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Synthetic biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731690/the-metal-drives-the-chemistry-dual-functions-of-acireductone-dioxygenase
#1
Aditi R Deshpande, Thomas C Pochapsky, Dagmar Ringe
Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway (MSP) is a unique enzyme that exhibits dual chemistry determined solely by the identity of the divalent transition-metal ion (Fe(2+) or Ni(2+)) in the active site. The Fe(2+)-containing isozyme catalyzes the on-pathway reaction using substrates 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopent-1-ene (acireductone) and dioxygen to generate formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate, whereas the Ni(2+)-containing isozyme catalyzes an off-pathway shunt with the same substrates, generating methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide, and formate...
July 21, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731303/lead-ii-binding-in-natural-and-artificial-proteins
#2
Virginia Cangelosi, Leela Ruckthong, Vincent L Pecoraro
This article describes recent attempts to understand the biological chemistry of lead using a synthetic biology approach. Lead binds to a variety of different biomolecules ranging from enzymes to regulatory and signaling proteins to bone matrix. We have focused on the interactions of this element in thiolate-rich sites that are found in metalloregulatory proteins such as Pbr, Znt, and CadC and in enzymes such as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). In these proteins, Pb(II) is often found as a homoleptic and hemidirectic Pb(II)(SR)3- complex...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731127/pidotimod-exacerbates-allergic-pulmonary-infection-in-an-ova-mouse-model-of-asthma
#3
Luo-Qin Fu, Ya-Li Li, Ai-Kun Fu, Yan-Ping Wu, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Sheng-Lan Hu, Wei-Fen Li
Pidotimod is a synthetic dipeptide with biological and immuno‑modulatory properties. It has been widely used for treatment and prevention of recurrent respiratory infections. However, its impact on the regulation of allergic pulmonary inflammation is still not clear. In the current study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced allergic asthma model was used to investigate the immune‑modulating effects of pidotimod on airway eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia and inflammatory factor expression compared with dexamethasone (positive control)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730820/tryptic-peptides-bearing-c-terminal-dimethyllysine-need-be-considered-during-the-analysis-of-lysine-dimethylation-in-proteomic-study
#4
Ming Chen, Min Zhang, Linhui Zhai, Hao Hu, Ping Liu, Minjia Tan
Lysine methylation plays important roles in structural and functional regulation of chromatin. Although trypsin is the most widely used protease in mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis for lysine methylation substrates, the proteolytic activity of trypsin on dimethylated lysine residues remains an arguable issue. In this study, we tested the ability of trypsin to cleave dimethylated lysine residues in synthetic peptides, purified albumin and whole cell lysate, and found that the C-terminal of dimethylated lysine residue could be cleaved in a protein sequence-dependent manner...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730640/2016-updated-thai-rheumatism-association-recommendations-for-the-use-of-biologic-and-targeted-synthetic-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drugs-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Worawit Louthrenoo, Nuntana Kasitanon, Wanruchada Katchamart, Duangkamol Aiewruengsurat, Parawee Chevaisrakul, Praveena Chiowchanwisawakit, Pornchai Dechanuwong, Punchong Hanvivadhanakul, Ajanee Mahakkanukrauh, Siriporn Manavathongchai, Chayawee Muangchan, Pongthorn Narongroeknawin, Veerapong Phumethum, Boonjing Siripaitoon, Anawat Suesuwan, Siraphop Suwannaroj, Parichat Uea-Areewongsa, Sittichai Ukritchon, Paijit Asavatanabodee, Ajchara Koolvisoot, Ratanavadee Nanagara, Kitti Totemchokchyakarn, Kanokrut Nuntirooj, Tasanee Kitumnuaypong
AIM: In June 2015, the Thai Rheumatism Association (TRA) approved an update of its recommendation for the use of biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and targeted synthetic (tsDMARD) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to cover those currently available in Thailand (etanercept, infliximab, golimumab, rituximab, tocilizumab, abatacept and tofacitinib). METHOD: A search of the literature was performed between January 2000 and June 2015...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730479/analysis-of-drug-resistance-using-kinome-wide-functional-screens
#6
Katherine R Singleton, Keith T Earley, Lynn E Heasley
The clinical success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors specific for BCR-ABL-, EGFR-, ALK-, and ROS1-driven cancers continues to spur the quest to match specific oncogene-defined tumor types with an appropriate molecularly targeted therapy. Unfortunately, responses to these agents are not durable with intrinsic or acquired resistance limiting benefit. Additionally, efforts to identify the appropriate targets of new drugs have focused on nonfunctional assays such as large-scale sequencing for somatic mutations or analysis of gene copy number...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730357/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-from-spirulina-microalgae-and-its-antibacterial-activity
