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Synthetic biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213964/when-sensing-is-gambling-an-experimental-system-reveals-how-plasticity-can-generate-tunable-bet-hedging-strategies
#1
Colin S Maxwell, Paul M Magwene
Genotypes can persist in unpredictable environments by 'hedging their bets' and producing diverse phenotypes. Theoretical studies have shown that the phenotypic variability needed for a bet-hedging strategy can be generated by factors either inside or outside an organism. However, sensing the environment and bet hedging are frequently treated as distinct evolutionary strategies. Furthermore, nearly all empirical studies of the molecular underpinnings of bet-hedging strategies to date have focused on internal sources of variability...
February 18, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213833/molecular-imaging-in-synthetic-biology-and-synthetic-biology-in-molecular-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Assaf A Gilad, Mikhail G Shapiro
Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies...
February 17, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213564/seven-year-tolerability-profile-of-glucocorticoids-use-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-data-from-the-espoir-cohort
#3
Camille Roubille, Nathalie Rincheval, Maxime Dougados, René-Marc Flipo, Jean-Pierre Daurès, Bernard Combe
OBJECTIVE: To explore the 7-year tolerability profile of glucocorticoids (GC) for early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We examined data for 602 patients with RA from the early arthritis Etude et Suivi des POlyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) cohort (<6 months disease duration) stratified into two groups: with or without GC treatment at least once during follow-up (median 7 years (IQR 0.038-7.65)). The main outcome was a composite of death, cardiovascular disease (including myocardial ischaemia, cerebrovascular accident and heart failure), severe infection and fracture...
February 17, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213386/erratum-efficacy-and-safety-of-tofacitinib-following-inadequate-response-to-conventional-synthetic-or-biologic-diseasemodifying-antirheumatic-drugs
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212700/the-rhazinilam-leuconoxine-mersicarpine-triad-of-monoterpenoid-indole-alkaloids
#5
Magnus Pfaffenbach, Tanja Gaich
The rhazinilam-leuconoxine-mersicarpine triad of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids comprises a variety of diverse natural products with unprecedented structural features and intriguing biological activities. This subfamily of Aspidosperma alkaloids has drawn significant attention from the synthetic community which is reflected by over 20 syntheses within the last 5years. Numerous transformations and strategies have been developed to access the different key structural motifs such as the tetrahydroindolizine, α,β-unsaturated carbinolamide, diaza[5...
2017: Alkaloids. Chemistry and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212019/complete-nutrient-removal-coupled-to-nitrous-oxide-production-as-a-bioenergy-source-by-denitrifying-polyphosphate-accumulating-organisms
#6
Han Gao, Miaomiao Liu, James S Griffin, Longcheng Xu, Da Xiang, Yaniv D Scherson, Wen-Tso Liu, George F Wells
Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) is a promising emerging bioprocess for wastewater treatment that enables direct energy recovery from nitrogen (N) in three steps: (1) ammonium oxidation to nitrite; (2) denitrification of nitrite to nitrous oxide (N2O); and (3) N2O conversion to N2 with energy generation. However, CANDO does not currently target phosphorus (P) removal. Here, we demonstrate that denitrifying polyphosphate accumulating organism (PAO) enrichment cultures are capable of catalyzing simultaneous biological N and P removal coupled to N2O generation in a 2nd generation CANDO process, CANDO+P...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211541/antibody-controlled-actuation-of-dna-based-molecular-circuits
#7
Wouter Engelen, Lenny H H Meijer, Bram Somers, Tom F A de Greef, Maarten Merkx
DNA-based molecular circuits allow autonomous signal processing, but their actuation has relied mostly on RNA/DNA-based inputs, limiting their application in synthetic biology, biomedicine and molecular diagnostics. Here we introduce a generic method to translate the presence of an antibody into a unique DNA strand, enabling the use of antibodies as specific inputs for DNA-based molecular computing. Our approach, antibody-templated strand exchange (ATSE), uses the characteristic bivalent architecture of antibodies to promote DNA-strand exchange reactions both thermodynamically and kinetically...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208778/the-therapeutic-potential-of-migrastatin-core-analogs-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Ernest Giralt, Daniele Lo Re
Tumor metastasis is a complex process in which cells detach from the primary tumor and colonize a distant organ. Metastasis is also the main process responsible for cancer-related death. Despite the enormous efforts made to unravel the metastatic process, there is no effective therapy, and patients with metastatic tumors have poor prognosis. In this regard, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic tools for the treatment of this disease. Small molecules with the capacity to reduce cell migration could be used to treat metastasis...
