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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140081/the-human-milk-glycome-as-a-defense-against-infectious-diseases-rationale-challenges-and-opportunities
#1
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131913/unilateral-congenital-cataract-clinical-profile-and-presentation
#2
Sudarshan Khokhar, Cijin P Jose, Ramanjit Sihota, Neha Midha
PURPOSE: To study the clinical profile and presentation of children with unilateral cataract. METHODS: In this hospital-based, observational, cross-sectional study, patients 15 years of age or younger who presented with unilateral cataract were recruited. Cases of cataract secondary to causes such as trauma or uveitis were excluded. Age at detection and presentation, distance from the treatment center, presenting complaints, cataract morphology, and biometry were noted for each case...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095834/residual-malaria-transmission-dynamics-varies-across-the-gambia-despite-high-coverage-of-control-interventions
#3
Julia Mwesigwa, Jane Achan, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Muna Affara, Musa Jawara, Archibald Worwui, Majidah Hamid-Adiamoh, Fatoumatta Kanuteh, Sainey Ceesay, Teun Bousema, Chris Drakeley, Koen Peeters Grietens, Steve W Lindsay, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Umberto D'Alessandro
Over the last decades, malaria has declined substantially in The Gambia but its transmission has not been interrupted. In order to better target control interventions, it is essential to understand the dynamics of residual transmission. This prospective cohort study was conducted between June 2013 and April 2014 in six pairs of villages across The Gambia. Blood samples were collected monthly during the transmission season (June-December) from all residents aged ≥6 months (4,194 individuals) and then in April (dry season)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083100/mefloquine-for-preventing-malaria-during-travel-to-endemic-areas
#4
REVIEW
Maya Tickell-Painter, Nicola Maayan, Rachel Saunders, Cheryl Pace, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine is one of four antimalarial agents commonly recommended for preventing malaria in travellers to malaria-endemic areas. Despite its high efficacy, there is controversy about its psychological side effects. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the efficacy and safety of mefloquine used as prophylaxis for malaria in travellers. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published on the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase (OVID); TOXLINE (https://toxnet...
October 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080559/self-diagnosis-of-malaria-by-travellers-a-cohort-study-on-the-use-of-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-provided-by-a-swiss-travel-clinic
#5
Delphine Berthod, Jacynthe Rochat, Rachel Voumard, Laurence Rochat, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: The WHO recommends that all suspect malaria cases be tested before receiving treatment. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria can be performed reliably by community health workers with no formal medical background and thus, RDTs could also be provided to travellers for self-diagnosis during visits to endemic regions. METHODS: RDTs were proposed during pre-travel consultations to pre-defined categories of travellers. A training run on their own blood was performed and, if carried out correctly, the traveller was given a written procedure on how to perform the test and act on its result...
October 28, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024154/time-required-for-a-standard-sunscreen-to-become-effective-following-application-a-uv-photography-study
#6
María Victoria de Gálvez, José Aguilera, Emilio Antonio Buendía, Cristina Sánchez-Roldán, Enrique Herrera-Ceballos
Sunscreens are recommended that it should be applied generously (2 mg cm(-2) ) half an hour before exposure and reapplied every 2 hours(1,2) . It is not, however, always easy to apply in normal life (e.g., children doing outdoor activities at school or beachgoers who have to travel some distance to get to the sea) and in addition, sunscreen can be rubbed off or displaced by friction from clothing during the wait time and lose efficacy.The aim of this study was to determine the time needed for a sunscreen to offer optimal protection from the moment of application...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023923/treatment-abandonment-in-children-with-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Rikka Mansell
AIMS: To establish and quantify the main reasons for treatment abandonment in children with cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa through a systematic review of the literature. BACKGROUND: Great advances have been made in the treatment of childhood cancer, however this requires that families are able to complete treatment. Failure to do this is referred to as treatment abandonment, which is recognised as a reason for treatment failure. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data on the reasons for treatment abandonment in Sub-Saharan Africa...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992133/intestinal-carriage-of-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-healthy-us-children
#8
Shamim Islam, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Neena Kanwar, Rendie McHenry, James D Chappell, Natasha Halasa, Mary E Wikswo, Daniel C Payne, Parvin H Azimi, L Clifford McDonald, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte
Background: The epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae intestinal carriage in healthy US children has not been well characterized. Methods: Children between 14 days and 14 years of age were enrolled during well-child visits in Oakland, California, Kansas City, Kansas, and Nashville, Tennessee, between December 2013 and March 2015. Data on recent antibiotic use by the child and travel and hospitalization history of all members of each child's household were obtained with a risk-factor survey...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960700/predictors-of-treatment-abandonment-for-patients-with-pediatric-cancer-at-indus-children-cancer-hospital-karachi-pakistan
#9
Durr-E-Fatima Siddiqui, Muhammad Shamvil Ashraf, Sundus Iftikhar, Asim F Belgaumi
BACKGROUND: Abandonment of treatment is one of the toughest challenges to deal with in pediatric oncology. It leads to unnecessary mortality and morbidity in patients from low- and middle-income countries. PROCEDURE: The objective of our retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and predictors for abandonment among children with cancer at our hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. We analyzed data on patients younger than 18 years, diagnosed with any malignancy between November 2014 and May 2016...
