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Laura dawson

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899578/cosmic-somatic-cancer-genetics-at-high-resolution
#1
Simon A Forbes, David Beare, Harry Boutselakis, Sally Bamford, Nidhi Bindal, John Tate, Charlotte G Cole, Sari Ward, Elisabeth Dawson, Laura Ponting, Raymund Stefancsik, Bhavana Harsha, Chai Yin Kok, Mingming Jia, Harry Jubb, Zbyslaw Sondka, Sam Thompson, Tisham De, Peter J Campbell
COSMIC, the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (http://cancer.sanger.ac.uk) is a high-resolution resource for exploring targets and trends in the genetics of human cancer. Currently the broadest database of mutations in cancer, the information in COSMIC is curated by expert scientists, primarily by scrutinizing large numbers of scientific publications. Over 4 million coding mutations are described in v78 (September 2016), combining genome-wide sequencing results from 28 366 tumours with complete manual curation of 23 489 individual publications focused on 186 key genes and 286 key fusion pairs across all cancers...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853612/new-genetic-and-morphological-evidence-suggests-a-single-hoaxer-created-piltdown-man
#2
Isabelle De Groote, Linus Girdland Flink, Rizwaan Abbas, Silvia M Bello, Lucia Burgia, Laura Tabitha Buck, Christopher Dean, Alison Freyne, Thomas Higham, Chris G Jones, Robert Kruszynski, Adrian Lister, Simon A Parfitt, Matthew M Skinner, Karolyn Shindler, Chris B Stringer
In 1912, palaeontologist Arthur Smith Woodward and amateur antiquarian and solicitor Charles Dawson announced the discovery of a fossil that supposedly provided a link between apes and humans: Eoanthropus dawsoni (Dawson's dawn man). The publication generated huge interest from scientists and the general public. However, 'Piltdown man's' initial celebrity has long been overshadowed by its subsequent infamy as one of the most famous scientific frauds in history. Our re-evaluation of the Piltdown fossils using the latest scientific methods (DNA analyses, high-precision measurements, spectroscopy and virtual anthropology) shows that it is highly likely that a single orang-utan specimen and at least two human specimens were used to create the fake fossils...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745984/phase-1-2-study-of-the-addition-of-cisplatin-to-adjuvant-chemotherapy-with-image-guided-high-precision-radiation-therapy-for-completely-resected-gastric-cancer
#3
Rebecca B Goody, Helen MacKay, Bethany Pitcher, Amit Oza, Lillian L Siu, John Kim, Rebecca K S Wong, Eric Chen, Carol Swallow, Jennifer Knox, Zahra Kassam, Bernard Cummings, Ron Feld, David Hedley, Geoffrey Liu, Monika K Krzyzanowska, Robert Dinniwell, Anthony M Brade, Laura A Dawson, Melania Pintilie, Jolie Ringash
PURPOSE: Locoregional recurrence is common after surgery for gastric cancer. Adjuvant therapy improves outcomes but with toxicity. This phase 1/2 study investigated infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in combination with biweekly cisplatin delivered concurrently with image guided high-precision radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients had completely resected stage IB to IV (Union for International Cancer Control TNM 6th edition) nonmetastatic gastric adenocarcinoma...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727279/regulatory-t-cell-responses-in-participants-with-type-1-diabetes-after-a-single-dose-of-interleukin-2-a-non-randomised-open-label-adaptive-dose-finding-trial
#4
John A Todd, Marina Evangelou, Antony J Cutler, Marcin L Pekalski, Neil M Walker, Helen E Stevens, Linsey Porter, Deborah J Smyth, Daniel B Rainbow, Ricardo C Ferreira, Laura Esposito, Kara M D Hunter, Kevin Loudon, Kathryn Irons, Jennie H Yang, Charles J M Bell, Helen Schuilenburg, James Heywood, Ben Challis, Sankalpa Neupane, Pamela Clarke, Gillian Coleman, Sarah Dawson, Donna Goymer, Katerina Anselmiova, Jane Kennet, Judy Brown, Sarah L Caddy, Jia Lu, Jane Greatorex, Ian Goodfellow, Chris Wallace, Tim I Tree, Mark Evans, Adrian P Mander, Simon Bond, Linda S Wicker, Frank Waldron-Lynch
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has an essential role in the expansion and function of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs reduce tissue damage by limiting the immune response following infection and regulate autoreactive CD4+ effector T cells (Teffs) to prevent autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Genetic susceptibility to T1D causes alterations in the IL-2 pathway, a finding that supports Tregs as a cellular therapeutic target. Aldesleukin (Proleukin; recombinant human IL-2), which is administered at high doses to activate the immune system in cancer immunotherapy, is now being repositioned to treat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders at lower doses by targeting Tregs...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703012/role-of-glycosyltransferases-modifying-type-b-flagellin-of-emerging-hypervirulent-clostridium-difficile-lineages-and-their-impact-on-motility-and-biofilm-formation
