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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217690/re-positioning-of-somatic-golgi-apparatus-is-essential-for-the-dendritic-establishment-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#1
Sneha Rao, Gregory W Kirschen, Joanna Szczurkowska, Adrian Di Antonio, Jia Wang, Shaoyu Ge, Maya Shelly
New dentate granule cells are continuously generated, and integrate into the pre-existing hippocampal network in the adult brain. How an adult-born neuron with initially simple spindle-like morphology develops into a complex dentate granule cell (DGC), consisting of a single apical dendrite with further branches, remains largely unknown. Here, using retroviruses to birth-date and manipulate newborn neurons, we examined initial dendritic formation, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that GFP-expressing newborn cells began to establish a DGC-like morphology at around 7 days after birth, with a primary dendrite pointing to the molecular layer, but at this stage, with several neurites in the neurogenic zone...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212914/distributed-force-feedback-in-the-spinal-cord-and-the-regulation-of-limb-mechanics
#2
T Richard Nichols
This review is an update on the role of force feedback from Golgi tendon organs in the regulation of limb mechanics during voluntary movement. Some current ideas about the role of force feedback are based on circuit motifs linking idealized systems of agonists, synergists and antagonistic muscles. Force feedback is widely distributed across the muscles of a limb and cannot be understood based on these circuit motifs. Muscle architecture similarly cannot be understood in terms of idealized systems. It is hypothesized that distributed force feedback better represents the complex mechanical interactions of muscles, including viscoelastic coupling and inertial coupling across joints and axes of rotation...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212815/rab29-activation-of-the-parkinson-s-disease-associated-lrrk2-kinase
#3
Elena Purlyte, Herschel S Dhekne, Adil R Sarhan, Rachel Gomez, Pawel Lis, Melanie Wightman, Terina N Martinez, Francesca Tonelli, Suzanne R Pfeffer, Dario R Alessi
Parkinson's disease predisposing LRRK2 kinase phosphorylates a group of Rab GTPase proteins including Rab29, within the effector-binding switch II motif. Previous work indicated that Rab29, located within the PARK16 locus mutated in Parkinson's patients, operates in a common pathway with LRRK2. Here, we show that Rab29 recruits LRRK2 to the trans-Golgi network and greatly stimulates its kinase activity. Pathogenic LRRK2 R1441G/C and Y1699C mutants that promote GTP binding are more readily recruited to the Golgi and activated by Rab29 than wild-type LRRK2...
December 6, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212659/unconventional-secretion-of-fabp4-by-endosomes-and-secretory-lysosomes
#4
Julien Villeneuve, Laia Bassaganyas, Sebastien Lepreux, Marioara Chiritoiu, Pierre Costet, Jean Ripoche, Vivek Malhotra, Randy Schekman
An appreciation of the functional properties of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has advanced with the recent demonstration that an extracellular form secreted by adipocytes regulates a wide range of physiological functions. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that mediate the unconventional secretion of FABP4. Here, we demonstrate that FABP4 secretion is mediated by a membrane-bounded compartment, independent of the conventional endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. We show that FABP4 secretion is also independent of GRASP proteins, autophagy, and multivesicular bodies but involves enclosure within endosomes and secretory lysosomes...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212034/gadd34-function-in-protein-trafficking-promotes-adaptation-to-hyperosmotic-stress-in-human-corneal-cells
#5
Dawid Krokowski, Bo-Jhih Guan, Jing Wu, Yuke Zheng, Padmanabhan P Pattabiraman, Raul Jobava, Xing-Huang Gao, Xiao-Jing Di, Martin D Snider, Ting-Wei Mu, Shijie Liu, Brian Storrie, Eric Pearlman, Anna Blumental-Perry, Maria Hatzoglou
GADD34, a stress-induced regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1, is known to function in hyperosmotic stress through its well-known role in the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway. Adaptation to hyperosmotic stress is important for the health of corneal epithelial cells exposed to changes in extracellular osmolarity, with maladaptation leading to dry eye syndrome. This adaptation includes induction of SNAT2, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi-processed protein, which helps to reverse the stress-induced loss of cell volume and promote homeostasis through amino acid uptake...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210473/binding-pathway-analysis-of-influenza-virus-m2-channel-blockers-by-metadynamics-simulation
#6
Yuri Sakai, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Kyosuke Nagata, Takatsugu Hirokawa
M2 protein of influenza A virus is a proton channel spanning the viral envelope. This proton channel activity is required for uncoating of viral particles and equilibrating the pH across the trans-Golgi apparatus to prevent a conformational change of hemagglutinin. Amantadine is an anti-influenza A virus drug which inhibits M2 proton channel activity by binding to the channel pore, however, the majority of currently circulating influenza A viruses are amantadine-resistant. The most prevalent resistant mutation is a substitution from Ser31 to Asn31 in M2...
