Read by QxMD icon Read


G Kamkamidze, I Migriauli, D Razmadze, M Kochlamazashvili, K Mulkijanyan, M Butsashvili
The main objective of this investigation was to develop and pilot a real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) diagnostic system for rapid and simultaneous identification of pathogens with a particular emphasis on diarrheal disease diagnostics. The diarrheal diseases were selected as a target for the pilot because they constitute a primary public health priority in Georgia and worldwide. The product developed by our research team "Neo_PCR_Diagnostics" represents an original system for the identification of pathogens associated with gastrointestinal tract infections and diarrhea...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Jianhua Yang, Anna Joëlle Ruff, Stefanie Nicole Hamer, Feng Cheng, Ulrich Schwaneberg
Escherichia coli is a common host for recombinant protein production in which production titers are highly dependent on the employed expression system. Promoters are thereby a key element to control gene expression levels. In this study, a novel PLICable promoter toolbox was developed which enables in a single cloning step and after a screening experiment to identify out of ten IPTG-inducible promoters (T7, A3, lpp, tac, pac, Sp6, lac, npr, trc and syn) the most suitable one for high level protein production...
October 18, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
Paul M Arnaboldi, Mariya Sambir, Christina D'Arco, Lauren A Peters, Jos F M L Seegers, Lloyd Mayer, Alison A McCormick, Raymond J Dattwyler
Yersinia pestis, one of history's deadliest pathogens, has killed millions over the course of human history. It has attributes that make it an ideal choice to produce mass casualties and is a prime candidate for use as a biological weapon. When aerosolized, Y. pestis causes pneumonic plague, a pneumonia that is 100% lethal if not promptly treated with effective antibiotics. Currently, there is no FDA approved plague vaccine. The current lead vaccine candidate, a parenterally administered protein subunit vaccine comprised of the Y...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Martin Aepfelbacher, Manuel Wolters
Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Yersinia include Y. pestis-the agent of plaque-and two enteropathogens, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis. These pathogens have developed an array of virulence factors aimed at manipulating Rho GTP-binding proteins and the actin cytoskeleton in host cells to cross the intestinal barrier and suppress the immune system. Yersinia virulence factors include outer membrane proteins triggering cell invasion by binding to integrins, effector proteins injected into host cells to manipulate Rho protein functions and a Rho protein-activating exotoxin...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Emmanuel Lemichez
The virulence of highly pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Yersinia, Staphylococci, Clostridia, and pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli involves intimate cross-talks with the host actin cytoskeleton and its upstream regulators. A large number of virulence factors expressed by these pathogens modulate Rho GTPase activities either by mimicking cellular regulators or by catalyzing posttranslational modifications of these small proteins. This impressive convergence of virulence toward Rho GTPases and actin indeed offers pathogens the capacity to breach host defenses and invade their host, while it promotes inflammatory reactions...
October 16, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Ye Cao, Kai Guan, Xiang He, Congwen Wei, Zirui Zheng, Yanhong Zhang, Shengli Ma, Hui Zhong, Wei Shi
The Yersinia outer protein J (YopJ) plays a pivotal role in evading the host immune response and establishes a persistent infection in host cells after bacterial infection. YopJ is a cysteine protease and can act as a deubiquitinating enzyme that deubiquitinates several targets in multiple signaling pathways. Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a critical adapter for the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation and subsequent production of the cytokines in response to nucleic acids in the cytoplasm...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Catherine Daniel, Marie Titecat, Sabine Poiret, Delphine Cayet, Denise Boutillier, Michel Simonet, Jean-Claude Sirard, Nadine Lemaître, Florent Sebbane
BACKGROUND: Pseudotuberculosis is an infection caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and is considered to be a significant problem in veterinary medicine. We previously found that intranasal administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that secretes the low-calcium response V (LcrV) antigen from Y. pseudotuberculosis (Ll-LcrV) confers protection against a lethal Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immunological basis of this LcrV-elicited protective response and at determining the duration of vaccine-induced immunity...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Naomi H Philip, Alexandra DeLaney, Lance W Peterson, Melanie Santos-Marrero, Jennifer T Grier, Yan Sun, Meghan A Wynosky-Dolfi, Erin E Zwack, Baofeng Hu, Tayla M Olsen, Anthony Rongvaux, Scott D Pope, Carolina B López, Andrew Oberst, Daniel P Beiting, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Igor E Brodsky
Caspases regulate cell death programs in response to environmental stresses, including infection and inflammation, and are therefore critical for the proper operation of the mammalian immune system. Caspase-8 is necessary for optimal production of inflammatory cytokines and host defense against infection by multiple pathogens including Yersinia, but whether this is due to death of infected cells or an intrinsic role of caspase-8 in TLR-induced gene expression is unknown. Caspase-8 activation at death signaling complexes results in its autoprocessing and subsequent cleavage and activation of its downstream apoptotic targets...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Lance W Peterson, Naomi H Philip, Christopher P Dillon, John Bertin, Peter J Gough, Douglas R Green, Igor E Brodsky
Innate immune responses that are crucial for control of infection are often targeted by microbial pathogens. Blockade of NF-κB and MAPK signaling by the Yersinia virulence factor YopJ inhibits cytokine production by innate immune cells but also triggers cell death. This cell death requires RIPK1 kinase activity and caspase-8, which are engaged by TLR4 and the adaptor protein TRIF. Nevertheless, TLR4- and TRIF-deficient cells undergo significant apoptosis, implicating TLR4/TRIF-independent pathways in the death of Yersinia-infected cells...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Didier Raoult
We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages)...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Alexia Hapeshi, Nick R Waterfield
Photorhabdus asymbiotica is a species of bacterium that is pathogenic to humans whilst retaining the ability to infect insect hosts. Currently, there are two recognised subspecies, P. asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis with strains isolated from various locations in the USA, Australia, Thailand, Nepal and Europe. Like other species of Photorhabdus, P. asymbiotica subsp. australis was shown to form a symbiotic relationship with a Heterorhabditis nematode. In contrast to most strains of Photorhabdus luminescens, P...
