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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526786/impact-of-acanthamoeba-cysts-on-stress-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-yersinia-enterocolitica-4-o-3-listeria-monocytogenes-1-2a-and-escherichia-coli-o-26
#1
Ellen Lambrecht, Julie Baré, Koen Sabbe, Kurt Houf
The formation of robust resting cysts enables Acanthamoeba to resist harsh environmental conditions. This study investigated to what extent these cysts are resistant to physical and chemical stresses as applied in food industry cleaning and disinfection procedures. Moreover it was assessed whether certain intracystic meatborne bacterial pathogens are more stress-resistant than free-living bacterial monocultures and if intracystic passage and subsequent association with trophozoites induces cross-tolerance towards other stressors...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522707/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-luminescent-strain-vibrio-campbellii-lb102-isolated-from-a-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon-broodstock-rearing-system
#2
Sujeet Kumar, Ashok Kumar Jangam, V Akhil, Vidya Rajendran, Vinaya Kumar Katneni, J Joseph Sahaya Rajan, Monendra Grover, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar, S V Alavandi, K K Vijayan
We report here the genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii LB102, isolated from the broodstock rearing system of a shrimp hatchery in India. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of effector toxins of the type III (YopT, sharing 39% identity with Yersinia pestis) and type VI (VgrG-3 and hemolysin coregulated protein of V. cholerae) secretion systems.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520514/flea-and-small-mammal-species-composition-in-mixed-grass-prairies-implications-for-the-maintenance-of-yersinia-pestis
#3
Lauren P Maestas, Hugh B Britten
Maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (Cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. Another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. These hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals could together be driving sylvatic cycles of plague...
May 18, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512097/glutathionylation-of-yersinia-pestis-lcrv-and-its-effects-on-plague-pathogenesis
#4
Anthony Mitchell, Christina Tam, Derek Elli, Thomas Charlton, Patrick Osei-Owusu, Farbod Fazlollahi, Kym F Faull, Olaf Schneewind
Glutathionylation, the formation of reversible mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein cysteine residues, is a posttranslational modification previously observed for intracellular proteins of bacteria. Here we show that Yersinia pestis LcrV, a secreted protein capping the type III secretion machine, is glutathionylated at Cys(273) and that this modification promotes association with host ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), moderates Y. pestis type III effector transport and killing of macrophages, and enhances bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507952/comparison-of-growth-and-the-cytokines-induced-by-pathogenic-yersinia-enterocolitica-bio-serotypes-3-o-3-and-2-o-9
#5
Haoshu Yang, Wenpeng Gu, Haiyan Qiu, Guixiang Sun, Junrong Liang, Kewei Li, Yuchun Xiao, Ran Duan, Huaiqi Jing, Xin Wang
Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is widely distributed in China where the primary bio-serotypes are 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9. Recently, the distribution of 2/O: 9 strains are being gradually replaced by 3/O: 3 strains where presently 3/O: 3 strains are the major pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in China. To identify the growth conditions and cytokines induced by Y. enterocolitica and providing some clues for this shift, we performed competitive growth in vitro and in vivo for these two bio-serotype strains; and we also compared the cytokines induced by them in infected BALB/C mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504448/efficacy-of-a-fipronil-bait-in-reducing-the-number-of-fleas-oropsylla-spp-infesting-wild-black-tailed-prairie-dogs
#6
David M Poché, Daniel Hartman, Larisa Polyakova, Richard M Poché
Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502944/reactive-arthritis-caused-by-yersinia-enterocolitica-enteritis
#7
Kazuya Honda, Nozomi Iwanaga, Yasumori Izumi, Yoshika Tsuji, Chieko Kawahara, Toru Michitsuji, Shuntaro Higashi, Atsushi Kawakami, Kiyoshi Migita
We report a case of reactive arthritis (ReA) triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis. A 24-year-old Japanese man developed polyarthritis in the lower limbs. Two weeks prior to these symptoms, he noted diarrhea, right lower abdominal pain and a fever. Y. enterocolitica was not isolated from a stool culture; however, he was diagnosed with ReA based on the colonoscopic findings of a high anti-Y. enterocolitica antibody titer and HLA-B27 antigen positivity. Following treatment with methotrexate and steroids, his arthritis improved...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500241/a-plague-of-actin-disassembly
#8
Shoichiro Ono
Pathogenic Yersinia species employ several strategies to evade the host immune system, including interfering with cytoskeletal remodeling as a way to block macrophage phagocytosis. The kinase YopO binds directly to monomeric actin and phosphorylates the actin-remodeling protein gelsolin, but the functional importance of this gelsolin modification has not been clear. A combined biochemical, computational, and biophysical study now reveals that YopO-mediated phosphorylation activates host gelsolin, leading to severed actin filaments and disturbed actin dynamics...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487429/rationally-designed-tlr4-ligands-for-vaccine-adjuvant-discovery
#9
Kelsey A Gregg, Erin Harberts, Francesca M Gardner, Mark R Pelletier, Corinne Cayatte, Li Yu, Michael P McCarthy, Jason D Marshall, Robert K Ernst
Adjuvant properties of bacterial cell wall components like MPLA (monophosphoryl lipid A) are well described and have gained FDA approval for use in vaccines such as Cervarix. MPLA is the product of chemically modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS), altered to diminish toxic proinflammatory effects while retaining adequate immunogenicity. Despite the virtually unlimited number of potential sources among bacterial strains, the number of useable compounds within this promising class of adjuvants are few. We have developed bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC) as a method to generate rationally designed, functionally diverse lipid A...