December 6, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210464/ca2-and-lipid-signals-hold-hands-at-er-plasma-membrane-contact-sites
#7
Tamas Balla
Discovery of the STIM1 and Orai proteins as the principal components of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has drawn attention to contact sites between the ER and the plasma membrane (PM). Such contacts between adjacent membranes of different cellular organelles, primarily between the mitochondria and the ER, had already been known as the sites where Ca2+ released from the ER can be efficiently channeled to the mitochondria and also where phosphatidylserine synthesis and transfer takes place. Recent studies have identified contact sites between virtually every organelle and the ER and the functional importance of these small specialized membrane domains is increasingly recognized...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210454/the-functional-roles-of-retromer-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Yi Cui, Zhe Yang, Rohan D Teasdale
The endosomal system is critical for the maintenance of intracellular homeostasis, and defects in this system are often linked to neurological disorders. The retromer complex is a critical coordinator of endosomal dynamics and has functional roles in multiple cellular processes through sorting cargoes from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) or to the plasma membrane. Mammalian retromer comprises a core Vps26-Vps35-Vps29 trimer and associates with a range of proteins to generate endosomal tubular-vesicular carriers...
December 6, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208703/distag-tbccd1-is-required-for-basal-cell-fate-determination-in-ectocarpus
#9
Olivier Godfroy, Toshiki Uji, Chikako Nagasato, Agnieszka P Lipinska, Delphine Scornet, Akira F Peters, Komlan Avia, Sebastien Colin, Mignerot Laure, Taizo Motomura, J Mark Cock, Susana M Coelho
Brown algae are one of the most developmentally complex groups within the eukaryotes. As in many land plants and animals, their main body axis is established early in development, when the initial cell gives rise to two daughter cells that have apical and basal identities, equivalent to shoot and root identities in land plants, respectively. We show here that mutations in the Ectocarpus DISTAG (DIS) gene lead to loss of basal structures during both the gametophyte and the sporophyte generations. Several abnormalities were observed in the germinating initial cell in dis mutants including increased cell size, disorganisation of the Golgi apparatus, disruption of the microtubule network and aberrant positioning of the nucleus...
December 5, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208407/dehydrocavidine-attenuates-d-galactose-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#10
Peng Fu, Qing Zhang, Dong-Ye Yi, Ahmed Abdelmaksoud, Qin Huang, Hong-Yang Zhao, Wei Xiang, Nan-Xiang Xiong
OBJECTIVE: Dehydrocavidine (DEH) is the major component of a plant corydalis saxicola Bunting, which is used to treat the patients with hepatic disorders, there is still no report about the effect of DEH on the brain disorder. In this study, the effect and mechanism of DEH on D-galactose (D-gala) induced learning and memory impairment in rats was investigated. METHODS: A learning and memory impairment rat model was employed by chronic intraperitoneal injection of D-gala and intragastric administration of DEH, then Morris water maze test was used to investigate the effect of DEH on learning and memory impairment, Golgi stain and biochemical methods, real time PCR were used to investigate underlying mechanism...
December 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207511/subcellular-trafficking-of-the-papillomavirus-genome-during-initial-infection-the-remarkable-abilities-of-minor-capsid-protein-l2
#11
REVIEW
Samuel K Campos
Since 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA) to the cell nucleus, relying on myriad host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent endeavors has been the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA...
December 3, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207168/targeted-next%C3%A2-generation-sequencing-reveals-two-novel-mutations-of-nbas-in-a-patient-with-infantile-liver-failure-syndrome%C3%A2-2
#12
Jiao Wang, Zhongji Pu, Zhenhua Lu
Mutations in neuroblastoma amplified sequence (NBAS) cause infantile liver failure syndrome-2 (ILFS2). NBAS is a protein involved in Golgi‑to‑endoplasmic reticulum retrograde transport. Exon capture in combination with high‑throughput sequencing was used to detect NBAS mutations. Via targeted sequencing, two causative mutations were identified from 358 selected genes associated with growth and development diseases; one was a missense mutation, c.3596G>A (p.C1199Y), detected in the coding region of NBAS (NM_015909...
November 29, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204978/role-of-glypican-3-in-the-growth-migration-and-invasion-of-primary-hepatocytes-isolated-from-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
Mauro Montalbano, Cristiana Rastellini, Joshua T McGuire, Janika Prajapati, Ali Shirafkan, Renza Vento, Luca Cicalese
BACKGROUND: Recently, Glypican-3 (GPC3) has been identified as a potential hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnostic and/or therapeutic target. GPC3 has been found to be up-regulated in HCC and to be absent in normal and cirrhotic liver. As yet, however, the molecular characteristics of GPC3 and its role in HCC cell physiology and development are still undefined. METHODS: Human hepatocyte cultures were established from 10 HCC patients. Additional liver samples were obtained from 5 patients without cirrhosis and/or HCC...
