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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040793/two-mate-transporters-with-different-subcellular-localization-are-involved-in-al-tolerance-in-buckwheat
#1
Gui Jie Lei, Kengo Yokosho, Naoki Yamaji, Jian Feng Ma
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) shows high tolerance to Al toxicity, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this high Al tolerance are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of two MATE (multi-drug and toxic compound extrusion) genes in Al tolerance. Both FeMATE1 and FeMATE2 showed efflux transport activity for citrate, but not for oxalate when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. A transient assay with buckwheat leaf protoplasts using GFP fusion showed that FeMATE1 was mainly localized to the plasma membrane, whereas FeMATE2 was localized to the trans-Golgi and Golgi...
October 11, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040533/hippocampal-phosphorylated-tau-induced-cognitive-decline-dendritic-spine-loss-and-mitochondrial-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Ramesh Kandimalla, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Rui Wang, P Hemachandra Reddy
The purpose of our study was to understand the toxic effects of hippocampal phosphorylated tau in tau mice. Using rotarod and Morris Water Maze tests, immunoblotting & immunofluorescence, Golgi-cox staining and transmission electron microscopy, we assessed cognitive behavior, measured protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, MAP2, total & phosphorylated tau, and quantified dendritic spines and mitochondrial number and length in 12-month-old tau mice with P301L mutation. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring the levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP...
October 12, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039994/cell-type-dependent-localization-of-mlo-proteins
#3
Daniel S Jones, Sharon A Kessler
Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) proteins are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell communication in plants. We recently demonstrated the importance of subcellular localization to MLO function during pollen tube reception. NORTIA (NTA), the MLO protein involved in this process, localizes to the Golgi of the synergid cell before interaction with the pollen tube. MLO proteins that can substitute for NTA's function in this pathway all partially localize with the same Golgi marker in the synergid cell. In this study, we report that MLO subcellular localization is cell type-dependent, with different distributions of some MLOs observed when ectopically expressed in the epidermal cells of tobacco and Arabidopsis compared to synergids...
October 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036578/the-roles-of-membranes-and-associated-cytoskeleton-in-plant-virus-replication-and-cell-to-cell-movement
#4
Nicolas Pitzalis, Manfred Heinlein, Gian Pietro Di Sansebastiano
The infection of plants by viruses depends on cellular mechanisms that support the replication of the viral genomes, and the cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus via plasmodesmata (PD) and the connected phloem. While the propagation of some viruses requires the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi pathway, others replicate and spread between cells in association with the ER and are independent of this pathway. Using selected viruses as examples, this review re-examines the involvement of membranes and the cytoskeleton during virus infection and proposes potential roles of class VIII myosins and membrane-tethering proteins in controlling viral functions at specific ER subdomains, such as cortical microtubule-associated ER sites, ER-plasma membrane contact sites, and PD...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035721/cdc42-is-essential-for-the-polarized-movement-and-adhesion-of-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#5
Mingwei Li, Liang Ma, Bing Song, Dingyi Yu, Min Xiao, Xiaohan Mei, Huihui Guo, Qing Yu
OBJECTIVE: Stem cell-based tissue repair and regeneration require the regulation of cell migration and adhesion. As a regulator of cell polarization, Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42) plays a basic role at the initial stage of cell migration and adhesion. This study explores the effect of Cdc42 on the polarized migration and adhesion of hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells). DESIGN: HDPSCs were isolated from extracted third molars and transfected with siRNA targeted against Cdc42...
October 3, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033189/mir-375-a-prospective-regulator-in-medullary-thyroid-cancer-based-on-microarray-data-and-bioinformatics-analyses
#6
Lin Shi, Shi-Mei Zhao, Yu Luo, An-Wen Zhang, Li-Hua Wei, Zheng-Yi Xie, Yuan-Yuan Li, Wei Ma
BACKGROUND: This research aims to investigate the prospective molecular mechanism of miR-375 in Medullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression level of miR-375 in MTC was explored with microarray data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). To gather the putative target genes of miR-375, we selected eligible datasets in GEO, in which antagomir-375 and premir-375 were transfected to provide the miR-375-related genes. Subsequently, we attained the intersection of the results of GEO microarray data and 12 online target genes prediction database as the prospective target genes...
September 27, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032399/evidence-of-extracellular-vesicles-biogenesis-and-release-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#7
Lilian Cruz, Jenny Andrea Arevalo Romero, Mariana Brandão Prado, Tiago G Santos, Marilene Hohmuth Lopes
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are considered a source of bioactive molecules that modulate their microenvironment by acting on intercellular communication. Either intracellular endosomal machinery or their derived EVs have been considered a relevant system of signal circuits processing. Herein, we show that these features are found in mESCs. Ultrastructural analysis revealed structures and organelles of the endosomal system such as coated pits and endocytosis-related vesicles, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing either few or many intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) that could be released as exosomes to extracellular milieu...