May 9, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486652/swabbing-prairie-dog-burrows-for-fleas-that-transmit-yersinia-pestis-influences-on-efficiency
#10
David A Eads
Scientists and health-care professionals sometimes use a swabbing technique to collect fleas from rodent burrows, and later test the fleas for Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Detection of Y. pestis is enhanced when large pools of fleas are available. The following study investigated factors that might affect the rate at which fleas are collected from burrows in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Data were collected from 13 colonies in New Mexico during 0600-1000 hours, June-August 2010-2011...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486528/identification-and-characterization-of-a-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-that-provides-complete-protection-against-yersinia-pestis
#11
Weicen Liu, Jun Ren, Jinlong Zhang, Xiaohong Song, Shuling Liu, Xiangyang Chi, Yi Chen, Zhonghua Wen, Jianmin Li, Wei Chen
Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) has caused an alarming number of deaths throughout recorded human history, and novel prophylactics and therapeutics are necessary given its potential as a bioweapon. Only one monoclonal antibody has been identified to date that provides complete protection against Y. pestis. Here, we describe a second novel murine monoclonal antibody (F2H5) that provided complete protection against Y. pestis 141 infection when administered prophylactically to Balb/c mice (100 μg intravenously). We humanized F2H5, characterized its ability to bind to the Y...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468083/-advance-on-genome-research-of-yersinia-pestis-bacteriophage
#12
H L Tan, P Wang, W Li
Completion of the genome sequences on Yersinia pestis bacteriophage offered unprecedented opportunity for researchers to carry out related genomic studies. This review was based on the genomic sequences and provided a genomic perspective in describing the essential features of genome on Yersinia pestis bacteriophage. Based on the comparative genomics, genetic evolutionary relationship was discussed. Description of functions from the gene prediction and protein annotation provided evidence for further related studies...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465342/endogenous-hepcidin-and-its-agonist-mediate-resistance-to-selected-infections-by-clearing-non-transferrin-bound-iron
#13
Deborah Stefanova, Antoan Raychev, Joao Arezes, Peter Ruchala, Victoria Gabayan, Mikael Skurnik, Barbara J Dillon, Marcus A Horwitz, Tomas Ganz, Yonca Bulut, Elizabeta Nemeth
The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is induced early in infection, causing iron sequestration in macrophages and decreased plasma iron; this is proposed to limit the replication of extracellular microbes, but could also promote infection with macrophage-tropic pathogens. The mechanisms by which hepcidin and hypoferremia modulate host defense, and the spectrum of microbes affected, are poorly understood. Using mouse models, we show that hepcidin was selectively protective against siderophilic extracellular pathogens (Yersinia enterocolitica O9) by controlling non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) rather than iron-transferrin concentration...
