jihua Chen, Hong Qin, Qian Lin
BACKGROUND: Pediatric overweight and obesity has become a major public health problem in China. The goal of this study is to understand overweight and obesity in preschool children in Changsha City in the context of their sleep and physical activity. These results offer feasible proposals to reduce levels of overweight and obesity among preschool children. METHODS: A total of 112 preschoolers aged three to six years old were investigated using multiple stage stratified cluster sampling and simple random sampling...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ann Jagger, Silke Reiter-Karam, Yohhei Hamada, Haileyesus Getahun
Objective: To review policies on management of latent tuberculosis infection in countries with low and high burdens of tuberculosis. Methods: We divided countries reporting data to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Programme into low and high tuberculosis burden, based on WHO criteria. We identified national policy documents on management of latent tuberculosis through online searches, government websites, WHO country offices and personal communication with programme managers...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Eugenia Bruzzese, Antonietta Giannattasio, Alfredo Guarino
Antibiotic therapy is not necessary for acute diarrhea in children, as rehydration is the key treatment and symptoms resolve generally without specific therapy. Searching for the etiology of gastroenteritis is not usually needed; however, it may be necessary if antimicrobial treatment is considered. The latter is left to the physician evaluation in the absence of clear indications. Antimicrobial treatment should be considered in severely sick children, in those who have chronic conditions or specific risk factors or in specific settings...
2018: F1000Research
Panagiotis Krepis, Maria Papasotiriou, Maria N Tsolia, Alexandra Soldatou
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess parental behavior in terms of child restraint systems (CRS) use under emergency conditions while driving to the hospital's outpatient settings as well as their routine child car safety (CCS) practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents/caregivers transporting children 13 years or younger was conducted at the Emergency Treatment Center of a pediatric tertiary care center in Athens, Greece. Participants completed a questionnaire inquiring about the possession of CRS, and type and use of appropriate CRS while driving to the Emergency Treatment Center and under routine conditions...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Deborah R Liptzin, Steven H Abman, Ann Giesenhagen, D Dunbar Ivy
Liptzin, Deborah R., Steven H. Abman, Ann Giesenhagen, and D. Dunbar Ivy. An approach to children with pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of high-altitude illness can be more challenging in children, especially those who are preverbal. Families often travel to high elevations for family vacations, either for skiing, hiking, and/or camping. They may present to their primary care providers looking for anticipatory guidance before travel or may follow-up after developing high-altitude illness...
February 22, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Paul Torpiano, David Pace
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean Spotted Fever (MSF) is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia conorii which is endemic in Malta, an island in the South Mediterranean that is a popular tourist destination. Diagnosis is frequently based on clinical manifestations as laboratory results are often limited to a retrospective diagnosis. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of children <16 years who presented with MSF from 2011 to 2016. METHOD: The demographics, clinical findings, laboratory results, management and outcome of all children hospitalised with suspected MSF based on the presence of fever and an eschar, were retrieved from their case notes...
February 17, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Tigist Astale, Eshetu Sata, Mulat Zerihun, Andrew W Nute, Aisha E P Stewart, Demelash Gessesse, Gedefaw Ayenew, Berhanu Melak, Melsew Chanyalew, Zerihun Tadesse, E Kelly Callahan, Scott D Nash
BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. In communities where the district level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular among children ages 1-9 years is ≥5%, WHO recommends annual mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics with the aim of at least 80% coverage. Population-based post-MDA coverage surveys are essential to understand the effectiveness of MDA programs, yet published reports from trachoma programs are rare. METHODS: In the Amhara region of Ethiopia, a population-based MDA coverage survey was conducted 3 weeks following the 2016 MDA to estimate the zonal prevalence of self-reported drug coverage in all 10 administrative zones...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Oriol Mitjà, Charmie Godornes, Wendy Houinei, August Kapa, Raymond Paru, Haina Abel, Camila González-Beiras, Sibauk V Bieb, James Wangi, Alyssa E Barry, Sergi Sanz, Quique Bassat, Sheila A Lukehart
BACKGROUND: Yaws is a substantial cause of chronic disfiguring ulcers in children in at least 14 countries in the tropics. WHO's newly adopted strategy for yaws eradication uses a single round of mass azithromycin treatment followed by targeted treatment programmes, and data from pilot studies have shown a short-term significant reduction of yaws. We assessed the long-term efficacy of the WHO strategy for yaws eradication. METHODS: Between April 15, 2013, and Oct 24, 2016, we did a longitudinal study on a Papua New Guinea island (Lihir; 16 092 population) in which yaws was endemic...
February 7, 2018: Lancet
Caroline H Cromelin, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Buddy Russell, Scott R Lambert
Importance: Although contact lenses have been used for decades to optically correct eyes in children after cataract surgery, there has never been a prospective study looking at contact lens adherence in children with aphakia, to our knowledge. Objective: To evaluate contact lens adherence and its association with visual outcome in a cohort of children treated for unilateral cataract surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 57 infants born from August 22, 2004, to April 25, 2008, who were randomized to 1 of 2 treatments and followed up to age 5 years...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
E H Pieter van Dijkhuizen, Tsipi Egert, Yona Egert, Wendy Costello, Casper Schoemaker, Marlous Fernhout, Mirjam Kepic, Alberto Martini, Silvia Scala, Ingrid Rotstein-Grein, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Nico M Wulffraat
BACKGROUND: To assess the views of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients and their parents on the care and treatment they receive in referral pediatric rheumatology centers throughout Europe. METHODS: In a collaboration between physicians and patient associations, a questionnaire was developed, covering various domains of JIA care, including demographics, diagnosis, referrals to various health care professionals, access to pain and fatigue management and support groups, information they received about the disease and awareness of and participation in research...
