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J Woo, J E Kim, J J Im, J Lee, H S Jeong, S Park, S-Y Jung, H An, S Yoon, S M Lim, S Lee, J Ma, E Y Shin, Y-E Han, B Kim, E H Lee, L Feng, H Chun, B-E Yoon, I Kang, S R Dager, I K Lyoo, C J Lee
The role of astrocytes in brain plasticity has not been extensively studied compared with that of neurons. Here we adopted integrative translational and reverse-translational approaches to explore the role of an astrocyte-specific major water channel in the brain, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), in brain plasticity and learning. We initially identified the most prevalent genetic variant of AQP4 (single nucleotide polymorphism of rs162008 with C or T variation, which has a minor allele frequency of 0.21) from a human database (n=60 706) and examined its functionality in modulating the expression level of AQP4 in an in vitro luciferase reporter assay...
April 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Julia Masomi-Bornwassser, Fabio Freguia, Hendrik Müller-Werkmeister, Oliver Kempski, Alf Giese, Naureen Keric
OBJECTIVE: Although fibrinolytic therapy is an upcoming treatment for intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), standard guidelines are lacking, and some clinical issues persist. Here, we used our recently devised clot model of ICH to systematically analyse effects of irrigation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on fibrinolysis. METHODS: In vitro clots of human blood (25 ml) were generated and a catheter irrigation system was applied to deliver fluid/treatment. Clots were weighed before and after treatment and compared to rtPA treatment alone...
March 21, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Junhong Li, Ruofei Liang, Chen Song, Yufan Xiang, Yanhui Liu
Growing evidence from recent studies have revealed that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) might be a useful prognostic biomarker for glioma; we therefore conducted the current meta-analysis to evaluate prognostic and clinicopathological predictive value of lncRNA expression for glioma patients. Eligible studies were identified through multiple research strategies in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to May 2017. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilized to calculate patient's survival...
March 21, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Ozlem Colak, Kadri Ozer, Adile Dikmen, Hilal Ozakinci, Ozay Ozkaya
PURPOSE: The toll-like receptors (TLRs) stand at the interface of innate immune activation. We hypothesize to decrease the response of innate immunity activated by TLR4 by a safe, short-term, systemic immunosuppression. METHODS: Two silicone block implants were placed into two dorsal subcutaneous pockets in 32 rats that were subdivided into four groups: The two study groups were the IV DEX group (single intravenous injection of dexamethasone 1 h before surgery) and the IV DEX + IP DEX group (in addition to a single intravenous injection of dexamethasone 1 h before surgery, intraperitoneal dexamethasone was administered for 10 days after surgery), and the two control groups were the untreated control group and the saline-treated control group...
March 21, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Grace Sum, Thomas Hone, Rifat Atun, Christopher Millett, Marc Suhrcke, Ajay Mahal, Gerald Choon-Huat Koh, John Tayu Lee
Background: Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more non-communicable diseases (NCD), is a costly and complex challenge for health systems globally. Patients with NCDs incur high levels of out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), often on medicines, but the literature on the association between OOPE on medicines and multimorbidity has not been examined systematically. Methods: A systematic review was conducted via searching medical and economics databases including Ovid Medline, EMBASE, EconLit, Cochrane Library and the WHO Global Health Library from year 2000 to 2016...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Shusuke Hiragi, Hiroyuki Yamada, Tatsuo Tsukamoto, Kazuki Yoshida, Naoya Kondo, Takeshi Matsubara, Motoko Yanagita, Hiroshi Tamura, Tomohiro Kuroda
Background: Acetaminophen (APAP) is frequently used for analgesia and is considered safer than nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the kidneys. However, there is little epidemiological evidence of the association between APAP and acute kidney injury (AKI). Objectives: To examine the association between APAP and AKI using the self-controlled case series (SCCS) method, which is a novel strategy to control between-person confounders by comparing the risk and reference periods in each patient...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Jianjia Fan, Rui Qi Zhao, Cameron Parro, Wenchen Zhao, Hsien-Ya Chou, Jerome Robert, Tarek Z Deeb, Carina Raynoschek, Samantha Barichievy, Ola Engvist, Marcello Maresca, Ryan Hicks, Johan Meuller, Stephen J Moss, Nicholas J Brandon, Michael W Wood, Iva Kulic, Cheryl L Wellington
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the primary lipid carrier within the central nervous system (CNS) and the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE is primarily lipidated via the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), and both are under transcriptional regulation by the liver X nuclear receptor (LXR). Considerable evidence from genetic (using ABCA1 overexpression) and pharmacological (using synthetic LXR agonists) studies in AD mouse models suggests that increased levels of lipidated apoE can improve cognitive performance and, in some strains, can reduce amyloid burden...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Ryan A York
Although most animal behaviors are associated with some form of heritable genetic variation, we do not yet understand how genes sculpt behavior across evolution, either directly or indirectly. To address this, I here compile a dataset comprised of over 1,000 genomic loci representing a spectrum of behavioral variation across animal taxa. Comparative analyses reveal that courtship and feeding behaviors are associated with genomic regions of significantly greater effect than other traits, on average three fold greater than other behaviors...
