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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816666/efficient-multi-strategy-intra-prediction-for-quality-scalable-high-efficiency-video-coding
#1
Dayong Wang, Ce Zhu, Yu Sun, Frederic Dufaux, Yuanyuan Huang
As an extension of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the Scalable High Efficiency Video Coding (SHVC) introduces multiple layers with inter-layer predictions, which greatly increases the complexity on top of the already complicated HEVC encoder. In Intra prediction for Quality SHVC, Coding Tree Unit (CTU) allows recursive splitting into four depth levels, which considers 35 Intra prediction modes and interlayer reference (ILR) mode to determine the best possible mode at each depth level. This achieves the highest coding efficiency but incurs a substantially high computational complexity...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815611/the-value-of-frontal-sinusotomy-for-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps-a-cost-utility-analysis
#2
George A Scangas, Ashton E Lehmann, Aaron K Remenschneider, Brooke M Su, Mark G Shrime, Ralph Metson
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The number of surgical procedures performed for frontal sinusitis and the associated costs have increased dramatically over the past decade. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of endoscopic frontal sinusotomy (EFS) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). STUDY DESIGN: Cohort-style Markov decision-tree economic model with a 36-year time horizon. METHODS: Matched cohorts of CRSwNP patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with (n = 139) and without (n = 49) EFS were compared to each other and to patients (n = 139) from the Medical Expenditures Survey Panel database who underwent medical management for chronic rhinosinusitis...
August 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815291/prognostic-value-of-atherosclerotic-burden-and-coronary-vascular-function-in-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease
#3
Roberta Assante, Wanda Acampa, Emilia Zampella, Parthiban Arumugam, Carmela Nappi, Valeria Gaudieri, Ciro Gabriele Mainolfi, Mariarosaria Panico, Mario Magliulo, Christine M Tonge, Mario Petretta, Alberto Cuocolo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of coronary atherosclerotic burden, assessed by coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, and coronary vascular function, assessed by coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We studied 436 patients undergoing hybrid (82)Rb positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. CAC score was measured according to the Agatston method, and patients were categorized into three groups (0, <400, and ≥400)...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815155/segmentation-of-phase-contrast-microscopy-images-based-on-multi-scale-local-basic-image-features-histograms
#4
N Jaccard, N Szita, L D Griffin
Phase contrast microscopy (PCM) is routinely used for the inspection of adherent cell cultures in all fields of biology and biomedicine. Key decisions for experimental protocols are often taken by an operator based on typically qualitative observations. However, automated processing and analysis of PCM images remain challenging due to the low contrast between foreground objects (cells) and background as well as various imaging artefacts. We propose a trainable pixel-wise segmentation approach whereby image structures and symmetries are encoded in the form of multi-scale Basic Image Features local histograms, and classification of them is learned by random decision trees...
September 3, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. Imaging & Visualization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814269/applied-swarm-based-medicine-collecting-decision-trees-for-patterns-of-algorithms-analysis
#5
Cédric M Panje, Markus Glatzer, Joscha von Rappard, Christian Rothermundt, Thomas Hundsberger, Valentin Zumstein, Ludwig Plasswilm, Paul Martin Putora
BACKGROUND: The objective consensus methodology has recently been applied in consensus finding in several studies on medical decision-making among clinical experts or guidelines. The main advantages of this method are an automated analysis and comparison of treatment algorithms of the participating centers which can be performed anonymously. METHODS: Based on the experience from completed consensus analyses, the main steps for the successful implementation of the objective consensus methodology were identified and discussed among the main investigators...
August 16, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813483/muroid-rodent-phylogenetics-900-species-tree-reveals-increasing-diversification-rates
#6
Scott J Steppan, John J Schenk
We combined new sequence data for more than 300 muroid rodent species with our previously published sequences for up to five nuclear and one mitochondrial genes to generate the most widely and densely sampled hypothesis of evolutionary relationships across Muroidea. An exhaustive screening procedure for publically available sequences was implemented to avoid the propagation of taxonomic errors that are common to supermatrix studies. The combined data set of carefully screened sequences derived from all available sequences on GenBank with our new data resulted in a robust maximum likelihood phylogeny for 900 of the approximately 1,620 muroids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810905/omni-polya-a-method-and-tool-for-accurate-recognition-of-poly-a-signals-in-human-genomic-dna
#7
Arturo Magana-Mora, Manal Kalkatawi, Vladimir B Bajic
BACKGROUND: Polyadenylation is a critical stage of RNA processing during the formation of mature mRNA, and is present in most of the known eukaryote protein-coding transcripts and many long non-coding RNAs. The correct identification of poly(A) signals (PAS) not only helps to elucidate the 3'-end genomic boundaries of a transcribed DNA region and gene regulatory mechanisms but also gives insight into the multiple transcript isoforms resulting from alternative PAS. Although progress has been made in the in-silico prediction of genomic signals, the recognition of PAS in DNA genomic sequences remains a challenge...