February 8, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Fouad Madhi, Camille Jung, Sandra Timsit, Corinne Levy, Sandra Biscardi, Mathie Lorrot, Emmanuel Grimprel, Laure Hees, Irina Craiu, Aurelien Galerne, François Dubos, Emmanuel Cixous, Véronique Hentgen, Stéphane Béchet, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Robert Cohen
OBJECTIVES: To assess the management of febrile urinary-tract infection (FUTIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in children, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Group of the French Pediatric Society set up an active surveillance network in pediatric centers across France in 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively analysed data from 2014 to 2016 for all children < 18 years old who received antibiotic treatment for FUTI due to ESBL-E in 24 pediatric centers...
2018: PloS One
Julie C Jacobson Vann, Robert M Jacobson, Tamera Coyne-Beasley, Josephine K Asafu-Adjei, Peter G Szilagyi
BACKGROUND: Immunization rates for children and adults are rising, but coverage levels have not reached optimal goals. As a result, vaccine-preventable diseases still occur. In an era of increasing complexity of immunization schedules, rising expectations about the performance of primary care, and large demands on primary care providers, it is important to understand and promote interventions that work in primary care settings to increase immunization coverage. One common theme across immunization programs in many nations involves the challenge of implementing a population-based approach and identifying all eligible recipients, for example the children who should receive the measles vaccine...
January 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ayesheshem Ademe Tegegne, Fiona Braka, Meseret Eshetu Shebeshi, Aron Kassahun Aregay, Berhane Beyene, Amare Mengistu Mersha, Mohammed Ademe, Abdulahi Muhyadin, Dadi Jima, Abyot Bekele Wyessa
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia joined the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1996, and by the end of December 2001 circulation of indigenous Wild Polio Virus (WPV) had been interrupted. Nonetheless, the country experienced multiple importations during 2004-2008, and in 2013. We characterize the 2013 outbreak investigations and response activities, and document lessons learned. METHOD: The data were pulled from different field investigation reports and from the national surveillance database for Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
David Moreno-Pérez, Francisco José Álvarez García, Javier Álvarez Aldeán, María José Cilleruelo Ortega, María Garcés Sánchez, Nuria García Sánchez, Ángel Hernández Merino, María Méndez Hernández, Manuel Merino Moína, Abián Montesdeoca Melián, Jesús Ruiz-Contreras
The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation...
January 2018: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Sarah Jervis, Lloyd A C Chapman, Shweta Dwivedi, Morchan Karthick, Aritra Das, Epke A Le Rutte, Orin Courtenay, Graham F Medley, Indranath Banerjee, Tanmay Mahapatra, Indrajit Chaudhuri, Sridhar Srikantiah, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been targeted by the WHO for elimination as a public health problem (< 1 case/10,000 people/year) in the Indian sub-continent (ISC) by 2020. Bihar State in India, which accounts for the majority of cases in the ISC, remains a major target for this elimination effort. However, there is considerable spatial, temporal and sub-population variation in occurrence of the disease and the pathway to care, which is largely unexplored and a threat to achieving the target...
December 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Conall H Watson, Jeremaia Coriakula, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Stefan Flasche, Adam J Kucharski, Colleen L Lau, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Olivier le Polain de Waroux, Kitione Rawalai, Tan Trinh Van, Mere Taufa, Stephen Baker, Eric J Nilles, Mike Kama, W John Edmunds
Empirical data on contact patterns can inform dynamic models of infectious disease transmission. Such information has not been widely reported from Pacific islands, nor strongly multi-ethnic settings, and few attempts have been made to quantify contact patterns relevant for the spread of gastrointestinal infections. As part of enteric fever investigations, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of the general public in Fiji, finding that within the 9,650 mealtime contacts reported by 1,814 participants, there was strong like-with-like mixing by age and ethnicity, with higher contact rates amongst iTaukei than non-iTaukei Fijians...
2017: PloS One
Jade Wulff, Judith Margolin, Nana E Coleman, Gail Demmler-Harrison, Fong Lam, Mona D Shah
We discuss a child with severe thrombocytopenia and mild anemia admitted to the Hematology service who quickly deteriorated to a life-threatening state. However, once rickettsial disease was considered in the differential diagnosis and empiric doxycycline begun, she quickly and fully recovered. A diagnostic panel, including Rickettsia typhi serology, confirmed the diagnosis of murine typhus but this occurred weeks after she had recovered. Given the potential severity of rickettsial diseases and the ease of modern travel across geographic borders, hematology-oncology providers everywhere must consider rickettsial diseases in their differential diagnosis of critically ill children and begin empiric therapy with doxycycline promptly...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Jessica Westman, Margareta Friman, Lars E Olsson
Children's school journeys have changed vastly during recent decades: More children are being driven to school in private cars instead of walking and cycling, with many who are entitled to a free school bus service still being driven. Earlier research into travel mode choice has often investigated how urban form impacts upon mode choice regarding school journeys-in particular how urban form hinders or enables the use of the active mode. This paper quantitatively explores parents' stated reasons for choosing the car and the relationship between these reasons and the decision to use the car to take their children to school...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
Sudarshan Khokhar, Cijin P Jose, Ramanjit Sihota, Neha Midha
PURPOSE: To study the clinical profile and presentation of children with unilateral cataract. METHODS: In this hospital-based, observational, cross-sectional study, patients 15 years of age or younger who presented with unilateral cataract were recruited. Cases of cataract secondary to causes such as trauma or uveitis were excluded. Age at detection and presentation, distance from the treatment center, presenting complaints, cataract morphology, and biometry were noted for each case...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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