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Matthew C Thomas, Victoria Arling, Noriko Goji, Timothy W Janzen, Marc-Olivier Duceppe, Amit Mathews, Catherine Carrillo, Kingsley K Amoako
Using a combination of Illumina paired-end sequencing, Pacific Biosciences RS II sequencing, and OpGen Argus whole-genome optical mapping, we report here the first complete genome sequence of Yersinia massiliensis The completed genome consists of a 4.99-Mb chromosome, a 121-kb megaplasmid, and a 57-kb plasmid.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Marie S Prevost, Gabriel Waksman
Human infections by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila result in a severe form of pneumonia, the Legionnaire's disease. L. pneumophila utilises a type IVb secretion (T4bS) system termed "dot/icm" to secrete protein effectors to the host cytoplasm. The dot/icm system is powered at least in part by a functionally critical AAA+ ATPase, a protein called DotB, thought to belong to the VirB11 family of proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of DotB at 3.19 Å resolution, in its hexameric form...
May 17, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
B Berenger, L Chui, A R Reimer, V Allen, D Alexander, M-C Domingo, D Haldane, L Hoang, P Levett, A MacKeen, D Marcino, C Sheitoyan-Pesant, G Zahariadis
As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Sarp Bamyaci, Sofie Ekestubbe, Roland Nordfelth, Saskia F Erttmann, Tomas Edgren, Åke Forsberg
Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are used by various Gram-negative pathogens to subvert the host defense by a host cell contact-dependent mechanism to secrete and translocate virulence effectors. While the effectors differ between pathogens and determine the pathogenic life style, the overall mechanism of secretion and translocation is conserved. T3SSs are regulated at multiple levels and some secreted substrates have also been shown to function in regulation. In Yersinia , one of the substrates, YopN, has long been known to function in the host cell contact-dependent regulation of the T3SS...
May 14, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Agata Bancerz-Kisiel, Marta Pieczywek, Piotr Łada, Wojciech Szweda
Yersinia enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis, a zoonotic disease of growing epidemiological importance with significant consequences for public health. This pathogenic species has been intensively studied for many years. Six biotypes (1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4, 5) and more than 70 serotypes of Y. enterocolitica have been identified to date. The biotypes of Y. enterocolitica are divided according to their pathogenic properties: the non-pathogenic biotype 1A, weakly pathogenic biotypes 2⁻5, and the highly pathogenic biotype 1B...
May 3, 2018: Genes
Marie Reinhardt, Jens A Hammerl, Stefan Hertwig
We report here the draft genome sequences of 10 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates recovered from tonsils of wild boars hunted between 2015 and 2016 in Germany. Whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic analyses were performed to assess the diversity of Y. pseudotuberculosis , which may result in human infections caused by the consumption of game meat.
May 10, 2018: Genome Announcements
Adriana Calderaro, Monica Martinelli, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Silvia Covan, Sabina Rossi, Francesca Ferraglia, Paolo Montagna, Federica Pinardi, Sandra Larini, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate aliquot was available, to electron microscopy (n = 1163) for virus detection and to an enterovirus-targeting real-time PCR (n = 1703)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jun Wang, Min Liu, Yang Wu, Sohye Yoon, Abdo Alnabulsi, Fuguo Liu, Clara Fernández-Álvarez, Tiehui Wang, Jason W Holland, Chris J Secombes, Jun Zou
Basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (BATF) -3 is a member of the activator protein 1 (AP‑1) family of transcription factors and is known to play a vital role in regulating differentiation of antigen-presenting cells in mammals. In this study, two BATF3 homologues (termed BATF3a and BATF3b) have been identified in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Both genes were constitutively expressed in tissues, with particularly high levels of BATF3a in spleen, liver, pyloric caecae and head kidney. BATF3a was also more highly induced by PAMPs and cytokines in cultured cells, with type II IFN a particularly potent inducer...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Immunology
David Gur, Itai Glinert, Moshe Aftalion, Yaron Vagima, Yinon Levy, Shahar Rotem, Ayelet Zauberman, Avital Tidhar, Arnon Tal, Sharon Maoz, Raphael Ber, Avi Pass, Emanuelle Mamroud
Pneumonic plague is an infectious disease characterized by rapid and fulminant development of acute pneumonia and septicemia that results in death within days of exposure. The causative agent of pneumonic plague, Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) , is a Tier-1 bio-threat agent. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is effective when given within a narrow therapeutic window after symptom onset. However, the non-specific "flu-like" symptoms often lead to delayed diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated inhalational gentamicin therapy in an infected mouse model as a means to improve antibiotic treatment efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Roberto Mazzoli, Enrica Pessione
The present review article reports the most innovative methods to detect proteins in historical and archeological samples as well as to characterize proteins used as binders in artworks. Difficulties to ascribe proteins to a certain animal species are often due to post-translational modifications originated by chemical or microbial deterioration during aging. Combining different techniques such as peptide mass fingerprinting and tandem mass spectrometry can solve some of these problems and also allow discrimination between taxonomically related species like sheep and goat...