August 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810283/-comparison-of-discriminant-analysis-and-decision-trees-for-the-detection-of-subclinical-keratoconus
#8
Sonja Kleinhans, Eva Herrmann, Thomas Kohnen, Jens Bühren
Background Iatrogenic keratectasia is one of the most dreaded complications of refractive surgery. In most cases, keratectasia develops after refractive surgery of eyes suffering from subclinical stages of keratoconus with few or no signs. Unfortunately, there has been no reliable procedure for the early detection of keratoconus. In this study, we used binary decision trees (recursive partitioning) to assess their suitability for discrimination between normal eyes and eyes with subclinical keratoconus. Patients and Methods The method of decision tree analysis was compared with discriminant analysis which has shown good results in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808915/cost-effectiveness-of-posaconazole-tablets-for-invasive-fungal-infections-prevention-in-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-or-myelodysplastic-syndrome-patients-in-spain
#9
Rafael Cámara, Irmina Gozalbo, Manuel Jurado, Jaime Sanz, Belén Aragón, Santiago Grau
INTRODUCTION: Posaconazole is superior to fluconazole (FLU) and itraconazole (ITRA) in the prevention of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). A new tablet formulation of posaconazole with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties compared to posaconazole oral solution has recently been approved. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the newly developed posaconazole tablets versus FLU oral suspension or ITRA oral solution for preventing IFDs in high-risk neutropenic patients with AML or MDS and from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System (NHS)...
August 14, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806362/harnessing-implementation-science-to-increase-the-impact-of-health-equity-research
#10
Matthew Chinman, Eva N Woodward, Geoffrey M Curran, Leslie R M Hausmann
BACKGROUND: Health disparities are differences in health or health care between groups based on social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. Disparity research often follows 3 steps: detecting (phase 1), understanding (phase 2), and reducing (phase 3), disparities. Although disparities have narrowed over time, many remain. OBJECTIVES: We argue that implementation science could enhance disparities research by broadening the scope of phase 2 studies and offering rigorous methods to test disparity-reducing implementation strategies in phase 3 studies...
September 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805164/modelling-the-spatial-distribution-of-fasciola-hepatica-in-bovines-using-decision-tree-logistic-regression-and-gis-query-approaches-for-brazil
#11
S C Bennema, M B Molento, R G Scholte, O S Carvalho, I Pritsch
Fascioliasis is a condition caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica. In this paper, the spatial distribution of F. hepatica in bovines in Brazil was modelled using a decision tree approach and a logistic regression, combined with a geographic information system (GIS) query. In the decision tree and the logistic model, isothermality had the strongest influence on disease prevalence. Also, the 50-year average precipitation in the warmest quarter of the year was included as a risk factor, having a negative influence on the parasite prevalence...
August 14, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800219/machine-learning-using-combined-structural-and-chemical-descriptors-for-prediction-of-methane-adsorption-performance-of-metal-organic-frameworks-mofs
#12
Maryam Pardakhti, Ehsan Moharreri, David Wanik, Steven L Suib, Ranjan Srivastava
Using molecular simulation for adsorbent screening is computationally expensive and thus prohibitive to material discovery. Machine learning (ML) algorithms trained on fundamental material properties can potentially provide quick and accurate methods for screening purposes. Prior efforts have focused on structural descriptors for use with ML. In this work, the use of chemical descriptors, in addition to structural descriptors, was introduced for adsorption analysis. Evaluation of structural and chemical descriptors coupled with various ML algorithms, including decision trees, Poisson regression, support vector machine and random forest, were carried out to predict methane uptake on hypothetical metal organic frameworks...