October 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031909/the-retromer-subunit-vps26-mediates-notch-signaling-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#8
Rebecca Starble, Nancy J Pokrywka
During endocytosis, molecules are internalized by the cell through the invagination of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis is required for proper cell function and for normal development in Drosophila. One component of the endocytic pathway is the retromer complex, which recycles transmembrane proteins to other parts of the cell such as the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. Previous studies have shown that mutations to the retromer complex result in developmental defects in Drosophila. In humans, retromer dysfunction has been implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, but little is known about the role of the retromer complex in Drosophila oogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028548/enhanced-antitumor-efficacy-of-arginine-modified-amphiphilic-nanoparticles-co-delivering-doxorubicin-and-isur-pdna-via-the-multiple-synergistic-effect
#9
Yudong Song, Cui Tang, Chunhua Yin
Arginine and α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS) double grafted N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) nanoparticles (TAS NPs) were designed and developed for effective co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and Survivin shRNA-expressing pDNA (iSur-pDNA). With DOX loading into the hydrophobic core and iSur-pDNA combining to the hydrophilic shell, TAS/DOX/pDNA NPs demonstrated favorable structural stability and sustained release properties in vitro. With the special non-clathrin-dependent endocytosis, TAS/DOX/pDNA NPs presented higher cellular uptake and mainly distributed in ER and Golgi rather than lysosomes following internalization...
October 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028183/non-synaptic-signaling-from-cerebellar-climbing-fibers-modulates-golgi-cell-activity
#10
Angela K Nietz, Jada H Vaden, Luke T Coddington, Linda Overstreet-Wadiche, Jacques I Wadiche
Golgi cells are the principal inhibitory neurons at the input stage of the cerebellum, providing feedforward and feedback inhibition through mossy fiber and parallel fiber synapses. In vivo studies have shown that Golgi cell activity is regulated by climbing fiber stimulation, yet there is little functional or anatomical evidence for synapses between climbing fibers and Golgi cells. Here, we show that glutamate released from climbing fibers activates ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on Golgi cells through spillover-mediated transmission...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028099/the-diagnostic-value-of-determination-of-serum-golph3-associated-with-ca125-ca19-9-in-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#11
H-Y Fan, D-M Duan, Y-F Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of three tumor markers serum Golgi phosphoprotein-3 (GOLPH3), cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19.9) in the diagnosis and postoperative evaluation of ovarian cancer by detecting these three markers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 187 patients were studied and included in the ovarian cancer group, benign pelvic mass group, and the normal control group. The levels of serum Golgi phosphoprotein-3 (GOLPH3), cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and cancer antigen 199 (CA19...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027454/-delivery-of-recombinant-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein-to-pichia-pastoris-cell-wall-directed-by-a-mammalian-nonclassical-secretion-signal-peptide
#12
Yufeng Qin, Yaosheng Chen, Zhiguo Liu, Ying Zhang, Hailong Liu, Zuyong He
A mammalian nonclassical secretion sequence derived from mouse Engrailed2 homeoprotein (En2) was used to direct the secretion of the enhanced green fluorescent protein from Pichia pastoris. This signal peptide conferred the transport of enhanced green fluorescent protein into periplasm through an endoplasmic reticulum-golgi independent pathway, without inducing severe unfolded protein response as compared with Saccharomyces cerevisae α-factor preprosequence. This study implies that this mammalian nonclassical signal peptide could be developed as a useful tool for delivering cargoes to the cell surface of yeast...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025970/the-arf-gef-gbf1-and-arf4-synergize-with-the-sensory-receptor-cargo-rhodopsin-to-regulate-ciliary-membrane-trafficking
#13
Jing Wang, Theresa Fresquez, Vasundhara Kandachar, Dusanka Deretic
The small GTPase Arf4 and the Arf GTPase activating protein (GAP) ASAP1 cooperatively sequester sensory receptor cargo into transport carriers targeted to primary cilia, but the input that drives Arf4 activation in this process remains unknown. Here, we show that during the carrier biogenesis from the photoreceptor Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) a functional complex is formed between Arf4, the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GBF1 and the light-sensing receptor, rhodopsin. Rhodopsin and Arf4 bind the regulatory N-terminal DCB-HUS domain of GBF1...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024641/diverse-viruses-require-the-calcium-transporter-spca1-for-maturation-and-spread
#14
H-Heinrich Hoffmann, William M Schneider, Vincent A Blomen, Margaret A Scull, Alain Hovnanian, Thijn R Brummelkamp, Charles M Rice
Respiratory and arthropod-borne viral infections are a global threat due to the lack of effective antivirals and vaccines. A potential strategy is to target host proteins required for viruses but non-essential for the host. To identify such proteins, we performed a genome-wide knockout screen in human haploid cells and identified the calcium pump SPCA1. SPCA1 is required by viruses from the Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families, including measles, dengue, West Nile, Zika, and chikungunya viruses...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022645/the-significance-of-trip11-and-t3-signaling-pathway-in-renal-cancer-progression-and-survival-of-patients
#15
Piotr Popławski, Agnieszka Piekiełko-Witkowska, Alicja Nauman
INTRODUCTION: TRIP11 is a multifunctional protein localizing either to Golgi apparatus, acting as a golgin, or in the nucleus, acting as coactivator of transcription mediated by thyroid hormone receptor (THR) and hypoxia induced factor (HIF). Triiodothyronine (T3) regulates nuclear localization of TRIP11 by inducing its phosphorylation. The exact mechanism of this regulation unknown. The expressions of THR and HIF are disturbed in various cancers, including renal cell cancer (RCC). In this study we aimed to analyze: 1) the mechanism of T3-dependent subcellular localization of TRIP11; 2) the significance of TRIP11 and T3 signaling pathway in RCC progression...