#5
Esmeralda Valiente, Laura Bouché, Paul Hitchen, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Mario Songane, Lisa F Dawson, Elizabeth Donahue, Richard A Stabler, Maria Panico, Howard R Morris, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Susan M Logan, Anne Dell, Brendan W Wren
Clostridium difficile is the principal cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea worldwide. The pathogen modifies its flagellin with either a type A or type B O-linked glycosylation system, which has a contributory role in pathogenesis. We study the functional role of glycosyltransferases modifying type B flagellin in the 023 and 027 hypervirulent C. difficile lineages by mutagenesis of five putative glycosyltransferases and biosynthetic genes. We reveal their roles in the biosynthesis of the flagellin glycan chain and demonstrate that flagellar post-translational modification affects motility and adhesion-related bacterial properties of these strains...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666795/heritability-of-startle-reactivity-and-affect-modified-startle
#6
Devika Dhamija, Catherine Tuvblad, Michael E Dawson, Adrian Raine, Laura A Baker
Startle reflex and affect-modified startle reflex are used as indicators of defensive reactivity and emotional processing, respectively. The present study investigated the heritability of both the startle blink reflex and affect modification of this reflex in a community sample of 772 twins ages 14-15years old. Subjects were shown affective picture slides falling in three valence categories: negative, positive and neutral; crossed with two arousal categories: high arousal and low arousal. Some of these slides were accompanied with a loud startling noise...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598801/image-guided-radiation-therapy-unlocking-the-future-through-knowledge-translation
#7
EDITORIAL
Caitlin Gillan, Meredith Giuliani, Nicole Harnett, Winnie Li, Laura A Dawson, Mary Gospodarowicz, David Jaffray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590060/from-food-to-pest-conversion-factors-determine%C3%A2-switches-between-ecosystem-services-and-disservices
#8
Laura Vang Rasmussen, Andreas E Christensen, Finn Danielsen, Neil Dawson, Adrian Martin, Ole Mertz, Thomas Sikor, Sithong Thongmanivong, Pheang Xaydongvanh
Ecosystem research focuses on goods and services, thereby ascribing beneficial values to the ecosystems. Depending on the context, however, outputs from ecosystems can be both positive and negative. We examined how provisioning services of wild animals and plants can switch between being services and disservices. We studied agricultural communities in Laos to illustrate when and why these switches take place. Government restrictions on land use combined with economic and cultural changes have created perceptions of rodents and plants as problem species in some communities...
September 2, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578825/whole-blood-mrna-in-prostate-cancer-reveals-a-four-gene-androgen-regulated-panel
#9
Benjamin C Thomas, Jonathan D Kay, Suraj Menon, Sarah L Vowler, Sarah N Dawson, Laura J Bucklow, Hayley J Luxton, Thomas Johnston, Charlie E Massie, Michelle Pugh, Anne Y Warren, Peter Barker, Keith Burling, Andy G Lynch, Anne George, Johanna Burge, Marie Corcoran, Sara Stearn, Alastair D Lamb, Naomi L Sharma, Greg L Shaw, David E Neal, Hayley C Whitaker
Due to increased sensitivity, the expression of circulating nucleotides is rapidly gaining popularity in cancer diagnosis. Whole blood mRNA has been used in studies on a number of cancers, most notably two separate studies that used whole blood mRNA to define non-overlapping signatures of prostate cancer that has become castration independent. Prostate cancer is known to rely on androgens for initial growth, and there is increasing evidence on the importance of the androgen axis in advanced disease. Using whole blood mRNA samples from patients with prostate cancer, we have identified the four-gene panel of FAM129A, MME, KRT7 and SOD2 in circulating mRNA that are differentially expressed in a discovery cohort of metastatic samples...