September 14, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Ruifu Yang, Yujun Cui, Yujing Bi
Yersinia pestis is a typical zoonotic bacterial pathogen. The following reasons make this pathogen a model for studying zoonotic pathogens: (1) Its unique lifestyle makes Y. pestis an ideal model for studying host-vector-environment-pathogen interactions; (2) population diversity characters in Y. pestis render it a model species for studying monomorphic bacterial evolution; (3) the pathogenic features of bacteria provide us with good opportunities to study human immune responses; (4) typical animal and vector models of Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiangna Zhao, Mikael Skurnik
Bacteriophage play many varied roles in microbial ecology and evolution. This chapter collates a vast body of knowledge and expertise on Yersinia pestis phages, including the history of their isolation and classical methods for their isolation and identification. The genomic diversity of Y. pestis phage and bacteriophage islands in the Y. pestis genome are also discussed because all phage research represents a branch of genetics. In addition, our knowledge of the receptors that are recognized by Y. pestis phage, advances in phage therapy for Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Wei Sun
Three major plague pandemics caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis have killed nearly 200 million people in human history. Due to its extreme virulence and the ease of its transmission, Y. pestis has been used purposefully for biowarfare in the past. Currently, plague epidemics are still breaking out sporadically in most of parts of the world, including the United States. Approximately 2000 cases of plague are reported each year to the World Health Organization. However, the potential use of the bacteria in modern times as an agent of bioterrorism and the emergence of a Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yujing Bi
As a pathogen of plague, Yersinia pestis caused three massive pandemics in history that killed hundreds of millions of people. Yersinia pestis is highly invasive, causing severe septicemia which, if untreated, is usually fatal to its host. To survive in the host and maintain a persistent infection, Yersinia pestis uses several stratagems to evade the innate and the adaptive immune responses. For example, infections with this organism are biphasic, involving an initial "noninflammatory" phase where bacterial replication occurs initially with little inflammation and following by extensive phagocyte influx, inflammatory cytokine production, and considerable tissue destruction, which is called "proinflammatory" phase...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ruifu Yang, Vladimir L Motin
As omics-driven technologies developed rapidly, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other omics-based data have been accumulated in unprecedented speed. Omics-driven big data in biology have changed our way of research. "Big science" has promoted our understanding of biology in a holistic overview that is impossibly achieved by traditional hypothesis-driven research. In this chapter, we gave an overview of omics-driven research on Y. pestis, provided a way of thinking on Yersinia pestis research in the age of big data, and made some suggestions to integrate omics-based data for systems understanding of Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yanping Han, Haihong Fang, Lei Liu, Dongsheng Zhou
Y. pestis exhibits dramatically different traits of pathogenicity and transmission, albeit their close genetic relationship with its ancestor-Y. pseudotuberculosis, a self-limiting gastroenteric pathogen. Y. pestis is evolved into a deadly pathogen and transmitted to mammals and/or human beings by infected flea biting or directly contacting with the infected animals. Various kinds of environmental changes are implicated into its complex life cycle and pathogenesis. Dynamic regulation of gene expression is critical for environmental adaptation or survival, primarily reflected by genetic regulation mediated by transcriptional factors and small regulatory RNAs at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level, respectively...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zongmin Du, Xiaoyi Wang
Various types of animal models of plague have been developed, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, and nonhuman primates. Studies have indicated that rodent and nonhuman primate models of pneumonic plague closely resemble the human disease and that the pathologic changes that occur during bubonic plague are very similar in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. In this section, the pathological changes caused by Y. pestis in different animal models are described. The bacterium Y. pestis causes deadly plague, whereas the other two closely related enteropathogenic Yersinia species merely cause limited gastrointestinal manifestations...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yujun Cui, Yajun Song
This chapter summarizes researches on genome and evolution features of Yersinia pestis, the young pathogen that evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis at least 5000 years ago. Y. pestis is a highly clonal bacterial species with closed pan-genome. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that genome of Y. pestis experienced highly frequent rearrangement and genome decay events during the evolution. The genealogy of Y. pestis includes five major branches, and four of them seemed raised from a "big bang" node that is associated with the Black Death...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Vladimir M Dubyanskiy, Aidyn B Yeszhanov
This chapter summarizes information about the natural foci of plague in the world. We describe the location, main hosts, and vectors of Yersinia pestis. The ecological features of the hosts and vectors of plague are listed, including predators - birds and mammals and their role in the epizootic. The epizootic process in plague and the factors affecting the dynamics of epizootic activity of natural foci of Y. pestis are described in detail. The mathematical models of the epizootic process in plague and predictive models are briefly described...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"