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Yifan Deng, Gang Zhu, Honghai Luo, Shiguang Zhao
Glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) are believed to be a subpopulation within all glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are in large part responsible for tumor growth and the high grade of therapeutic resistance that is so characteristic of GBM. MicroRNAs (miR) have been implicated in regulating the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer stem cells, including GBM-SCs, and they are a potential target for cancer therapy. In the current study, miR-203 expression was reduced in CD133(+) GBM-SCs derived from six human GBM biopsies...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Ai-Ping Le, Lun-Li Zhang, Wei Liu, Yu-Fei Shi
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of cantharidin on cell proliferation, ability of selfrenewal, cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells (HCSCs). It was observed that cantharidin treatment exhibited dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of HCSCs. The inhibition of cell viability by cantharidin in HepG2 CD133+ and parental cells was significant at the concentration 5 and 15 µM, respectively after 48 h. Cantharidin treatment inhibited the self-renewal ability of the HCSCs and the expression of β-catenin and cyclin D1...
May 2016: Oncology Reports
Nobu Oshima, Takashi Aoi
Induced pluripotent stem cells(iPSCs)can be generated via reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells by introducing defined factors with appropriate culture conditions. iPSCs have 4 key properties. iPSCs have pluripotency and self-renewal ability, which are properties in common with embryonic stem cells. Additionally, iPSCs can be generated from various donor individuals with particular characteristics and also from various types of cells in a single donor. Regarding the medical applications of the technology, the best use of iPSCs should be based on a better understanding of these properties in accordance to different purposes...
February 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Jian-hua Huang, Wai-jiao Cai, Xin-min Zhang, Zi-yin Shen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of icariin (ICA) on self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). METHODS: NSCs were derived from forebrains of mice embryos by mechanical dissociation into single cell suspension. The self-renewal of NSCs was measured by neurosphere formation assay. The proliferation of NSCs was detected by water-soluble tetrazolium (WST) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay...
February 2014: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Nina V Fuchs, Sabine Loewer, George Q Daley, Zsuzsanna Izsvák, Johannes Löwer, Roswitha Löwer
BACKGROUND: Malignant human embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) rely on similar transcriptional networks as non-malignant embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to control selfrenewal, maintain pluripotency, and inhibit differentiation. Because re-activation of silenced HERV-K(HML-2) loci is a hallmark of ECCs, we asked if this HERV group was also reactivated in ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). FINDINGS: Using RT-PCR and Western Blot, we demonstrate HERV-K(HML-2) RNA and protein expression in undifferentiated human ESCs and iPSCs...
2013: Retrovirology
T A Tekiner, H Basaga
Studies with breast cancer cells, showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as regulators of signaling pathways playing a key role in tumor progression and being targeted in chemotherapy. Deregulation of these pathways by altered miRNA expression or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in certain miRNA genes have been shown to lead tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. miRNAs have also been indicated to act on stem cell selfrenewal and alter signal transduction in cancer stem-like cells (CSC), which are resistant to many conventional therapies and account for the inability of these therapies to cure cancers...
2013: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hamid Bayat, Fardin Fathi, Habibollah Peyrovi, Seyed Javad Mowla
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have a potential application for cell therapy, however, their biological nature is not well-understood. EPCs also possess some stemness features, such as their clonogenicity and differentiation capacity. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of certain transcription factors regulating selfrenewal property of stem cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from fresh human blood of several volunteers and were cultured in fibronectin- coated plates...
2013: Cell Journal
A M Hoffman, E P Ingenito
Lung injuries that impact the alveolus, such as emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and acute lung injury, are costly and prevalent problems. Moreover, the extent of alveolar injury and impairment of gas exchange is strongly associated with prognosis and survival. Thus, mechanisms of repair and regeneration of the lung alveolar compartment have received mounting attention as newer approaches to the study of stem and progenitor cells in this region unfold. The role of type II alveolar epithelial as the sole source of type I (AECI) and II (AECII) alveolar epithelial cells following lung injury has been recently challenged; recently, investigators have described stemprogenitor cells that function like precursors to AECII either in vitro or in vivo, both in mice and humans...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
George R Nahas, Shyam A Patel, Sarah A Bliss, Pranela Rameshwar
The evidence seems to be growing in favor of the stem cell theory of cancer with the emergence of studies demonstrating the parallel mechanisms of self renewing pathways in stem cells and particular subsets of cancer cells. The finding of leukemia stem cells and subsequently breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) further supports the concept. The importance of these findings lends itself to the selfrenewal properties of stem cells in addition to the survival characteristics of stem cells, mechanisms that will have to be overcome when creating treatment modalities...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
E Ibáñez, A Agliano, C Prior, P Nguewa, M Redrado, I González-Zubeldia, D Plano, J A Palop, C Sanmartín, A Calvo
Methylimidoselenocarbamates have previously proven to display potent antitumor activities. In the present study we show that these compounds act as multikinase inhibitors. We found that the most effective compound, quinoline imidoselenocarbamate EI201, inhibits the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which is persistently activated and contributes to malignant progression in various cancers. EI201 blocked the phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and several of its downstream regulators (p70S6K and 4E-BP1) and ERK1/2 in PC-3, HT-29 and MCF-7 cells in vitro, inducing both autophagy and apoptosis...
2012: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Patries M Herst, Michael V Berridge
The proliferative cancer cell paradigm that has driven cancer drug development for the past 50 years has failed to generate treatments that cure most metastatic adult cancers. This view is supported not only by cumulative experience with conventional cytotoxic anticancer drugs, but also by the application of highly-targeted anticancer compounds against, for example, BCR-ABL in CML and mutant BRAF in metastatic melanoma. Such drugs often send their respective cancers into complete molecular remission but fail to effect cures because a small population of quiescent or slowly selfrenewing cancer cells that are drug and radiation resistant survive treatment indefinitely...