February 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207495/lipids-and-lipid-changes-with-synthetic-and-biologic-disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drug-therapy-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-implications-for-cardiovascular-risk
#9
Elena Myasoedova
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recently published studies addressing lipid changes with disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use and outline implications on cardiovascular outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RECENT FINDINGS: Growing evidence suggests lower lipid levels are present in patients with active RA vs. general population, and significant modifications of lipid profile with inflammation suppression. Increase in lipid levels in patients with RA on synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs may be accompanied by antiatherogenic changes in lipid composition and function...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207402/reconstructing-the-temporal-progression-of-biological-data-using-cluster-spanning-trees
#10
Ryan Eshleman, Rahul Singh
Identifying the temporal progression of a set of biological samples is crucial for comprehending the dynamics of the underlying molecular interactions. It is often also a basic step in data denoising and synchronization. Finally, identifying the progression order is crucial for problems like cell lineage identification, disease progression, tumor classification, and epidemiology and thus impacts the spectrum of disciplines spanning basic biology, drug discovery, and public health. Current methods that attempt solving this problem face difficulty when it is necessary to factor-in complex relationships within the data such as grouping, partial ordering or bifurcating or multifurcating progressions...
February 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206750/synthetic-riboswitches-from-plug-and-pray-towards-plug-and-play
#11
Maja Etzel, Mario Mörl
In synthetic biology, metabolic engineering as well as gene therapy there is a strong demand for orthogonal or externally controlled regulation of gene expression. Here, RNA-based regulatory devices represent a promising emerging alternative to proteins, allowing a fast and direct control of gene expression, as no synthesis of regulatory proteins is required. Besides programmable ribozyme elements controlling mRNA stability, regulatory RNA structures in untranslated regions are highly interesting for engineering approaches...
February 16, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205435/recent-progress-in-the-chemistry-of-daphniphyllum-alkaloids-%C3%A2
#12
Amit Kumar Chattopadhyay, Stephen Hanessian
Daphniphyllum is an evergreen species known since 1826. After initial systematic investigations, more than 320 members of this family have been isolated, which comprise complex and fascinating structures. Unique azapolycyclic architectures containing one or more quaternary stereocenters render these alkaloids synthetically challenging. This review covers efforts toward the synthesis of Daphniphyllum alkaloids spanning the period from 2005 to the beginning of 2016, including reported biological activities as well as the isolation of new members of this genus...
February 16, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205403/functionalized-calix-4-arenes-as-potential-therapeutic-agents
#13
Muhammad Moazzam Naseer, Mukhtiar Ahmed, Shahid Hameed
Calixarenes, composed of phenolic units linked by methylene bridges at the 2,6-positions, represent a versatile class of macrocyclic compounds in supramolecular chemistry that can host small molecules or ions in their well-defined hydrophobic cavities. In recent years, it has been recognized that this class of compounds has the potential to serve as platform for the design of biological active compounds. Therefore, the calixarenes functionalized with different pharmacophoric groups have been synthesized as target structure by many researchers and were further evaluated for their biological activities...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205177/measuring-activity-of-cholesterol-synthesis-enzymes-using-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
Anika V Prabhu, Winnie Luu, Andrew J Brown
The development of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technology has improved the ease and efficiency with which sterols in biological samples can be analyzed. Its advantages include that it needs only a small amount of sample, a short analysis time, and has enhanced specificity over traditional methods. Furthermore, a major benefit is its nonselective properties, which means that a complete scan of the sample will display the relative abundance of every sterol in the sample. This property has made it possible to define the abnormal, but distinctive, sterol profiles in a number of inborn errors of cholesterol synthesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203643/establishing-elements-of-a-synthetic-biology-platform-for-vaccinia-virus-production-biobrick%C3%A2-design-serum-free-virus-production-and-microcarrier-based-cultivation-of-cv-1-cells
#15
Shuchang Liu, Ludmila Ruban, Yaohe Wang, Yuhong Zhou, Darren N Nesbeth
