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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913453/movement-patterns-of-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-in-farmlands-in-botswana
#1
L K Van der Weyde, T Y Hubel, J Horgan, J Shotton, R McKenna, A M Wilson
Botswana has the second highest population of cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) with most living outside protected areas. As a result, many cheetahs are found in farming areas, bringing them into conflict with people. This study aimed to look at movement patterns of cheetahs in farming environments to determine whether cheetahs have adapted their movements in these human-dominated landscapes. We fitted high-time resolution GPS collars to cheetahs in the Ghanzi farmlands of Botswana. GPS locations were used to calculate home range sizes as well as number and duration of visits to landscape features using a time-based local convex hull method...
December 2, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913266/cost-utility-of-video-electroencephalography-monitoring-followed-by-surgery-in-adults-with-drug-resistant-focal-epilepsy-in-thailand
#2
Pimprapa Kitwitee, Kanjana Unnwongse, Teeradej Srikijvilaikul, Tinonkorn Yadee, Chulaporn Limwattananon
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed, whether video-electroencephalography (VEEG) monitoring followed by surgery was cost-effective in adult patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy under Thai healthcare context, as compared to continued medical treatment without VEEG. METHODS: Total cost (in Thai Baht, THB) and effectiveness (in quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) were estimated over a lifetime horizon, using a decision tree and a Markov model. Data on short-term surgical outcomes, direct health care costs, and utilities, were collected from Thai patients in a specialized hospital...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909038/decision-tree-based-modelling-for-identification-of-potential-interactions-between-type-2-diabetes-risk-factors-a-decade-follow-up-in-a-middle-east-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Azra Ramezankhani, Esmaeil Hadavandi, Omid Pournik, Jamal Shahrabi, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken for use of the decision tree (DT) method for development of different prediction models for incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and for exploring interactions between predictor variables in those models. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). METHODS: A total of 6647 participants (43.4% men) aged >20 years, without T2D at baselines ((1999-2001) and (2002-2005)), were followed until 2012...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908165/a-comparison-of-two-prospective-risk-analysis-methods-traditional-fmea-and-a-modified-healthcare-fmea
#4
Jeong-Eun Rah, Ryan P Manger, Adam D Yock, Gwe-Ya Kim
PURPOSE: To examine the abilities of a traditional failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and modified healthcare FMEA (m-HFMEA) scoring methods by comparing the degree of congruence in identifying high risk failures. METHODS: The authors applied two prospective methods of the quality management to surface image guided, linac-based radiosurgery (SIG-RS). For the traditional FMEA, decisions on how to improve an operation were based on the risk priority number (RPN)...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903479/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-use-of-a-prophylactic-antibiotic-for-patients-undergoing-lower-limb-amputation-due-to-diabetes-or-vascular-illness-in-colombia
#5
REVIEW
Mateo Ceballos, Luis Esteban Orozco, Carlos Oliver Valderrama, Diana Isabel Londoño, Luz Helena Lugo
BACKGROUND: The use of a prophylactic antibiotic in an amputation surgery is a key element for the successful recovery of the patient. We aim to determine, from the perspective of the Colombian health system, the cost-effectiveness of administering a prophylactic antibiotic among patients undergoing lower limb amputation due to diabetes or vascular illness in Colombia. METHODS: A decision tree was constructed to compare the use and non-use of a prophylactic antibiotic...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902916/use-of-molecular-pathogenicity-indices-to-identify-pathogenic-strains-of-pasteurella-multocida
#6
Thales Quedi Furian, Karen Apellanis Borges, Roberta Marmitt Pilatti, Camila Neves de Almeida, André Felipe Streck, Brunna Dias de Emery, Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Pippi Salle, Hamilton Luiz de Souza Moraes
In addition to being the causative agent of fowl cholera (FC), Pasteurella multocida is also one of the most prevalent opportunistic pathogens associated with respiratory diseases in various hosts. However, understanding of the traits that distinguish the virulent isolates that cause FC is still limited. The objective of this study was to characterize P. multocida isolates of Brazil by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in order to determine if strain-type correlates with virulence or with 22 previously studied virulence genes...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901055/mediboost-a-patient-stratification-tool-for-interpretable-decision-making-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#7
Gilmer Valdes, José Marcio Luna, Eric Eaton, Charles B Simone, Lyle H Ungar, Timothy D Solberg