May 2, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463626/responses-of-juvenile-black-tailed-prairie-dogs-cynomys-ludovicianus-to-a-commercially-produced-oral-plague-vaccine-delivered-at-two-doses
#14
Elsa M Cárdenas-Canales, Lisa L Wolfe, Daniel W Tripp, Tonie E Rocke, Rachel C Abbott, Michael W Miller
We confirmed safety and immunogenicity of mass-produced vaccine baits carrying an experimental, commercial-source plague vaccine (RCN-F1/V307) expressing Yersinia pestis V and F1 antigens. Forty-five juvenile black-tailed prairie dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=15 animals/group). Animals in the first group received one standard-dose vaccine bait (5×10(7) plaque-forming units [pfu]; STD). The second group received a lower-dose bait (1×10(7) pfu; LOW). In the third group, five animals received two standard-dose baits and 10 were left untreated but in contact...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461567/kinase-activities-of-ripk1-and-ripk3-can-direct-ifn-%C3%AE-synthesis-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#15
Danish Saleh, Malek Najjar, Matija Zelic, Saumil Shah, Shoko Nogusa, Apostolos Polykratis, Michelle K Paczosa, Peter J Gough, John Bertin, Michael Whalen, Katherine A Fitzgerald, Nikolai Slavov, Manolis Pasparakis, Siddharth Balachandran, Michelle Kelliher, Joan Mecsas, Alexei Degterev
The innate immune response is a central element of the initial defense against bacterial and viral pathogens. Macrophages are key innate immune cells that upon encountering pathogen-associated molecular patterns respond by producing cytokines, including IFN-β. In this study, we identify a novel role for RIPK1 and RIPK3, a pair of homologous serine/threonine kinases previously implicated in the regulation of necroptosis and pathologic tissue injury, in directing IFN-β production in macrophages. Using genetic and pharmacologic tools, we show that catalytic activity of RIPK1 directs IFN-β synthesis induced by LPS in mice...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460348/structure-and-gene-cluster-of-a-tyvelose-containing-o-polysaccharide-of-an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-yersinia-entomophaga-mh96-t-related-to-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis
#16
O V Sizova, A N Kondakova, A S Shashkov, Y A Knirel, R Z Shaikhutdinova, S A Ivanov, M E Platonov, M R H Hurst, S V Dentovskaya
An O-polysaccharide was isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of an entomopathogenic bacterium Yersinia entomophaga MH96(T) by mild acid hydrolysis and studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the branched tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established: where Tyv indicates 3,6-dideoxy-d-arabino-hexose (tyvelose). The structure established is consistent with the gene content of the O-antigen gene cluster. The O-polysaccharide structure and gene cluster of Y. entomophaga are related to those of some Y...
April 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455335/yersinia-pestis-resists-predation-by-acanthamoeba-castellanii-and-exhibits-prolonged-intracellular-survival
#17
Javier A Benavides-Montaño, Viveka Vadyvaloo
Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis The disease is characterized by epizootics with high rodent mortalities, punctuated by inter-epizootic periods when the bacterium persists in an unknown reservoir. This study investigates the interaction between Y. pestis and the ubiquitous soil free-living amoeba (FLA), Acanthamoeba castellanii, to assess if the bacterium can survive within soil amoeba and whether intracellular mechanisms are conserved between infection of mammalian macrophages and soil amoeba...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450859/a-comparative-characterization-of-different-host-sourced-lactobacillus-ruminis-strains-and-their-adhesive-inhibitory-and-immunomodulating-functions
#18
Xia Yu, Silja Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Joanna Koort, Agneta Lindholm, Johanna Rintahaka, Ingemar von Ossowski, Airi Palva, Ulla Hynönen
Lactobacillus ruminis, an autochthonous member of the gastrointestinal microbiota of humans and many animals, is a less characterized but interesting species for many reasons, including its intestinal prevalence and possible positive roles in host-microbe crosstalk. In this study, we isolated a novel L. ruminis strain (GRL 1172) from porcine feces and analyzed its functional characteristics and niche adaptation factors in parallel with those of three other L. ruminis strains (a human isolate, ATCC 25644, and two bovine isolates, ATCC 27780 and ATCC 27781)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442112/experimental-infection-with-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-in-european-brown-hare-lepus-europaeus-pallas
#19
Filippo Fratini, Ranieri Verin, Valentina V Ebani, Cecilia Ambrogi, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Barbara Turchi, Alessandro Poli, Domenico Cerri
OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinicopathological, bacteriological and pathological aspects of an experimental infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Y. pseudotuberculosis) in hares to verify the efficacy of serology for the in vivo diagnosis. Moreover, the pathogenicity of two Y. pseudotuberculosis strains was investigated in order to detect potential differences. METHODS: Twelve European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, Pallas) were experimentally infected per os and via conjunctival mucosae with Y...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418764/disease-surveillance-of-california-ground-squirrels-spermophilus-beecheyi-in-a-drive-through-zoo-in-oregon-usa
#20
Julia Ter Beest, Andrew Cushing, Modesto McClean, Wendy Hsu, Robert Bildfell
Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, USA, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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