September 27, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958811/parental-perceptions-of-childhood-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-singapore-a-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Mabel S F Low, Hweeyong Tan, Mikael Hartman, Clarence C Tam, Cheehow Hoo, Jiaqing Lim, Simin Chiow, Simin Lee, Renzhi Thng, Mingzhe Cai, Yanru Tan, Jingzhan Lock
PURPOSE: Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended in children aged 6-59months, but little is known about child vaccination coverage and determinants in Asian settings. We report the results of a survey of knowledge, attitudes, practices, and determinants of child influenza vaccination in Singapore. METHODS: In December 2015-March 2016, we conducted a survey of 332 parents of children aged 6months to 5years attending pre-schools. We assessed child influenza vaccine coverage and parental knowledge, attitudes, and practices of child influenza vaccination...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953102/emergency-department-utilization-by-native-american-children
#11
Heather G Zook, Anupam B Kharbanda, Susan E Puumala, Katherine A Burgess, Wyatt Pickner, Nathaniel R Payne
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine differences in emergency department (ED) use by Native American (NA) children in rural and urban settings and identify factors associated with frequent ED visits. METHODS: This cross-sectional, cohort study examined visits to 6 EDs: 2 rural, 2 midsize urban, and 2 large urban EDs from June 2011 to May 2012. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted. Frequent ED visitors had more than 4 visits in the study period...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953055/predictors-of-persistent-infant-car-seat-challenge-failure
#12
Laura Mandell, Lawrence M Rhein, Henry A Feldman, Emily Bergling, Courtney Porter, Michele DeGrazia
BACKGROUND: Premature and other at-risk infants can experience cardiorespiratory problems when positioned in their car seats. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all premature and at-risk infants undergo a period of observation in their car seat to monitor for apnea, bradycardia, and oxygen desaturation before hospital discharge. This Infant Car Seat Challenge (ICSC) is used to determine readiness for infant travel in a car seat. Infants failing the ICSC are discharged home in car beds and referred for a follow-up screen in the outpatient clinic...
September 25, 2017: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916433/resilience-in-families-of-children-with-autism-and-sleep-problems-using-mixed-methods
#13
Cristine A Roberts, Jennifer Hunter, An-Lin Cheng
PURPOSE: About 80% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have sleep problems that may disrupt optimal family functioning. We explored the impact of sleep problems on families' resilience. DESIGN AND METHODS: An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used to discern whether resilience differed between families whose children with ASD have or do not have sleep problems, to seek predictors for family hardiness/resilience, and to determine whether narrative findings support, expand, or conflict quantitative findings...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899311/australian-national-enterovirus-reference-laboratory-annual-report-2014
#14
Jason Roberts, Linda Hobday, Aishah Ibrahim, Thomas Aitken, Bruce Thorley
Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation, Australia conducts surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in children less than 15 years of age as the main method to monitor its polio-free status. Cases of AFP in children are notified to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit or the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance System and faecal specimens are referred for virological investigation to the National Enterovirus Reference Laboratory. In 2014, no cases of poliomyelitis were reported from clinical surveillance and Australia reported 1...