Machine learning algorithms that are both interpretable and accurate are essential in applications such as medicine where errors can have a dire consequence. Unfortunately, there is currently a tradeoff between accuracy and interpretability among state-of-the-art methods. Decision trees are interpretable and are therefore used extensively throughout medicine for stratifying patients. Current decision tree algorithms, however, are consistently outperformed in accuracy by other, less-interpretable machine learning models, such as ensemble methods...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898695/dcite-measuring-necessary-cladistic-information-can-help-you-reduce-polytomy-artefacts-in-trees
#8
Michael J Wise
Biologists regularly create phylogenetic trees to better understand the evolutionary origins of their species of interest, and often use genomes as their data source. However, as more and more incomplete genomes are published, in many cases it may not be possible to compute genome-based phylogenetic trees due to large gaps in the assembled sequences. In addition, comparison of complete genomes may not even be desirable due to the presence of horizontally acquired and homologous genes. A decision must therefore be made about which gene, or gene combinations, should be used to compute a tree...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895661/the-genome-conformation-as-an-integrator-of-multi-omic-data-the-example-of-damage-spreading-in-cancer
#9
Fabio Tordini, Marco Aldinucci, Luciano Milanesi, Pietro Liò, Ivan Merelli
Publicly available multi-omic databases, in particular if associated with medical annotations, are rich resources with the potential to lead a rapid transition from high-throughput molecular biology experiments to better clinical outcomes for patients. In this work, we propose a model for multi-omic data integration (i.e., genetic variations, gene expression, genome conformation, and epigenetic patterns), which exploits a multi-layer network approach to analyse, visualize, and obtain insights from such biological information, in order to use achieved results at a macroscopic level...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890844/validation-of-a-decision-tree-to-streamline-infrainguinal-vein-graft-surveillance
#10
Reza Mofidi, Olivia Mb McBride, Barnabas R Green, Tracey Gatenby, Paul Walker, Simon Milburn
INTRODUCTION: Duplex Ultrasound (DU) based graft surveillance remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a recently proposed decision tree in identifying high-risk grafts which would benefit from DU based surveillance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing infrainguinal vein graft bypass from January 2008 to December 2015 were identified from the National Vascular registry and enrolled in a duplex surveillance program...
November 24, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888630/the-association-of-variants-in-pnpla3-and-grp78-and-the-risk-of-developing-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-an-italian-population
#11
Daniele Balasus, Michael Way, Caterina Fusilli, Tommaso Mazza, Marsha Y Morgan, Melchiorre Cervello, Lydia Giannitrapani, Maurizio Soresi, Rosalia Agliastro, Manlio Vinciguerra, Giuseppe Montalto
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has one of the worst prognoses amongst all malignancies. It commonly arises in patients with established liver disease and the diagnosis often occurs at an advanced stage. Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), may alter disease risk and thus may have use as predictive markers of disease outcome. The aims of this study were (i) to assess the association of two SNPs, rs430397 in GRP78 and rs738409 in PNPLA3 with the risk of developing HCC in a Sicilian association cohort and, (ii) to use a machine learning technique to establish a predictive combinatorial phenotypic model for HCC including rs430397 and rs738409 genotypes and clinical and laboratory attributes...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886024/predicting-adherence-to-use-of-remote-health-monitoring-systems-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#12
Lorraine S Evangelista, Hassan Ghasemzadeh, Jung-Ah Lee, Ramin Fallahzadeh, Majid Sarrafzadeh, Debra K Moser
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether subgroups of patients may benefit from remote monitoring systems (RMS) and what user characteristics and contextual factors determine effective use of RMS in patients with heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted to determine whether certain user characteristics (i.e. personal and clinical variables) predict use of RMS using advanced machine learning software algorithms in patients with HF. METHODS: This pilot study was a single-arm experimental study with a pre- (baseline) and post- (3 months) design; data from the baseline measures were used for the current data analyses...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882725/analysis-of-risk-factors-to-predict-communicating-hydrocephalus-following-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-intracranial-schwannoma
#13
Seunghoon Lee, Seong-Wook Seo, Juyoung Hwang, Ho Jun Seol, Do-Hyun Nam, Jung-Il Lee, Doo-Sik Kong
Communicating hydrocephalus (HCP) in vestibular schwannomas (VS) after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has been reported in the literature. However, little information about its incidence and risk factors after GKRS for intracranial schwannomas is yet available. The objective of this study was to identify the incidence and risk factors for developing communicating HCP after GKRS for intracranial schwannomas. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 702 patients with intracranial schwannomas who were treated with GKRS between January 2002 and December 2015...