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an established vector for vaccination and is beginning to prove effective as an oncolytic agent. Industrial production of VACV stands to benefit in future from advances made by synthetic biology in genome engineering and standardisation. The CV-1 cell line can be used for VACV propagation and has been used extensively with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for making precise edits of the VACV genome. Here we take first steps toward establishing a scalable synthetic biology platform for VACV production with CV-1 cells featuring standardised biological tools and serum free cell cultivation...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203596/intra-articular-implantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-part-2-a-review-of-the-literature-for-meniscal-regeneration
#16
Matthew J Kraeutler, Justin J Mitchell, Jorge Chahla, Eric C McCarty, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) after partial or total meniscectomy is a prevalent issue that patients must face. Various methods of replacing meniscal tissue have been studied to avoid this progression, including meniscal allograft transplantation, meniscal scaffolds, and synthetic meniscus replacement. Studies have shown that meniscal scaffolds may improve symptoms but have not been shown to prevent progression of OA. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a possible biological therapy for meniscal regeneration...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203585/can-grafts-provide-superior-tendon-healing-and-clinical-outcomes-after-rotator-cuff-repairs-a-meta-analysis
#17
Yohei Ono, Diego Alejandro Dávalos Herrera, Jarret M Woodmass, Richard S Boorman, Gail M Thornton, Ian K Y Lo
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic repair of large to massive rotator cuff tears commonly retear. To improve healing rates, a number of different approaches have been utilized, including the use of grafts, which may enhance the biomechanical and biologic aspects of the repair construct. However, the outcomes after the use of grafts are diverse. PURPOSE: To systematically review the literature for large to massive rotator cuff tears to determine whether the use of grafts generally provides superior tendon healing and clinical outcomes to the repairs without grafts...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203273/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-the-new-1-3-dimethylxanthine-derivatives-with-thiazolidine-4-one-scaffold
#18
Sandra Constantin, Florentina Geanina Lupascu, Maria Apotrosoaei, Ioana Mirela Vasincu, Dan Lupascu, Frederic Buron, Sylvain Routier, Lenuta Profire
BACKGROUND: The xanthine structure has proved to be an important scaffold in the process of developing a wide variety of biologically active molecules such as bronchodilator, hypoglycemiant, anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents. It is known that hyperglycemia generates reactive oxygen species which are involved in the progression of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Therefore, the development of new compounds with antioxidant activity could be an important therapeutic strategy against this metabolic syndrome...
2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203100/from-amino-acids-polymers-antimicrobial-peptides-and-histones-to-their-possible-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-septic-shock-a-historical-perspective
#19
Isaac Ginsburg, Peter Vernon van Heerden, Erez Koren
This paper describes the evolution of our understanding of the biological role played by synthetic and natural antimicrobial cationic peptides and by the highly basic nuclear histones as modulators of infection, postinfectious sequelae, trauma, and coagulation phenomena. The authors discuss the effects of the synthetic polymers of basic poly α amino acids, poly l-lysine, and poly l-arginine on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, bacterial killing, and blood vessels; the properties of natural and synthetic antimicrobial cationic peptides as potential replacements or adjuncts to antibiotics; polycations as opsonizing agents promoting endocytosis/phagocytosis; polycations and muramidases as activators of autolytic wall enzymes in bacteria, causing bacteriolysis and tissue damage; and polycations and nuclear histones as potential virulence factors and as markers of sepsis, septic shock, disseminated intravasclar coagulopathy, acute lung injury, pancreatitis, trauma, and other additional clinical disorders...
2017: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202919/ectopic-lymphoid-neogenesis-in-rheumatic-autoimmune-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Michele Bombardieri, Myles Lewis, Costantino Pitzalis
Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis often occurs in the target tissues of patients with chronic rheumatic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome and other connective tissue disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus and myositis. However, the mechanisms of ectopic lymphoid-like structure (ELS) formation and function are not entirely understood. For example, it is unclear whether ELSs indicate distinct disease phenotypes or whether they are evolutionary manifestations of chronic inflammation...
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
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