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Transdifferentiation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148109/notch-signaling-controls-transdifferentiation-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cells-in-response-to-lung-injury
#1
Erica Yao, Chuwen Lin, Qingzhe Wu, Kuan Zhang, Hai Song, Pao-Tien Chuang
Production of an appropriate number of distinct cell types in precise locations during embryonic development is critical for proper tissue function. Homeostatic renewal or repair of damaged tissues in adults also requires cell expansion and transdifferentiation to replenish lost cells. However, the responses of diverse cell types to tissue injury are not fully elucidated. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. This knowledge is essential for harnessing the regenerative potential of individual cell types...
November 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145401/anatomically-specific-intratubular-and-interstitial-biominerals-in-the-human-renal-medullo-papillary-complex
#2
Ling Chen, Ryan S Hsi, Feifei Yang, Benjamin A Sherer, Marshall L Stoller, Sunita P Ho
Limited information exists on the anatomically-specific early stage events leading to clinically detectable mineral aggregates in the renal papilla. In this study, quantitative multiscale correlative maps of structural, elemental and biochemical properties of whole medullo-papillary complexes from human kidneys were developed. Correlative maps of properties specific to the uriniferous and vascular tubules using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and immunolocalization of noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) along with their association with anatomy specific biominerals were obtained...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134476/aminoglycoside-damage-and-hair-cell-regeneration-in-the-chicken-utricle
#3
Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel C Ellwanger, C Eduardo Corrales, Jennifer S Stone, Stefan Heller
In this study, we present a systematic characterization of hair cell loss and regeneration in the chicken utricle in vivo. A single unilateral surgical delivery of streptomycin caused robust decline of hair cell numbers in striolar as well as extrastriolar regions, which in the striola was detected very early, 6 h post-insult. During the initial 12 h of damage response, we observed global repression of DNA replication, in contrast to the natural, mitotic hair cell production in undamaged control utricles...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126308/nrf2-deficiency-promotes-the-progression-from-acute-tubular-damage-to-chronic-renal-fibrosis-following-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#4
Weiwei Kong, Jingqi Fu, Nan Liu, Congcong Jiao, Guangying Guo, Junjun Luan, Huihui Wang, Li Yao, Lining Wang, Masayuki Yamamoto, Jingbo Pi, Hua Zhou
Background: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central mediator of cellular responses to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that Nrf2 modulates progression from acute tubular damage to renal fibrosis. We asked whether Nrf2 deletion increases renal injury in mice following unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Methods: We explored the time course of renal injury and Nrf2 expression in Nrf2+/+ mice following UUO. We compared Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2-/- mice following UUO in tubular damage, transdifferentiation [vimentin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)], fibrosis [fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)], antioxidative and inflammatory responses...
November 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120718/wound-healing-in-rabbit-corneas-after-flapless-refractive-lenticule-extraction-with-a-345%C3%A2-nm-ultraviolet-femtosecond-laser
#5
Christian M Hammer, Corinna Petsch, Jörg Klenke, Katrin Skerl, Christian Wüllner, Christof Donitzky, Friedrich Paulsen, Michael Scholz, Theo Seiler, Friedrich E Kruse, Johannes Menzel-Severing
PURPOSE: To characterize corneal wound healing in a rabbit model after flapless refractive lenticule extraction with a 345 nm ultraviolet femtosecond laser. SETTING: Departments of Ophthalmology and Anatomy II, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg and Wavelight GmbH, Erlangen, Germany. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Flapless refractive lenticule extraction was performed in 1 eye each of 20 New Zealand white rabbits (-5...
October 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116664/unraveling-the-biology-of-bipolar-disorder-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-derived-neurons
#6
REVIEW
Nathaniel D Miller, John R Kelsoe
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder has been studied from numerous angles, from pathological studies to large-scale genomic studies, overall making moderate gains toward an understanding of the disorder. With the advancement of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, in vitro models based on patient samples are now available that inherently incorporate the complex genetic variants that largely are the basis for this disorder. A number of groups are starting to apply iPS technology to the study of bipolar disorder...