October 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441750/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Andrew J McPartlin, Laura A Dawson
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death. Experience with radiotherapy for HCC is increasing. Stereotactic body radiotherapy allows the delivery of tumoricidal doses in 3 to 6 treatments to focal HCC with low rates of toxicity and excellent local control. Stereotactic body radiotherapy can be used to control disease in patients unsuitable for other conventional therapies. How it might optimally be used to improve outcomes, including its use in combination with other therapies, is an area of active research, and further randomized studies are needed...
July 2016: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377923/radiotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-new-indications-and-directions-for-future-study
#11
REVIEW
Nitin Ohri, Laura A Dawson, Sunil Krishnan, Jinsil Seong, Jason C Cheng, Shiv K Sarin, Milan Kinkhabwala, Mansoor M Ahmed, Bhadrasain Vikram, C Norman Coleman, Chandan Guha
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide; its incidence is increasing in the United States. Depending on disease extent and underlying liver status, patients may be treated with local, locoregional, and/or systemic therapy. Recent data indicates that radiotherapy (RT) can play a meaningful role in the management of HCC. Here, we review published experiences using RT for HCC, including the use of radiosensitizers and stereotactic RT. We discuss methods for performing preclinical studies of RT for HCC and biomarkers of response...
September 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366108/validation-of-the-oxford-participation-and-activities-questionnaire
#12
David Morley, Sarah Dummett, Laura Kelly, Jill Dawson, Ray Fitzpatrick, Crispin Jenkinson
PURPOSE: There is growing interest in the management of long-term conditions and in keeping people active and participating in the community. Testing the effectiveness of interventions that aim to affect activities and participation can be challenging without a well-developed, valid, and reliable instrument. This study therefore aims to develop a patient-reported outcome measure, the Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire (Ox-PAQ), which is theoretically grounded in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) and fully compliant with current best practice guidelines...
2016: Patient related Outcome Measures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27341534/aspirin-and-cardiovascular-primary-prevention-in-non-endstage-chronic-kidney-disease-a-meta-analysis
#13
Rupert W Major, Issaam Oozeerally, Simon Dawson, Helen Riddleston, Laura J Gray, Nigel J Brunskill
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease is a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. No published meta-analyses on the use of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease exist. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of this subject. METHODS: We used a pre-defined and registered protocol (PROSPERO identification CRD42014008860). We searched Medline and Embase between 1996 and July 2015...
August 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294782/functional-interdependence-of-brd4-and-dot1l-in-mll-leukemia
#14
Omer Gilan, Enid Y N Lam, Isabelle Becher, Dave Lugo, Ester Cannizzaro, Gerard Joberty, Aoife Ward, Meike Wiese, Chun Yew Fong, Sarah Ftouni, Dean Tyler, Kym Stanley, Laura MacPherson, Chen-Fang Weng, Yih-Chih Chan, Margherita Ghisi, David Smil, Christopher Carpenter, Peter Brown, Neil Garton, Marnie E Blewitt, Andrew J Bannister, Tony Kouzarides, Brian J P Huntly, Ricky W Johnstone, Gerard Drewes, Sarah-Jane Dawson, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Paola Grandi, Rab K Prinjha, Mark A Dawson
Targeted therapies against disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like (DOT1L) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. However, the mechanisms by which BRD4 and DOT1L regulate leukemogenic transcription programs remain unclear. Using quantitative proteomics, chemoproteomics and biochemical fractionation, we found that native BRD4 and DOT1L exist in separate protein complexes. Genetic disruption or small-molecule inhibition of BRD4 and DOT1L showed marked synergistic activity against MLL leukemia cell lines, primary human leukemia cells and mouse leukemia models...