August 11, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796898/comparison-of-the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-hysterectomy-and-endometrial-ablation-for-heavy-menstrual-bleeding-in-a-decision-analysis-model
#13
REVIEW
Michelle Louie, Jennifer Spencer, Stephanie Wheeler, Victoria Ellis, Tarek Toubia, Lauren D Schiff, Matthew T Siedhoff, Janelle K Moulder
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the relative risks and benefits of common treatment options for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) can help providers and patients to make balanced, evidence-based decisions. OBJECTIVES: To provide comparative estimates of clinical outcomes after placement of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), ablation, or hysterectomy for AUB. SEARCH STRATEGY: A PubMED search was done using combinations of search terms related to abnormal uterine bleeding, LNG-IUS, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness, and quality-adjusted life years...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796618/learning-based-shadow-recognition-and-removal-from-monochromatic-natural-images
#14
Mingliang Xu, Jiejie Zhu, Pei Lv, Bing Zhou, Marshall F Tappen, Rongrong Ji
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing and removing shadows from monochromatic natural images from a learning based perspective. Without chromatic information, shadow recognition and removal are extremely challenging in the literature, mainly due to the missing of invariant color cues. Natural scenes make this problem even harder due to the complex illumination condition and ambiguity from many near-black objects. In this paper, a learning based shadow recognition and removal scheme is proposed to tackle the challenges above...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793866/strategies-for-the-prevention-of-perinatal-hepatitis-b-transmission-in-a-marginalized-population-on-the-thailand-myanmar-border-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#15
Angela Devine, Rebecca Harvey, Aung Myat Min, Mary Ellen T Gilder, Moo Koh Paw, Joy Kang, Isabella Watts, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, François Nosten, Rose McGready
BACKGROUND: Data on the cost effectiveness of hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and vaccination strategies for prevention of vertical transmission of HBV in resource limited settings is sparse. METHODS: A decision tree model of HBV prevention strategies utilised data from a cohort of 7071 pregnant women on the Thailand-Myanmar border using a provider perspective. All options included universal HBV vaccination for newborns in three strategies: (1) universal vaccination alone; (2) universal vaccination with screening of women during antenatal visits with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) plus HBV immune globulin (HBIG) administration to newborns of HBV surface antigen positive women; and (3) universal vaccination with screening of women during antenatal visits plus HBIG administration to newborns of women testing HBV e antigen positive by confirmatory test...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792503/multi-scale-encoding-of-amino-acid-sequences-for-predicting-protein-interactions-using-gradient-boosting-decision-tree
#16
Chang Zhou, Hua Yu, Yijie Ding, Fei Guo, Xiu-Jun Gong
Nowadays a number of computational approaches have been developed to effectively and accurately predict protein interactions. However, most of these methods typically perform worse when other biological data sources (e.g., protein structure information, protein domains, or gene neighborhoods information) are not available. In the present work, we propose a method for predicting protein interactions making full use of physicochemical characteristics of amino acids. A protein sequence is encoded at multi-scale by seven properties, including their qualitative and quantitative descriptions, of amino acids...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781942/prevalence-and-determinants-of-preterm-birth-in-tehran-iran-a-comparison-between-logistic-regression-and-decision-tree-methods
#17
Payam Amini, Saman Maroufizadeh, Reza Omani Samani, Omid Hamidi, Mahdi Sepidarkish
OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal death and the second biggest cause of death in children under five years of age. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of PTB and its associated factors using logistic regression and decision tree classification methods. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,415 pregnant women in Tehran, Iran, from July 6-21, 2015. Data were collected by a researcher-developed questionnaire through interviews with mothers and review of their medical records...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779781/vascular-access-should-be-tailored-to-the-patient
#18
REVIEW
Krzysztof Letachowicz, Przemysław Szyber, Tomasz Gołębiowski, Mariusz Kusztal, Waldemar Letachowicz, Wacław Weyde, Jerzy Garcarek, Marian Klinger
A cornerstone of hemodialysis treatment is the creation of a functional and durable dialysis vascular access. Every patient with chronic kidney disease should have a plan of renal replacement therapy and access site protection. Factors having a crucial impact on vascular access selection include age, comorbidity, vessel quality, prognosis, dialysis urgency, and surgeon's preferences. Our medical group have reviewed these factors in our patients and, based on recently published data, developed a clinical decision tree for dialysis access in the chronic kidney disease patient...
December 2016: Seminars in Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777323/a-3d-laser-profiling-system-for-rail-surface-defect-detection
#19
Zhimin Xiong, Qingquan Li, Qingzhou Mao, Qin Zou
Rail surface defects such as the abrasion, scratch and peeling often cause damages to the train wheels and rail bearings. An efficient and accurate detection of rail defects is of vital importance for the safety of railway transportation. In the past few decades, automatic rail defect detection has been studied; however, most developed methods use optic-imaging techniques to collect the rail surface data and are still suffering from a high false recognition rate. In this paper, a novel 3D laser profiling system (3D-LPS) is proposed, which integrates a laser scanner, odometer, inertial measurement unit (IMU) and global position system (GPS) to capture the rail surface profile data...
August 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772164/multiple-criteria-decision-analysis-mcda-for-evaluating-new-medicines-in-health-technology-assessment-and-beyond-the-advance-value-framework
#20
Aris Angelis, Panos Kanavos
Escalating drug prices have catalysed the generation of numerous "value frameworks" with the aim of informing payers, clinicians and patients on the assessment and appraisal process of new medicines for the purpose of coverage and treatment selection decisions. Although this is an important step towards a more inclusive Value Based Assessment (VBA) approach, aspects of these frameworks are based on weak methodologies and could potentially result in misleading recommendations or decisions. In this paper, a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodological process, based on Multi Attribute Value Theory (MAVT), is adopted for building a multi-criteria evaluation model...
June 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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