#7
Govarthanan Muthusamy, Selvankumar Thangasamy, Mythili Raja, Sudhakar Chinnappan, Selvam Kandasamy
The present work focuses on a low-cost, simple, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by mixing AgNO3 solution with the extract of Spirulina platensis (SP) without any chemical reducing and/or capping agents. The green synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by the color change from colorless to yellowish brown. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biological transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX)...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729884/genome-wide-landscape-of-position-effects-on-heterogeneous-gene-expression-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#8
Xiao-Le Wu, Bing-Zhi Li, Wen-Zheng Zhang, Kai Song, Hao Qi, Jun-Biao Dai, Ying-Jin Yuan
BACKGROUND: Integration of heterogeneous genes is widely applied in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. However, knowledge about the effect of integrative position on gene expression remains limited. RESULTS: We established a genome-wide landscape of position effect on gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The expression cassette of red fluorescence protein (RFP) gene was constructed and inserted at 1044 loci, which were scattered uniformly in the yeast genome...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728754/copper-based-reactions-in-analyte-responsive-fluorescent-probes-for-biological-applications
#9
Ho Yu Au-Yeung, Chung Ying Chan, Ka Yan Tong, Zuo Hang Yu
Copper chemistry has been capitalized on in a wide spectrum of biological events. The central importance of copper in biology lies in the diverse chemical reactivity of the redox-active transition metal ranging from electron transfer, small molecule binding and activation, to catalysis. In addition to its many different roles in natural biological systems, the diverse chemical reactivity of copper also represents a rich opportunity and resource to develop synthetic bioanalytical tools for the study of biologically important species and molecules...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727424/enantioselective-construction-of-tertiary-c-o-bond-via-allylic-substitution-of-vinylethylene-carbonates-with-water-and-alcohols
#10
Ajmal Khan, Sardaraz Khan, Ijaz Khan, Can Zhao, Yuxue Mao, Yan Chen, Yong Jian Zhang
An efficient method for the enantioselective construction of tertiary C-O bond via asymmetric allylic substitution of racemic vinylethylene carbonates with water and alcohols has been developed. Under the cooperative catalysis system of an in situ generated chiral palladium complex and boron reagent in mild conditions, the process allowed rapid access to valuable tertiary alcohols and ethers in high yields with complete regioselectivities and high enantioselectivities. This protocol represented the first example of direct enantioselective formation of tertiary C-O bond with water as an oxygen donor...
July 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726670/solid-state-nanopore-based-biomimetic-voltage-gated-ion-channels
#11
Matthew Pevarnik, Weibin Cui, Sukru Yemenicioglu, Justin Rofeh, Luke Theogarajan
Voltage gating is essential to the computational ability of neurons. We show this effect can be mimicked in a solid-state nanopore by functionalizing the pore interior with a redox active molecule. We study the integration of an active biological molecule, a quinone, into a solid state nanopore and its subsequent induced voltage gating. We show that the voltage gating effect mimics biological gating systems in its classic sigmoidal voltage response, unlike previous synthetic voltage gating systems. Initially the quinone undergoes a reduction due to radicals in the bulk solution and is converted to the hydroquinone state...
July 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726668/formulation-and-technology-development-of-herbal-phenolic-biopolymer-containing-films-for-burn-treatment
#12
S Gokadze, V Barbakadze, K Mulkijanyan, A Bakuridze, L Bakuridze
Application of phytofilms based on biosolublepolymers is considered as a prospectivemethod for burn treatment . Herbal remedies contain biologically active substances, that are relatively less toxic, do not cause skin irritation or allergic reactions and, importantly, affectstrains of the microorganisms and viruses resistant to antibiotics and synthetic drugs. Nowadays, the advantages are given to such burn healing drugs, which along with high specific efficacy, have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and don't irritate the tissues...
June 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726330/synthetic-analogs-of-nitrogenase-metallocofactors-challenges-and-developments
#13
Nathaniel Sickerman, Kazuki Tanifuji, Yilin Hu, Markus Walter Ribbe
Nitrogenase is the only known biological system capable of reducing N2 to NH3, which is a critical component of bioavailable nitrogen fixation. Since the discovery of discrete iron-sulfur metalloclusters within the nitrogenase MoFe protein, synthetic inorganic chemists have sought to reproduce the structural features of these clusters in order to understand how they facilitate the binding, activation and hydrogenation of N2. Through the decades following the initial identification of these clusters, significant progress has been made to synthetically replicate certain compositional and functional aspects of the biogenic clusters...