July 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257827/interactions-of-cationic-polystyrene-nanoparticles-with-marine-bivalve-hemocytes-in-a-physiological-environment-role-of-soluble-hemolymph-proteins
#15
Laura Canesi, Caterina Ciacci, Rita Fabbri, Teresa Balbi, Annalisa Salis, Gianluca Damonte, Katia Cortese, Valentina Caratto, Marco P Monopoli, Kenneth Dawson, Elisa Bergami, Ilaria Corsi
The bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis has proven as a suitable model invertebrate for evaluating the potential impact of nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment. In particular, in mussels, the immune system represents a sensitive target for different types of NPs. In environmental conditions, both NP intrinsic properties and those of the receiving medium will affect particle behavior and consequent bioavailability/uptake/toxicity. However, the evaluation of the biological effects of NPs requires additional understanding of how, once within the organism, NPs interact at the molecular level with cells in a physiological environment...
October 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244788/two-year-bmi-outcomes-from-a-school-based-intervention-for-nutrition-and-exercise-a-randomized-trial
#16
Laura M Bogart, Marc N Elliott, Burton O Cowgill, David J Klein, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Kimberly Uyeda, Mark A Schuster
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the long-term effects on BMI of a randomized controlled trial of Students for Nutrition and Exercise, a 5-week, middle school-based obesity prevention intervention combining school-wide environmental changes, encouragement to eat healthy school cafeteria foods, and peer-led education and marketing. METHODS: We randomly selected schools from the Los Angeles Unified School District and assigned 5 to the intervention group and 5 to a wait-list control group...
May 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214438/oc23-expert-mentoring-a-path-to-leadership
#17
Carol Hall, Paula Dawson, Laura Holliday
Theme: Nursing education, management and leadership.
May 9, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165126/novel-patient-derived-xenograft-mouse-model-for-pancreatic-acinar-cell-carcinoma-demonstrates-single-agent-activity-of-oxaliplatin
#18
Jason C Hall, Laura A Marlow, Adam C Mathias, Louis K Dawson, William F Durham, Kenneth A Meshaw, Robert J Mullin, Aidan J Synnott, Daniel L Small, Murli Krishna, Daniel von Hoff, Julia Schüler, Steven N Hart, Fergus J Couch, Gerardo Colon-Otero, John A Copland
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) is a rare malignancy, accounting for <1 % of all pancreatic neoplasms. Very few retrospective studies are available to help guide management. We previously reported the case of a patient with metastatic PACC who achieved prolonged survival following doxorubicin treatment. Personalized treatment was based on molecular and in vitro data collected from primary cells developed from their liver metastasis. We now report the characterization of a patient derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) mouse model that originated from this patient's PACC liver metastasis...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27000144/effects-of-a-pilot-church-based-intervention-to-reduce-hiv-stigma-and-promote-hiv-testing-among-african-americans-and-latinos
#19
Kathryn P Derose, Beth Ann Griffin, David E Kanouse, Laura M Bogart, Malcolm V Williams, Ann C Haas, Karen R Flórez, Deborah Owens Collins, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Michael A Mata, Clyde W Oden, Brian D Stucky
HIV-related stigma and mistrust contribute to HIV disparities. Addressing stigma with faith partners may be effective, but few church-based stigma reduction interventions have been tested. We implemented a pilot intervention with 3 Latino and 2 African American churches (4 in matched pairs) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County to reduce HIV stigma and mistrust and increase HIV testing. The intervention included HIV education and peer leader workshops, pastor-delivered sermons on HIV with imagined contact scenarios, and HIV testing events...
August 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972645/changes-in-liver-volume-observed-following-sorafenib-and-liver-radiation-therapy
#20
Anand Swaminath, Jennifer J Knox, James D Brierley, Rob Dinniwell, Rebecca Wong, Zahra Kassam, John Kim, Catherine Coolens, Kristy K Brock, Laura A Dawson
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantify unexpected liver volume reductions in patients treated with sorafenib prior to and during liver radiation therapy (RT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen patients were treated in a phase 1 study of sorafenib for 1 week, followed by concurrent sorafenib-RT (in 6 fractions). Patients had either focal cancer (treated with stereotactic body RT [SBRT]) or diffuse disease (treated with whole-liver RT). Liver volumes were contoured and recorded at planning (day 0) from the exhale CT...
March 15, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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