2013: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
G Vignir Helgason, Maria Karvela, Tessa L Holyoake
The introduction of imatinib in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) represents the most successful example of targeted therapy in human cancer. However, leukemic stem cells are insensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and contribute to the persistence of disease by representing a reservoir of selfrenewing cells that replenish the disease after drug discontinuation. This finding has refocused the interest of scientists toward drug combinations, ie, treating with TKIs and simultaneously targeting alternative survival mechanisms...
August 25, 2011: Blood
Anne Faber, Christine Barth, Karl Hörmann, Stefan Kassner, Johannes David Schultz, Ulrich Sommer, Jens Stern-Straeter, Carsten Thorn, Ulrich Reinhart Goessler
In the recent past, evidence is increasing indicating the existence of a subpopulation of resistant tumor cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that cannot be eradicated by established antineoplastic treatments. These cancer stem cells (CSCs) have features of somatic stem cells such as selfrenewal, proliferation and differentiation. CD44+ cells in tumors of the head and neck are referred to as CSCs of HNSCC. Expression profiling of CD44 in 29 HNSCC tumors was performed by fluorescence microscopy...
August 2011: Oncology Reports
I Garcia-Tuñon, D Guallar, S Alonso-Martin, A A Benito, A Benítez-Lázaro, R Pérez-Palacios, P Muniesa, M Climent, M Sánchez, M Vidal, J Schoorlemmer
Rex-1/Zfp42 displays a remarkably restricted pattern of expression in preimplantation embryos, primary spermatocytes, and undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and is frequently used as a marker gene for pluripotent stem cells. To understand the role of Rex-1 in selfrenewal and pluripotency, we used Rex-1 association as a measure to identify potential target genes, and carried out chromatin-immunoprecipitation assays in combination with gene specific primers to identify genomic targets Rex-1 associates with...
July 2011: Stem Cell Research
A Schattenberg, B Bär, J Vet, B Van Dijk, D Smeets, T De Witte
We analyzed the origin of red cells (using red cell phenotyping), T lymphocytes (using both cytogenetic analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism studies), and of granulocytes and bone marrow cells (using restriction fragment length polymorphism studies) in 10 consecutive patients. All received bone marrow grafts depleted of lymphocytes using counterflow centrifugation. Analyses were performed on identically timed samples from 6 months after transplantation onward. After correction for the higher sensitivity of red cell phenotyping, results of red cell phenotyping were concordant with restriction fragment length polymorphism studies of granulocytes and bone marrow cells in all cases studied...
1991: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, Fernando Jauregui-Huerta, Alma Yadira Galvez-Contreras
New neurons are continuously produced in most, if not all, mammals. This Neurogenesis occurs only in discrete regions of the adult brain: the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ). In these areas, there are neural stem cells (NSCs), multipotent and selfrenewing, which are regulated by a number of molecules and signaling pathways that control their cell fate choices, survival and proliferation rates. It was believed that growth and morphogenic factors were the unique mediators that controlled NSCs in vivo...
August 1, 2010: Current Immunology Reviews
Xuyong Lin, Shuli Liu, Nan Liu, Xiaoshi Yang, Hongtao Xu, Enhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Increasing reports showed that some tumor stem cells were selfrenewal and multi-lineage differentiated in tumors, similar to the normal stem cells in human body. The aim of this study is to observe the expression of stem cell markers in lung squamous carcinoma tissues. METHODS: Fifty-four lung cancer specimens from surgery were analyzed for CK19, Notch3, CD133, P75NTR, STRO-1 and ABCG2 expression by using S-P immunohistochemistry. In addition, ten normal lung tissue samples were included as control...
April 20, 2009: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Berit Bølge Tysnes
Identification of the cell types capable of initiating and sustaining growth of the neoplastic clone in vivo is a fundamental problem in cancer research. It is likely that tumor growth can be sustained both by rare cancer stem-like cells and selected aggressive clones and that the nature of the mutations, the cell of origin, and its environment will contribute to tumor propagation. Genomic instability, suggested as a driving force in tumorigenesis, may be induced by genetic and epigenetic changes. The feature of self-renewal in stem cells is shared with tumor cells, and deviant function of the stem cell regulatory networks may, in complex ways, contribute to malignant transformation and the establishment of a cancer stem cell-like phenotype...
July 2010: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Rita Sousa-Nunes, Wayne Gregory Somers
Drosophila neuroblasts display remarkable asymmetry throughout mitosis. The most prominent asymmetry is the size difference between daughter cells at cytokinesis. The larger cell retains stem cell identity, i.e., remains a neuroblast while the smaller cell, called a ganglion mother cell (GMC), will generate differentiated neural and glial progeny. Preceding this size difference, several protein complexes localize to opposite sides of the neuroblast cortex (apical and basal in the embryo and, by analogy, referred to as such in larval neuroblasts although their asymmetry no longer correlates with such axis)...
January 2010: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Shalmoli Bhattacharyya, Kishan Lal Khanduja
The major goal of researchers and oncologists is to develop promising ground for novel therapeutic strategies to prevent recurrence or relapse of cancer. Recent evidences suggest that a subset of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) are present within the tumor mass which possess tumorigenic capacity and may be responsible for propagation, relapse, and metastatic dissemination. These cells have certain stem cell-like properties, e.g. quiescence, selfrenewal, asymmetric division, and multidrug resistance which allow them to drive tumor growth and evade conventional therapies...
April 2010: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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