November 23, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881283/cost-effectiveness-of-introducing-point-of-care-test-for-detection-of-level-of-glycogen-phosphorylase-in-early-diagnostic-algorithm-of-acute-coronary-syndrome
#14
Slobodan M Janković, Marina Kostić
BACKGROUND: The detection of specific biomarkers in the early phase of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is important for the early diagnosis and appropriate management of patients with ACS. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of introducing a diagnostic point-of-care (POC) test for determining the levels of glycogen phosphorylase BB isoform (GPBB) in a standard diagnostic algorithm for the early diagnosis of ACS within the health system of the Republic of Serbia...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878545/probability-of-foliar-injury-for-acer-sp-based-on-foliar-fluoride-concentrations
#15
Andrew M McDonough, Murray J Dixon, Debbie T Terry, Aaron K Todd, Michael A Luciani, Michele L Williamson, Danuta S Roszak, Kim A Farias
Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878506/the-paradox-of-abstraction-precision-versus-concreteness
#16
Rumen Iliev, Robert Axelrod
We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877848/towards-sensible-toxicity-testing-for-nanomaterials-proposal-for-the-specification-of-test-design
#17
Annegret Potthoff, Mirco Weil, Tobias Meißner, Dana Kühnel
During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing...
December 2015: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876688/online-concerns-of-parents-suspecting-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-their-child-content-analysis-of-signs-and-automated-prediction-of-risk
#18
Ayelet Ben-Sasson, Elad Yom-Tov
BACKGROUND: Online communities are used as platforms by parents to verify developmental and health concerns related to their child. The increasing public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) leads more parents to suspect ASD in their child. Early identification of ASD is important for early intervention. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the symptoms mentioned in online queries posed by parents who suspect that their child might have ASD and determine whether they are age-specific...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875135/an-analysis-of-machine-and-human-analytics-in-classification
#19
Gary K L Tam, Vivek Kothari, Min Chen
In this work, we present a study that traces the technical and cognitive processes in two visual analytics applications to a common theoretic model of soft knowledge that may be added into a visual analytics process for constructing a decision-tree model. Both case studies involved the development of classification models based on the "bag of features" approach. Both compared a visual analytics approach using parallel coordinates with a machine-learning approach using information theory. Both found that the visual analytics approach had some advantages over the machine learning approach, especially when sparse datasets were used as the ground truth...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869388/-cost-effectiveness-of-diagnostic-strategies-of-severe-bacterial-infection-in-infants-with-fever-without-a-source
#20
Jefferson Antonio Buendía, Juana Patricia Sánchez-Villamil, Gabriela Urman
Serious bacterial infections in infants under 2-years-of-age with fever without a source remains, despite advances in vaccination, a matter of concern for both physicians and parents. Having cost-effectiveness information is relevant to guide decision making in clinical practice in this scenario. Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of four different strategies of screening in Argentina for serious bacterial infection in children presenting with fever without a source. Materials and methods: We designed a decision tree to model a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 children with fever without a source...
September 1, 2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
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