June 30, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892236/visualization-instructions-enhance-preschoolers-spatial-problem-solving
#15
Carolyn M Palmquist, Rachel Keen, Vikram K Jaswal
This study explores whether verbal instructions to visualize an event can improve children's ability to make predictions about a difficult spatial problem. Three-year-olds (N = 48) were introduced to two intertwined tubes, and prior to predicting how a ball would travel through a given tube, one group of children was told to imagine the ball rolling down the tube, one group was told an explicit rule about where the ball would land, and a third group was given no instructions. Children were prevented from interacting with the apparatus to investigate the effect of the different verbal instructions alone on their problem-solving...
September 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882273/school-transportation-mode-by-distance-between-home-and-school-united-states-consumerstyles-2012
#16
Laurie F Beck, Daniel D Nguyen
INTRODUCTION: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among children in the United States, and almost one-fourth of all trips by school-aged children are trips to and from school. This study sought to determine how children (5-18years) travel to and from school and, among those living ≤1mile of school, to explore the role of school bus service eligibility on school travel mode. METHODS: We used national 2012 survey data to determine prevalence of usual school travel mode, stratified by distance from school...
September 2017: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841624/predictors-quality-markers-and-economics-of-volunteering-internationally-results-from-a-comprehensive-survey-of-american-society-of-plastic-surgeons-members
#17
Joyce K McIntyre, Anna R Schoenbrunner, Kristen D Kelley, Amanda A Gosman
BACKGROUND: Plastic surgeons have a long history of international volunteer work. To date, there have been no outcome-based studies among surgeons who volunteer internationally. The purpose of this study was to describe predictors of volunteering, clinical quality markers, and economics of international volunteering among American plastic surgeons. METHODS: A cross-sectional validated e-mail survey tool was sent to all board-certified plastic surgeons by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons...
September 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800730/genotypes-of-hepatitis-a-virus-in-turkey-first-report-and-clinical-profile-of-children-infected-with-sub-genotypes-ia-and-iiia
#18
Huseyin Yilmaz, Asiye Karakullukcu, Nuri Turan, Utku Y Cizmecigil, Aysun Yilmaz, Ayse A Ozkul, Ozge Aydin, Alper Gunduz, Mahmut Mete, Fadile Y Zeyrek, Taner T Kirazoglu, Juergen A Richt, Bekir Kocazeybek
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a food and water-borne virus causing clinical (mainly hepatitis) and subclinical disease in humans. It is important to characterize circulating strains of HAV in order to prevent HAV infections using efficacious vaccines. The aim of this study was the detection and characterization of the circulating strains of HAV in Turkey by performing serology, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. METHODS: In this study, 355 HAV suspected cases were analysed by ELISA for the presence of antibodies to HAV...
August 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759391/case-report-of-a-hypobaric-chamber-fitness-to-fly-test-in-a-child-with-severe-cystic-lung-disease
#19
Sarah Loo, Andrew Campbell, Julian Vyas, Naveen Pillarisetti
Patients with severe cystic lung disease are considered to be at risk for cyst rupture during air travel because of the possibility of increase in cyst size and impaired equilibration of pressure between the cysts and other parts of the lung. This may have clinically devastating consequences for the patient but may also result in significant costs for emergency alteration of flight schedule. We report the use of a hypobaric chamber to simulate cabin pressure changes encountered on a commercial flight to assess the safety to fly of a child with severe cystic lung disease secondary to Langerhans cell histiocytosis...
July 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751137/impact-of-non-medical-out-of-pocket-expenses-on-families-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy-following-orthopaedic-surgery
#20
Judith A Vessey, Rachel L DiFazio, Tania D Strout, Brian D Snyder
PURPOSE: Limited research has been conducted on the non-medical out-of-pocket expenses (NOOPEs) incurred by families of children with chronic health conditions. The study objectives were to: 1) calculate the estimated NOOPEs incurred by families during hospitalization of their child, 2) identify predictors of high NOOPEs, and 3) assess the impact of the child's chronic health condition on the family's finances. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective observational study...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
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