July 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726148/first-human-use-of-hybrid-synthetic-biologic-mesh-in-ventral-hernia-repair-a-multicenter-trial
#14
James G Bittner, Kevin El-Hayek, Andrew T Strong, Melissa Phillips LaPinska, Jin S Yoo, Eric M Pauli, Matthew Kroh
BACKGROUND: Mesh options for reinforcement of ventral/incisional hernia (VIH) repair include synthetic or biologic materials. While each material has known advantages and disadvantages, little is understood about outcomes when these materials are used in combination. This multicenter study reports on the first human use of a novel synthetic/biologic hybrid mesh (Zenapro(®) Hybrid Hernia Repair Device) for VIH repair. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter post-market clinical trial enrolled consecutive adults who underwent elective VIH repair with hybrid mesh placed in the intraperitoneal or retromuscular/preperitoneal position...
July 19, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724898/improvement-in-the-production-of-the-human-recombinant-enzyme-n-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase-rhgalns-in-escherichia-coli-using-synthetic-biology-approaches
#15
Luis H Reyes, Carolina Cardona, Luisa Pimentel, Alexander Rodríguez-López, Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz
Previously, we demonstrated production of an active recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (rhGALNS) enzyme in Escherichia coli as a potential therapeutic alternative for mucopolysaccharidosis IVA. However, most of the rhGALNS produced was present as protein aggregates. Here, several methods were investigated to improve production and activity of rhGALNS. These methods involved the use of physiologically-regulated promoters and alternatives to improve protein folding including global stress responses (osmotic shock), overexpression of native chaperones, and enhancement of cytoplasmic disulfide bond formation...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723932/the-nucleoid-occlusion-factor-noc-controls-dna-replication-initiation-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Ting Pang, Xindan Wang, Hoong Chuin Lim, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner
Successive division events in the spherically shaped bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are oriented in three alternating perpendicular planes. The mechanisms that underlie this relatively unique pattern of division and coordinate it with chromosome segregation remain largely unknown. Thus far, the only known spatial regulator of division in this organism is the nucleoid occlusion protein Noc that inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic ring over the chromosome. However, Noc is not essential in S. aureus, indicating that additional regulators are likely to exist...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723218/aluminum-chloride-mediated-dieckmann-cyclization-for-the-synthesis-of-cyclic-2-alkyl-1-3-alkanediones-one-step-synthesis-of-the-chiloglottones
#17
Ahlam M Armaly, Sukanta Bar, Corinna S Schindler
Cyclic 2-alkyl-1,3-alkanediones are ubiquitous structural motifs in many natural products of biological importance. Reported herein is an AlCl3·MeNO2-mediated Dieckmann cyclization reaction of general synthetic utility that enables direct access to complex 2-alkyl-1,3-dione building blocks from readily available dicarboxylic acid and acid chloride substrates. This new strategy enables direct synthetic access to the chiloglottone plant pheromones from commercial material in a single synthetic transformation...
July 19, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723107/chemical-approaches-to-investigate-labile-peptide-and-protein-phosphorylation
#18
Anett Hauser, Martin Penkert, Christian P R Hackenberger
Protein phosphorylation is by far the most abundant and most studied post-translational modification (PTM). For a long time, phosphate monoesters of serine (pSer), threonine (pThr), and tyrosine (pTyr) have been considered as the only relevant forms of phosphorylation in organisms. Recently, several research groups have dedicated their efforts to the investigation of other, less characterized phosphoamino acids as naturally occurring PTMs. Such apparent peculiar phosphorylations include the phosphoramidates of histidine (pHis), arginine (pArg), and lysine (pLys), the phosphorothioate of cysteine (pCys), and the anhydrides of pyrophosphorylated serine (ppSer) and threonine (ppThr)...
July 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723079/exploring-the-role-of-carbonate-in-the-formation-of-an-organomanganese-tetramer
#19
Karthika J Kadassery, Suman Kr Dey, Alan E Friedman, David C Lacy
The formation of metal-oxygen clusters is an important chemical transformation in biology and catalysis. For example, the biosynthesis of the oxygen-evolving complex in the enzyme photosystem II is a complicated stepwise process that assembles a catalytically active cluster. Herein we describe the role that carbonato ligands have in the formation of the known tetrameric complex [Mn(CO)3(μ3-OH)]4 (1). Complex 1 is synthesized in one step via the treatment of Mn2(CO)10 with excess Me3NO·2H2O. Alternatively, when anhydrous Me3NO is used, an OH-free synthetic intermediate (2) with carbonato ligands is produced...
July 19, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723063/using-cooperatively-folded-peptides-to-measure-interaction-energies-and-conformational-propensities
#20
Maziar S Ardejani, Evan T Powers, Jeffery W Kelly
The rates and equilibria of the folding of biopolymers are determined by the conformational preferences of the subunits that make up the sequence of the biopolymer and by the interactions that are formed in the folded state in aqueous solution. Because of the centrality of these processes to life, quantifying conformational propensities and interaction strengths is vitally important to understanding biology. In this Account, we describe our use of peptide model systems that fold cooperatively yet are small enough to be chemically synthesized to measure such quantities...
July 19, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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