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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340071/variable-potassium-concentrations-which-is-right-and-which-is-wrong
#1
Talent Theparee, Robert C Benirschke, Hong-Kee Lee
Reverse pseudohyperkalemia is a term used to describe in vitro, falsely elevated potassium concentrations in plasma specimens that occur in association with extreme leukocytosis and are commonly associated with hematologic malignant neoplasms. Tumor lysis syndrome is an in vivo lysis of tumor cells that leads to elevated levels of potassium, uric acid, phosphate, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as decreased calcium concentrations. Herein, we report a case of a 66-year-old Caucasian man with stage IV mantle-cell lymphoma who has elevated levels of potassium, uric acid, and phosphorus, as well as a white blood cell (WBC) count greater than 100,000 cells per mm3...
March 6, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334868/pulmonary-metastasis-from-giant-cell-tumor-of-bone-clinical-outcome-prior-to-the-introduction-of-molecular-target-therapy
#2
Munehisa Kito, Seiichi Matusmoto, Keisuke Ae, Taisuke Tanizawa, Tabu Gokita, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Keiko Hayakawa, Yuki Funauchi
Objective: We analyzed the risk factors for pulmonary metastasis from giant cell tumor of bone and aimed to discuss their therapeutic strategy and appropriate follow-up period. Methods: We analyzed 141 patients of giant cell tumor of bone. The variables analyzed included age, gender, primary site, Campanacci grading, surgical treatment on the primary lesion, radiotherapy and local recurrence. Results: Pulmonary metastasis occurred in 12 patients...
March 4, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333855/serous-retinopathy-associated-with-cisplatin-treatment
#3
Spencer Langevin, Jonathan S Chang, Stanley Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To describe a case of serous retinopathy and associated photoreceptor atrophy after intravenous cisplatin therapy. METHODS: Evaluation was performed using electroretinogram, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, and funduscopic examinations to assess the extent of retinal disease, toxicity, and eventual atrophy. RESULTS: A 56 year-old man with metastatic small cell carcinoma with vision changes after initiation of cisplatin therapy...
March 22, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333141/npas2-promotes-cell-survival-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-transactivating-cdc25a
#4
Peng Yuan, Jibin Li, Feng Zhou, Qichao Huang, Jiansheng Zhang, Xu Guo, Zhuomin Lyu, Hongxin Zhang, Jinliang Xing
Emerging evidences show that disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with tumor initiation and progression. Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2), one of the core circadian molecules, has been proved to be a potential prognostic biomarker in colorectal and breast cancers. However, to date, the potential functional roles and molecular mechanisms by which NPAS2 affects cancer cell survival are greatly unclear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first investigated the expression of NPAS2 and its clinical significance in HCC...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332352/development-of-inhibitors-targeting-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-and-2-for-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Tianchi Yu, Bo Tang, Xueying Sun
Hypoxia is frequently observed in solid tumors and also one of the major obstacles for effective cancer therapies. Cancer cells take advantage of their ability to adapt hypoxia to initiate a special transcriptional program that renders them more aggressive biological behaviors. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the key factors that control hypoxia-inducible pathways by regulating the expression of a vast array of genes involved in cancer progression and treatment resistance. HIFs, mainly HIF-1 and -2, have become potential targets for developing novel cancer therapeutics...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332091/significance-of-mnk1-in-prognostic-prediction-and-chemotherapy-development-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#6
S Hou, P Du, P Wang, C Wang, P Liu, H Liu
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide with surgery as the only curative treatment. Long-term overall survival (OS) of ovarian cancer is far from satisfactory, even though significant improvement has been made in post-operative chemotherapy. One of the most important death cause is the chemoresistance due to consecutive chemotherapy. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer development and identification of novel therapeutic targets are urgently required...
March 22, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331435/methylated-dna-rna-in-body-fluids-as-biomarkers-for-lung-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Yan Lu, Shulin/Sl Li, Shiguo/Sg Zhu, Yabin/Yb Gong, Jun/J Shi, Ling/L Xu
DNA/RNA methylation plays an important role in lung cancer initiation and progression. Liquid biopsy makes use of cells, nucleotides and proteins released from tumor cells into body fluids to help with cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Methylation of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has gained increasing attention as biomarkers for lung cancer. Here we briefly introduce the biological basis and detection method of ctDNA methylation, and review various applications of methylated DNA in body fluids in lung cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring and treatment prediction...