December 4, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203735/histomorphologic-changes-of-esophageal-mucosa-in-experimental-third-degree-stricture
#14
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevgeniy V Shaprinskiy, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays the level of early and late complications after the operations for esophageal corrosive strictures such as esophago-organ anastomotic leak, development of infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive stricture development etc. remains rather high. Besides, postoperative mortality rate is high as well - 3.5-30 %. For that reason, an experimental model of esophageal stricture was suggested and ultrastructural mucosal changes in the stricture itself were studied to elaborate the unified pathogenic approach in treatment of esophageal stricture and improvement of its results...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203496/extended-linkers-improve-the-detection-of-ppis-by-dhfr-pca-in-living-cells
#15
Andree-Eve Chretien, Isabelle Gagnon-Arsenault, Alexandre K Dubé, Xavier Barbeau, Philippe C Després, Claudine Lamothe, Anne-Marie Dion-Coté, Patrick Lague, Christian Landry
Understanding the function of cellular systems requires describing how proteins assemble with each other into transient and stable complexes and to determine their spatial relationships. Among the tools available to perform these analyses on a large scale is the Protein-fragment Complementation Assay based on the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR PCA). Here we test how longer linkers between the fusion proteins and the reporter fragments affect the performance of this assay. We investigate the architecture of the RNA polymerases, the proteasome and the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complexes in living cells and performed large-scale screens with these extended linkers...
December 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203237/adiponectin-release-and-insulin-receptor-targeting-share-trans-golgi-dependent-endosomal-trafficking-routes
#16
Maria Rödiger, Martin W Werno, Ilka Wilhelmi, Christian Baumeier, Deike Hesse, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns, Kyungyeun Song, Michael Krauß, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. METHODS: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox) and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT-/-) mice were metabolically characterized...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201946/cell-free-fluorescent-intra-golgi-retrograde-vesicle-trafficking-assay
#17
Nathanael P Cottam, Daniel Ungar
Intra-Golgi retrograde vesicle transport is used to traffic and sort resident Golgi enzymes to their appropriate cisternal locations. An assay was established to investigate the molecular details of vesicle targeting in a cell-free system. Stable cell lines were generated in which the trans-Golgi enzyme galactosyltransferase (GalT) was tagged with either CFP or YFP. Given that GalT is recycled to the cisterna where it is located at steady state, GalT-containing vesicles target GalT-containing cisternal membranes...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199635/melatonin-elicits-stimulatory-action-on-the-adrenal-gland-of-soay-ram-morphometrical-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-study
#18
Doaa M Mokhtar, Manal T Hussein, Ahmed H S Hassan
Endogenous melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland; it has several roles in metabolism, reproduction, and remarkable antioxidant properties. Studies on the melatonin effect on the adrenal glands which are important endocrine organs, controlling essential physiological functions, are still deficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on the adrenal cortex and medulla using several approaches. Adrenal glands of 15 Soay ram were examined to detect the effect of melatonin treatment...
December 4, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196456/deep-coverage-tissue-and-cellular-proteomics-revealed-il-1%C3%AE-can-independently-induce-the-secretion-of-tnf-associated-proteins-from-human-synoviocytes
#19
Shengquan Tang, Suyuan Deng, Jiahui Guo, Xing Chen, Wanling Zhang, Yizhi Cui, Yanzhang Luo, Ziqi Yan, Qing-Yu He, Shan Shen, Tong Wang
Synovitis is a key contributor to the inflammatory environment in osteoarthritis (OA) joints. Currently, the biological therapy of OA is not satisfactory in multiple single-target trials on anti-TNF agents, or IL-1 antagonists. Systems biological understanding of the phosphorylation state in OA synovium is warranted to direct further therapeutic strategies. Therefore, in this study, we compared the human synovial phosphoproteome of the OA with the acute joint fracture subjects. We found that OA synovium had significantly more phosphoproteins, and 82 phosphoproteins could only be specifically found in all the OA samples...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196126/oncogenic-kit-signalling-on-the-golgi-is-suppressed-by-blocking-secretory-trafficking-with-m-copa-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumours
#20
Yuuki Obata, Keita Horikawa, Isamu Shiina, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Takatsugu Murata, Yasutaka Tasaki, Kyohei Suzuki, Keita Yonekura, Hiroyasu Esumi, Toshirou Nishida, Ryo Abe
Most gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are caused by constitutively active mutations in Kit tyrosine kinase. The drug imatinib, a specific Kit inhibitor, improves the prognosis of metastatic GIST patients, but these patients become resistant to the drug by acquiring secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. We recently reported that a Kit mutant causes oncogenic signals only on the Golgi apparatus in GISTs. In this study, we show that in GIST, 2-methylcoprophilinamide (M-COPA, also known as "AMF-26"), an inhibitor of biosynthetic protein trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, suppresses Kit autophosphorylation at Y703/Y721/Y730/Y936, resulting in blockade of oncogenic signalling...
November 28, 2017: Cancer Letters
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