November 8, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108993/salvianolic-acid-b-inhibits-myofibroblast-transdifferentiation-in-experimental-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-the-up-regulation-of-nrf2
#7
Miao Liu, Hanying Xu, Ling Zhang, Cai Zhang, Liancheng Yang, Enlong Ma, Lianqing Liu, Yanchun Li
Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is one of the most bioactive components extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza, and its antioxidant capacity corresponds with its protective effects against cell injury from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of SalB on experimental pulmonary fibrosis and its ability to ameliorate the oxidative/antioxidative imbalance during fibrosis pathogenesis. The anti-fibrotic activity of SalB was first confirmed in Transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1)-stimulated MRC-5 cells...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106960/carnosol-mediated-sirtuin-1-activation-inhibits-enhancer-of-zeste-homolog-2-to-attenuate-liver-fibrosis
#8
Huanyu Zhao, Zhecheng Wang, Fan Tang, Yan Zhao, Dongcheng Feng, Yang Li, Yan Hu, Chao Wang, Junjun Zhou, Xiaofeng Tian, Jihong Yao
Quiescent hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and subsequent conversion into myofibroblasts is the central event in hepatic fibrosis pathogenesis. Epithelial - mesenchymal transition (EMT), another vital participant in liver fibrosis, has the potential to initiate HSC activation, which promotes abundant myofibroblast production. Previous studies suggest that Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) plays a significant role in myofibroblast transdifferentiation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unaddressed...
October 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106601/flexible-fate-commitment-of-e2-2high-common-dc-progenitors-implies-tuning-in-tissue-microenvironments
#9
Nobuyuki Onai, Jumpei Asano, Rumiko Kurosaki-Nakamura, Shoko Kuroda, Toshiaki Ohteki
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E2-2 is essential for the development of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) but not conventional DCs (cDCs). Here, we generated E2-2 reporter mice and demonstrated that an E2-2high fraction among common DC progenitors (CDPs), which are a major source of pDCs and cDCs in the steady state, strictly gave rise to pDCs in the presence of Flt3 ligand ex vivo or in the secondary lymphoid organs when transferred in vivo. However, in the small intestine, some of these E2-2high progenitors differentiated into cDCs that produced retinoic acid...
November 2, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103923/artemether-does-not-turn-%C3%AE-cells-into-%C3%AE-cells
#10
Talitha van der Meulen, Sharon Lee, Els Noordeloos, Cynthia J Donaldson, Michael W Adams, Glyn M Noguchi, Alex M Mawla, Mark O Huising
Pancreatic α cells retain considerable plasticity and can, under the right circumstances, transdifferentiate into functionally mature β cells. In search of a targetable mechanistic basis, a recent paper suggested that the widely used anti-malaria drug artemether suppresses the α cell transcription factor Arx to promote transdifferentiation into β cells. However, key initial experiments in this paper were carried out in islet cell lines, and most subsequent validation experiments implied transdifferentiation without direct demonstration of α to β cell conversion...
November 1, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103147/master-regulatory-role-of-p63-in-epidermal-development-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Eduardo Soares, Huiqing Zhou
The transcription factor p63 is a master regulator of epidermal development. Mutations in p63 give rise to human developmental diseases that often manifest epidermal defects. In this review, we summarize major p63 isoforms identified so far and p63 mutation-associated human diseases that show epidermal defects. We discuss key roles of p63 in epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, emphasizing its master regulatory control of the gene expression pattern and epigenetic landscape that define epidermal fate...
November 4, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102386/understanding-the-biology-of-thermogenic-fat-is-browning-a-new-approach-to-the-treatment-of-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Ariana Vargas-Castillo, Rebeca Fuentes-Romero, Leonardo A Rodriguez-Lopez, Nimbe Torres, Armando R Tovar
Obesity is characterized by an excess of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recent evidence has demonstrated that WAT can change its phenotype to a brown-like adipose tissue known as beige/brite adipose tissue. This transition is characterized by an increase in thermogenic capacity mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This browning process is a potential new target for treating obesity. The aim of this review is to integrate the different mechanisms by which beige/brite adipocytes are formed and to describe the physiological, pharmacological and nutritional inducers that can promote browning...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101610/endothelial-microparticles-are-associated-to-pathogenesis-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#13
Nour C Bacha, Adeline Blandinieres, Elisa Rossi, Nicolas Gendron, Nathalie Nevo, Séverine Lecourt, Coralie L Guerin, Jean Marie Renard, Pascale Gaussem, Eduardo Angles-Cano, Chantal M Boulanger, Dominique Israel-Biet, David M Smadja
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by obliteration of alveolar architecture, resulting in declining lung function and ultimately death. Pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear but involve a concomitant accumulation of scar tissue together with myofibroblasts activation. Microparticles (MPs) have been investigated in several human lung diseases as possible pathogenic elements, prognosis markers and therapeutic targets. We postulated that levels and cellular origins of circulating MPs might serve as biomarkers in IPF patients and/or as active players of fibrogenesis...