2017: Biological Procedures Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331101/immunotherapy-of-nivolumab-with-dendritic-cell-vaccination-is-effective-against-intractable-recurrent-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-a-case-report
#8
Motomasa Furuse, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Naoki Omura, Mitsuaki Shirahata, Koichi Iwasaki, Toshio Inui, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Hiroko Kuwabara, Shin-Ichi Miyatake
We report effective treatment with nivolumab of a patient with recurrent primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) after multiple therapies. A 41-year-old woman with a right parietal PCNSL underwent treatment with high-dose methotrexate and radiotherapy. After recurrence in the left frontal lobe, the patient received several chemotherapies, including methotrexate and rituximab, and underwent surgery. The tumor was refractory to these treatments, and the patient then underwent intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)...
March 23, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330872/nadph-oxidase-1-supports-proliferation-of-colon-cancer-cells-by-modulating-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-signal-transduction
#9
Agnes Juhasz, Susan Markel, Shikha Gaur, Han Liu, Jiamo Lu, Guojian Jiang, Xiwei Wu, Smitha Antony, Yongzhong Wu, Giovanni Melillo, Jennifer L Meitzler, Diana C Haines, Donna Butcher, Krishnendu Roy, James H Doroshow
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in cell signaling and proliferation. NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a membrane-bound flavin dehydrogenase that generates superoxide, is highly expressed in colon cancer. To investigate the role that NOX1 plays in colon cancer growth, we used shRNA to decrease NOX1 expression stably in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The 80-90% decrease in NOX1 expression achieved by RNAi produced a significant decline in ROS production and a G1/S block that translated into a 2-3-fold increase in tumor cell doubling time without increased apoptosis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330867/influenza-vaccines-differentially-regulate-the-interferon-response-in-human-dendritic-cell-subsets
#10
Shruti Athale, Romain Banchereau, LuAnn Thompson-Snipes, Yuanyuan Wang, Karolina Palucka, Virginia Pascual, Jacques Banchereau
Human dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in the initiation of long-term adaptive immunity during vaccination against influenza. Understanding the early response of human DCs to vaccine exposure is thus essential to determine the nature and magnitude of maturation signals that have been shown to strongly correlate with vaccine effectiveness. In 2009, the H1N1 influenza epidemics fostered the commercialization of the nonadjuvanted monovalent H1N1 California vaccine (MIV-09) to complement the existing nonadjuvanted trivalent Fluzone 2009-2010 vaccine (TIV-09)...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330372/car-t-cell-therapy-progress-and-prospects
#11
Olivia Wilkins, Allison May Keeler, Terence R Flotte
Lentivirus-mediated transduction of autologous T-cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to confer a desired epitope-specificity as a targeted immunotherapy for cancer has been among the first human gene therapy techniques to demonstrate widespread therapeutic efficacy. Other approaches to using gene therapy to enhance anti-tumor immunity have been less specific and less effective. These included amplification, marking, and cytokine transduction of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), recombinant virus-based expression of tumor antigens as a tumor vaccine, and transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with tumor antigens...
March 23, 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329608/atypical-lymphoproliferative-disorder-clinical-and-pathological-features
#12
Kelly Wilmas, Madeleine Duvic, Yasuhiro Oki
Definitive diagnosis of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders is one of the most challenging issues in dermatopathology owing to the broad spectrum of clinical and histopathological presentations. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with a single, asymptomatic plaque limited to her left collarbone. This was followed by the appearance of several plaques and patches in addition to a tumor. Her initial biopsy suggested a CD4/CD8 double negative mycosis fungoides (MF). However, the rapidly progressive course of her disease is worrisome for peripheral T-cell lymphomas-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS)...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329586/cd30-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#13
Jeremy Udkoff, Philip R Cohen
Background CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders are rare and may feature a wide variety of presentations that mimic other conditions. Purpose A man with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to skin who subsequently developed cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is described. Methods The PubMed medical database was used to search the following terms separately and in combination: ALCL, anaplastic large cell lymphoma ALCL, cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma CALCL, cutaneous t-cell lymphoma CTCL, large t-cell lymphoma LTCL, lymphoproliferative, lymphomatoid papulosis LyP, mimic, papillary, thyroid cancer...
October 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329563/subungual-pleomorphic-fibroma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Pierre Halteh, Cynthia M Magro, Shari R Lipner
We describe an interesting case of pleomorphic fibroma of the subungual region in a middle aged woman who presented with a recurrence of thickening, lateral ridging, and a midline split of the right third fingernail, 20 years after initial excision. Histology of the specimen demonstrated hyperchromatic stellate cells within the superficial corneum, which were CD34 positive, consistent with a pleomorphic fibroma. Pleomorphic fibroma is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm characterized by atypical spindled cells amidst a collagenous stroma...