October 12, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022237/dysfunction-of-membrane-trafficking-leads-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#16
REVIEW
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Bingren Hu
Neurons require an extraordinarily high level of membrane trafficking activities because of enriched axonal terminals and dendritic branches. For that reason, defects in the membrane trafficking pathway are a hallmark of most, and may be all, neurodegenerative disorders. A major cellular membrane trafficking pathway is the Golgi apparatus (Golgi hereafter)-late endosome-lysosome axis for supplying lysosomal enzymes. This pathway is regulated by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) ATPase. This review article is to discuss a novel hypothesis that brain ischemia inactivates NSF ATPase, resulting in a cascade of events of disruption of the Golgi-endosome-lysosome pathway, release of cathepsin B (CTSB), and induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during the postischemic phase...
October 11, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021342/digging-deep-into-golgi-phenotypic-diversity-with-unsupervised-machine-learning
#17
Shaista Hussain, Xavier Le Guezennec, Wang Yi, Huang Dong, Joanne Chia, Ke Yiping, Lee Kee Khoon, Frédéric Bard
The synthesis of glycans and sorting of proteins are critical functions of the Golgi apparatus and depend on its highly complex and compartmentalized architecture. High-content image analysis coupled to RNAi screening offers opportunities to explore this organelle organisation and the gene network underlying it. To date, image-based Golgi screens were based on a single parameter or supervised analysis with pre-defined Golgi structural classes. Here, we report the use of multi-parametric data extracted from a single marker and a computational unsupervised analysis framework to explore Golgi phenotypic diversity more extensively...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020629/differential-regulation-of-lipoprotein-and-hepatitis-c-virus-secretion-by-rab1b
#18
Constantin N Takacs, Ursula Andreo, Viet Loan Dao Thi, Xianfang Wu, Caroline E Gleason, Michelle S Itano, Gabriella S Spitz-Becker, Rachel L Belote, Brenna R Hedin, Margaret A Scull, Charles M Rice, Sanford M Simon
Secretory cells produce diverse cargoes, yet how they regulate concomitant secretory traffic remains insufficiently explored. Rab GTPases control intracellular vesicular transport. To map secretion pathways, we generated a library of lentivirus-expressed dominant-negative Rab mutants and used it in a large-scale screen to identify regulators of hepatic lipoprotein secretion. We identified several candidate pathways, including those mediated by Rab11 and Rab8. Surprisingly, inhibition of Rab1b, the major regulator of transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi, differently affected the secretion of the very-low-density lipoprotein components ApoE and ApoB100, despite their final association on mature secreted lipoprotein particles...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020412/emerging-role-of-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-enrichment-on-%C3%AE-containing-gabaa-receptor-expression-in-the-cerebellum-of-subjects-with-alcohol-use-disorders-aud
#19
Eleonora Gatta, James Auta, David P Gavin, Dulal K Bhaumik, Dennis R Grayson, Subhash C Pandey, Alessandro Guidotti
BACKGROUND: Cerebellum is an area of the brain particularly sensitive to the effects of acute and chronic alcohol consumption. Alcohol exposure decreases cerebellar Purkinje cell output by increasing GABA release from Golgi cells onto extrasynaptic α6/δ-containing GABAA receptors located on glutamatergic granule cells. Here, we studied whether chronic alcohol consumption induces changes in GABAA receptor subunit expression and whether these changes are associated with alterations in epigenetic mechanisms via DNA methylation...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020060/phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-is-required-for-kcnq1-kcne1-channel-function-but-not-anterograde-trafficking
#20
Alice A Royal, Andrew Tinker, Stephen C Harmer
The slow delayed-rectifier potassium current (IKs) is crucial for human cardiac action potential repolarization. The formation of IKs requires co-assembly of the KCNQ1 α-subunit and KCNE1 β-subunit, and mutations in either of these subunits can lead to hereditary long QT syndrome types 1 and 5, respectively. It is widely recognised that the KCNQ1/KCNE1 (Q1/E1) channel requires phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding for function. We previously identified a cluster of basic residues in the proximal C-terminus of KCNQ1 that form a PIP2/phosphoinositide binding site...
2017: PloS One
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