November 3, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089090/transdifferentiation-of-mucous-neck-cells-into-chief-cells-in-fundic-gastric-glands-shown-by-gna-lectin-histochemistry
#14
Laura Gómez-Santos, Edurne Alonso, Lucio Díaz-Flores, Juan Francisco Madrid, Francisco José Sáez
The epithelium of the gastric mucosa and its glands in the corpus of rat stomach contains mucous surface cells (MSCs), parietal cells, mucous neck cells (MNCs), zymogenic or chief cells (ZCs), several types of enteroendocrine cells, and intermediate cells with characteristics between MNCs and ZCs also called transitional or prezymogenic cells (pre-ZCs). The aim of our work was to analyze the expression of Mannose (Man) in the rat gastric glands by means of Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA) histochemistry to identify the differences between MNC, pre-ZCs and ZCs and to establish the relationships between these cells...
October 28, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084210/zeb1-repressed-micrornas-inhibit-autocrine-signaling-that-promotes-vascular-mimicry-of-breast-cancer-cells
#15
E M Langer, N D Kendsersky, C J Daniel, G M Kuziel, C Pelz, K M Murphy, M R Capecchi, R C Sears
During normal tumor growth and in response to some therapies, tumor cells experience acute or chronic deprivation of nutrients and oxygen and induce tumor vascularization. While this occurs predominately through sprouting angiogenesis, tumor cells have also been shown to directly contribute to vessel formation through vascular mimicry (VM) and/or endothelial transdifferentiation. The extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms underlying tumor cell adoption of endothelial phenotypes, however, are not well understood...
October 30, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083412/resolvind1-stimulates-epithelial-wound-repair-and-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-emt-whilst-reducing-fibroproliferation-and-collagen-production
#16
Shengxing Zheng, Qian Wang, Vijay D'Souza, Dom Bartis, Rachel Dancer, Dhruv Parekh, Fang Gao, Qingquan Lian, Shengwei Jin, David R Thickett
Acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases are often associated with epithelial cell injury/loss and fibroproliferative responses. ResolvinD1 (RvD1) is biosynthesized during the resolution phase of inflammatory response and exerts potent anti-inflammatory and promotes resolution of inflammatory lung diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RvD1 exerts protective effects on alveolar epithelial cell function/differentiation and protects against fibroproliferative stimuli. Primary human alveolar type II cells were used to model the effects of RvD1 in vitro upon wound repair, proliferation, apoptosis, transdifferentiation, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
October 30, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079873/regenerating-the-human-heart-direct-reprogramming-strategies-and-their-current-limitations
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Ghiroldi, Marco Piccoli, Giuseppe Ciconte, Carlo Pappone, Luigi Anastasia
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Western world. Unfortunately, current therapies are often only palliative, consequently essentially making heart transplantation necessary for many patients. However, several novel therapeutic approaches in the past two decades have yielded quite encouraging results. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, through the forced expression of stem cell-specific transcription factors, has inspired the most promising strategies for heart regeneration by direct reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes...
October 27, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079547/epigenetic-changes-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-differentiation
#18
REVIEW
Ibrahim Mortada, Rola Mortada
Epigenetic factors are known to play a major role in determining stem cell fate and differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most studied population of stem cells due to their important applications in experimental biology and regenerative medicine. After a brief overview on mesenchymal stem cells, this review aims to highlight the role of epigenetic changes on mesenchymal stem cells biology and differentiation protocols with a focus on osteocytic, chondrocytic and adipocytic differentiation. Chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNA expression will be investigated...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073338/transdifferentiation-of-adult-rat-stem-leydig-cells-into-prostatic-and-uterine-epithelium-but-not-epidermis
#19
M K Nanjappa, T I Medrano, G S Prins, H Chen, B R Zirkin, P S Cooke
Stem Leydig cells (SLCs), precursors of testicular Leydig cells that secrete testosterone required for male sexual differentiation, spermatogenesis, and fertility, were recently identified in rat testes. Various types of stem cells have shown the ability to differentiate into other tissues, but there is no information on the plasticity of adult rat SLCs (rSLCs). This study investigated the ability of rSLCs to transdifferentiate into cell types from all three germ layers-prostatic epithelium (endoderm), uterine epithelium (mesoderm), and epidermis (ectoderm)-under the influence of inductive mesenchyme from fetal and neonatal tissues...
November 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066225/urinary-tissue-engineering-challenges-and-opportunities
#20
REVIEW
Anirudha Singh, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Nikolai Sopko
INTRODUCTION: In this review, we discuss major advancements and common challenges in constructing and regenerating a neo-urinary conduit (NUC). First, we focus on the need for regenerating the urothelium, the hallmark the urine barrier, unique to urinary tissues. Second, we focus on clinically feasible scaffolds based on decellularized matrices and molded collagen that are currently of great research interest. AIM: To discuss the major advancements in constructing a tissue-engineered NUC (TE-NUC) and the challenges involved in their successful clinical translation...
October 21, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
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