November 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328191/enhancing-tumor-penetration-of-nanomedicines
#15
Qingxue Sun, Tarun Ojha, Fabian Kiessling, Twan Lammers, Yang Shi
Tumor-targeted nanomedicines have been extensively applied to alter the drawbacks and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Despite the large number of preclinical nanomedicine studies showing initial success, their therapeutic benefit in the clinic has been rather modest, which is partially due to the inefficient tumor penetration caused by tumor microenvironment (high density of cells and extracellular matrix, increased interstitial fluid pressure). Furthermore, tumor penetration of nanomedicines is significantly influenced by physicochemical characteristics such as size, surface chemistry and shape...
March 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327358/a-cell-autonomous-positive-signaling-circuit-associated-with-the-pdgf-no-id4-regulatory-axis-in-glioblastoma-cells
#16
Kiyoung Eun, Hye-Min Jeon, Sung-Ok Kim, Sang-Hun Choi, Seon Yong Lee, Xiong Jin, Sung-Chan Kim, Hyunggee Kim
Most cancer-related signaling pathways sustain their active or inactive status via genetic mutations or various regulatory mechanisms. Previously, we demonstrated that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activates Notch signaling through nitric oxide (NO)-signaling-driven activation of inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) in glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) and endothelial cells in the vascular niche of GBM, leading to maintenance of GSC traits and GBM progression. Here, we determined that the PDGF-NO-ID4-signaling axis is constantly activated through a positive regulatory circuit...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325685/a-positive-feedback-strategy-for-enhanced-chemotherapy-based-on-ros-triggered-self-accelerating-drug-release-nanosystem
#17
Jing-Jing Hu, Qi Lei, Meng-Yun Peng, Di-Wei Zheng, Yi-Xuan Chen, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Here, a positive feedback strategy was utilized to amplify the concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a ROS-triggered self-accelerating drug release nanosystem (defined as T/D@RSMSNs) was demonstrated for enhanced tumor chemotherapy. The mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) based nanocarriers were gated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) through the ROS-cleavable thioketal (TK) linker to encapsulate the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and ROS producing agent α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), whose surface was further anchored with adamantane conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) chain (AD-PEG) via host-guest interaction...
March 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325287/cholesterol-containing-nuclease-resistant-sirna-accumulates-in-tumors-in-a-carrier-free-mode-and-silences-mdr1-gene
#18
Ivan V Chernikov, Daniil V Gladkikh, Mariya I Meschaninova, Alya G Ven'yaminova, Marina A Zenkova, Valentin V Vlassov, Elena L Chernolovskaya
Chemical modifications are an effective way to improve the therapeutic properties of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), making them more resistant to degradation in serum and ensuring their delivery to target cells and tissues. Here, we studied the carrier-free biodistribution and biological activity of a nuclease-resistant anti-MDR1 cholesterol-siRNA conjugate in healthy and tumor-bearing severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice. The attachment of cholesterol to siRNA provided its efficient accumulation in the liver and in tumors, and reduced its retention in the kidneys after intravenous and intraperitoneal injection...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325212/chemokine-receptor-signaling-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#19
R A Lacalle, R Blanco, L Carmona-Rodríguez, A Martín-Leal, E Mira, S Mañes
The chemokines are a family of chemotactic cytokines that mediate their activity by acting on seven-transmembrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptors. Both the ability of the chemokines and their receptors to form homo- and heterodimers and the promiscuity of the chemokine-chemokine receptor interaction endow this protein family with enormous signaling plasticity and complexity that are not fully understood at present. Chemokines were initially identified as essential regulators of homeostatic and inflammatory trafficking of innate and adaptive leucocytes from lymphoid organs to tissues...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324831/primary-and-acquired-resistance-to-pd-1-pd-l1-blockade-in-cancer-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Qiaohong Wang, Xia Wu
PD-1/PD-L1 blockade appears to be a very promising immunotherapy with significant clinical benefits and durable responses in multiple tumor types. However, the effectual clinical benefits of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade are hampered by a high rate of primary resistance, where patients do not respond to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade initially. And more distressingly, most patients eventually develop acquired resistance after an initial response to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. The mechanisms underlying primary and acquired resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade have remained ambiguous...
March 18, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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