March 21, 2018: Genetics
Amy O'Donnell, Latifa Abidi, Jamie Brown, Nadine Karlsson, Per Nilsen, Kerstin Roback, Janna Skagerström, Kristin Thomas
BACKGROUND: Despite robust evidence for their effectiveness, it has proven difficult to translate alcohol prevention activities into routine health care practice. Previous research has identified numerous provider-level barriers affecting implementation, but these have been less extensively investigated in the wider population. We sought to: (1) investigate patients' beliefs and attitudes to being asked about alcohol consumption in health care; and (2) identify the characteristics of those who are supportive of addressing alcohol consumption in health care...
March 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
Xican Li, Yulu Xie, Hong Xie, Jian Yang, Dongfeng Chen
α-Viniferin and caraphenol A, the two oligostilbenes, have the sole difference of the presence or absence of an exocyclic double bond at the π-π conjugative site. In this study, the antioxidant capacity and relevant mechanisms for α-viniferin and caraphenol A were comparatively explored using spectrophotometry, UV-visible spectral analysis, and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis. The spectrophotometric results suggested that caraphenol A always gave lower IC50 values than α-viniferin in cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazl radical (DPPH•)-scavenging, and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide radical-scavenging assays...
March 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xinyi Li, Yan Liu, Yingdong Zheng, Peiyu Wang, Yumei Zhang
Observational studies have indicated an inverse association between vitamin D levels and the risk of diabetes, yet evidence from population interventions remains inconsistent. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and were searched up to September 2017. Data from studies regarding serum 25(OH)D, fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were pooled. Twenty studies ( n = 2703) were included in the meta-analysis...
March 19, 2018: Nutrients
Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the second update of the original Practical Guide, published in 2013 [Heidbuchel et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel et al. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2015;17:1467-1507]. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation...
March 17, 2018: European Heart Journal
Wei Wang, Dong Xing, Yingjian Song, Feiyu Liu
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is one of the worst malignant digestive neoplasms with poor treatment outcomes. Definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become the standard nonsurgical treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer. The chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin have been most commonly used in CRT of esophageal cancer. However, radiotherapy combined with 5-FU/cisplatin often delivers severe toxicity to patients. S-1 as an oral chemotherapeutic drug exhibits higher anti-tumor activity, less adverse effects, and better biological availability...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Amie Goodin, Ming Chen, Driss Raissi, Qiong Han, Hong Xiao, Joshua Brown
To examine the association between patient and hospital characteristics and inferior vena cava filter (IVCF) utilization in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE).The 2013 to 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database was used to define a cohort of patients with VTE aged ≥18 after a primary VTE diagnosis. Comorbidities of interest were classified via diagnosis codes and IVCF placement was identified via procedure code. Chi square analysis tested differences between patient and hospital-level characteristics and whether or not IVCFs were placed...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Walid Ben-Nafa, Wendy Munro
INTRODUCTION: Lateral epicondylitis is a common musculoskeletal disorder of the upper limb. Corticosteroid injection has been widely used as a major mode of treatment. However, better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease led to a major change in treating the disease, with new options including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are currently used. Objectives/research aim: To systematically evaluate the effect of corticosteroid versus PRP injections for the treatment of LE. HYPOTHESIS: PRP injections provide longer-term therapeutic effect and less rate of complications compared to corticosteroid injection...
2018: SICOT-J
Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Jackie Curtis, Scott B Teasdale, Alison R Yung, Jerome Sarris
AIM: The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in "first-episode psychosis" (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP...
March 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Yin-Qiu Fan, Jing-Cheng Cui, Jun Yang, Pin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of "Huayu Tongluo"(Blood-stasis Dispersing and Meridian-collateral Dredging) moxibustion on the delayed memory and expression of Nestin and Doublecortin (DCX) proteins in the hippocampus in vascular dementia (VD) rats in the view of neurogenesis produced by intracerebral transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). METHODS: Healthy male Wistar rats were randomized into control group, VD model group,NSCs+EPCs group and NSCs+EPCs moxibustion group...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Paolo Adravanti, Eleonora Di Salvo, Giuseppe Calafiore, Sebastiano Vasta, Aldo Ampollini, Michele Attilio Rosa
Background: Studies on the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) to improve clinical outcomes after joint arthroplasty have reported contrasting results between intravenous (IV) TXA alone and combined IV and intraarticular (IA) administration. We compared the effectiveness of the 2 methods in providing higher postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) levels in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: A total of 100 TKA patients were randomly assigned to receive either IV TXA alone (group 1) or combined IV and topical IA TXA (group 2)...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Matteo Chiappedi, Martina Mensi, Eliana Antonaci, Elena Zavani, Livio Tronconi, Cristiano Termine, Umberto Balottin
There are few literature evidences about the intellectual profile of adolescents with headache and no study has used the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) in patients with a diagnosis of headache according to the ICHD-III-beta. We recruited 30 patients (age 11-14 years; male:female = 1:2) seen for headache in a tertiary center in Northern Italy and 30 healthy controls matched for age and sex, recruited in a public school from the same geographic area. The diagnosis of headache was done according to the ICHD-III criteria (beta version): the case group was composed of 16 patients with migraine and 14 with tension-type headache...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Safâa Achnak, Yannick Griep, Tim Vantilborgh
Previous research showed that perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach have undesirable individual and organizational consequences. Surprisingly, the PC literature has paid little to no attention to the relationship between PC breach perceptions and stress. A better understanding of how PC breach may elicit stress seems crucial, given that stress plays a key role in employees' physical and mental well-being. Based on Conservation of Resources Theory, we suggest that PC breach perceptions represent a perceived loss of valued resources, subsequently leading employees to experience higher stress levels resulting from emerging negative emotions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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