May 8, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Az-Eddine Djebara, Cédric Joseph, Florence Rousseau, Benoit Brunschweiler, Patrice Mertl
Introduction: The enterobacterial genus Yersinia includes a number of human pathogens. Large-diameter, metal-on-metal prostheses are no longer used because of their high failure rate. Here, we describe the first case of Yersinia enterocolitica infection of a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. Clinical Examination: A metal-on-metal prosthesis failed ten years after implantation. After surgical revision, bacteriological testing revealed the presence of a pathogenic strain of Yersinia enterocolitica ...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
Deborah Stefanova, Antoan Raychev, Jaime Deville, Romney Humphries, Shelley Campeau, Piotr Ruchala, Elizabeta Nemeth, Tomas Ganz, Yonca Bulut
Iron is an essential micronutrient for most microbes and their hosts. Mammalian hosts respond to infection by inducing the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, which causes iron sequestration and a rapid decrease in plasma and extracellular iron concentration (hypoferremia). Previous studies showed that hepcidin regulation of iron is essential for protection from infection-associated mortality with the siderophilic pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio vulnificus However, the evolutionary conservation of the hypoferremic response to infection suggests that not only rare siderophilic bacteria but also common pathogens may be targeted by this mechanism...
May 7, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Esin Baba, Ümit Acar, Sevdan Yılmaz, Fahriye Zemheri, Sebahattin Ergün
The aim for the present study was to investigate the effects of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extract (OLE) on the control of Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout and to assess the impact on the expression of immune-related genes in the spleen and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout. Five experimental diets were prepared by adding 0.0%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 1.0% of OLE. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (mean body weight 51.22 ± 3.04 g) twice a day (at 09:00 and 17:00 h) for 60 days...
May 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jing Neng, Yina Li, Ashley J Driscoll, William C Wilson, Patrick Alfred Johnson
A robust immunoassay based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed to simultaneously detect trace quantities of multiple pathogenic antigens from West Nile virus, Rift Valley Fever virus and Yersinia pestis in fetal bovine serum. Antigens were detected by capture with silica-encapsulated nanotags and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with polyclonal antibodies. The magnetic pull-down resulted in aggregation of the immune complexes and the silica-encapsulated nanotags provided distinct spectra corresponding to each antigen captured...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Bastian Bräuning, Eva Bertosin, Florian Praetorius, Christian Ihling, Alexandra Schatt, Agnes Adler, Klaus Richter, Andrea Sinz, Hendrik Dietz, Michael Groll
Pore-forming toxins (PFT) are virulence factors that transform from soluble to membrane-bound states. The Yersinia YaxAB system represents a family of binary α-PFTs with orthologues in human, insect, and plant pathogens, with unknown structures. YaxAB was shown to be cytotoxic and likely involved in pathogenesis, though the molecular basis for its two-component lytic mechanism remains elusive. Here, we present crystal structures of YaxA and YaxB, together with a cryo-electron microscopy map of the YaxAB complex...
May 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Qingmei Jia, Richard Bowen, Barbara Jane Dillon, Saša Masleša-Galić, Brennan T Chang, Austin C Kaidi, Marcus A Horwitz
Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis are the causative agents of Tier 1 Select Agents anthrax, plague, and tularemia, respectively. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against plague and tularemia and the licensed anthrax vaccine is suboptimal. Here we report F. tularensis LVS ΔcapB (Live Vaccine Strain with a deletion in capB)- and attenuated multi-deletional Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-vectored vaccines against all three aforementioned pathogens. We show that LVS ΔcapB- and Lm-vectored vaccines express recombinant B...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fiona J May, Russell J Stafford, Heidi Carroll, Jennifer Mb Robson, Renu Vohra, Graeme R Nimmo, John Bates, Martyn D Kirk, Emily J Fearnley, Benjamin G Polkinghorne
Changes in diagnostic laboratory testing procedures can impact on the number of cases notified and the public health surveillance of enteric pathogens. Culture independent diagnostic testing using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was introduced for the rapid detection of bacterial enteric pathogens in pathology laboratories in Queensland, Australia, from late 2013 onwards. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study using laboratory data to assess the impact of the introduction of PCR testing on four common enteric pathogens, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella and Yersinia, in Queensland between 2010 and 2014...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
Yvan Jamilloux, Flora Magnotti, Alexandre Belot, Thomas Henry
Numerous pathogens including Clostridium difficile and Yersinia pestis have evolved toxins or effectors targeting GTPases from the RhoA subfamily (RhoA/B/C) to inhibit or hijack the host cytoskeleton dynamics. The resulting impairment of RhoA GTPases activity is sensed by the host via an innate immune complex termed the pyrin inflammasome in which caspase-1 is activated. The cascade leading to activation of the pyrin inflammasome has been recently uncovered. In this review, following a brief presentation of RhoA GTPases-modulating toxins, we present the pyrin inflammasome and its regulatory mechanisms...
April 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Tinja Lääveri, Katri Vilkman, Sari Pakkanen, Juha Kirveskari, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Among visitors to the (sub)tropics, 20-50% contract travellers' diarrhoea (TD) and 5-30% take antibiotics. While shortening the duration of illness, antimicrobials predispose to acquisition of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Therefore, liberal use is no longer advocated. Although antibiotics kill pathogens, no data support the view that they could prevent post-infectious sequelae. We investigated how antibiotic use for TD abroad impacts the pathogen findings at return. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We revisited 456 travellers' clinical data and stool pathogens examined by qPCR for Salmonella, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae and enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) Escherichia coli...
April 24, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
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