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Random controlled trial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356339/caregiver-active-participation-in-psychoeducational-intervention-improved-caregiving-skills-and-competency
#1
Sai-Hung Tang, Oi-I Chio, Ling-Hui Chang, Hui-Fen Mao, Li-Hua Chen, Ping-Keung Yip, Jen-Ping Hwang
AIM: To determine whether giving dementia caregivers active psychoeducational intervention is more efficacious than passive intervention for improving their caregiving skills and reducing their caregiving burden. METHODS: This study was a prospective, single-blinded, controlled trial with 43 caregiver/person-with-dementia dyads. The dyads were randomly assigned to the active psychoeducational intervention (AP) group, which used role-play, discussion, and development of problem-solving capacity to build up their caregiving skills and competence, or the passive psychoeducational intervention (PP) group, which gave caregivers educational materials on common caregiving strategies...
January 22, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356299/testosterone-a-key-factor-in-gender-related-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
V E Bianchi, V Locatelli
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is highly correlated with cardiovascular diseases. Although an excess of body fat is a determinant factor for MetS development, a reduced level of testosterone plays a fundamental role in its regulation. Low testosterone level is highly related to insulin resistance, visceral obesity and MetS. We have searched in Pubmed clinical trial with the password: testosterone and insulin resistance, and testosterone and MetS. We found 19 studies on the correlation between testosterone level with insulin resistance and 18 on the effect of testosterone therapy on MetS...
January 21, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356276/influence-of-breathing-patterns-and-orthostatic-stress-on-postural-control-in-older-adults
#3
Gabriel D Rodrigues, Jonas L Gurgel, Thiago R Gonçalves, Flávia Porto, Pedro Paulo da S Soares
AIM: To investigate the influence of breathing patterns and blood pressure behavior postural control in older adults. METHODS: A total of 20 older adults carried out spontaneous, controlled (15 cycles/min) and deep (6 cycles/min) breathing trials, in random order. In this session, the heart rate was recorded continuously and blood pressure measured every 3 min. In addition, the challenge from sitting to an active standing position was carried out with eyes closed during 6 min on a baropodometer plate with electromyography recording...
January 22, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356214/subthreshold-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-applied-after-the-go-signal-facilitates-reaction-time-under-control-but-not-startle-conditions
#4
Victoria Smith, Anthony N Carlsen
The presentation of a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) in a simple reaction time (RT) task significantly reduces RT due to the involuntary early initiation of a prepared movement; however, the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. It has been proposed that a SAS triggers a cortically stored motor program by involuntarily increasing initiation-related activation. Sub-threshold transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to investigate cortical processes, as it increases cortical excitability for 6-30ms and significantly reduces RT...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356026/light-emitting-diodes-in-dermatology-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#5
Jared Jagdeo, Evan Austin, Andrew Mamalis, Christopher Wong, Derek Ho, Daniel Siegel
OBJECTIVE: In dermatology, patient and physician adoption of light-emitting diode (LED) medical technology continues to grow as research indicates that LEDs may be used to treat skin conditions. The goal of this systematic review is to critically analyze published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and provide evidence-based recommendations on the therapeutic uses of LEDs in dermatology based on published efficacy and safety data. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature on the use of LED treatments for skin conditions was performed on September 13th 2017...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356001/early-versus-delayed-invasive-strategy-for-intermediate-and-high-risk-acute-coronary-syndromes-managed-without-p2y12-receptor-inhibitor-pretreatment-design-and-rationale-of-the-early-randomized-trial
#6
Gilles Lemesle, Marc Laine, Mathieu Pankert, Etienne Puymirat, Thomas Cuisset, Ziad Boueri, Luc Maillard, Sébastien Armero, Guillaume Cayla, Laurent Bali, Pascal Motreff, Jean-Pascal Peyre, Franck Paganelli, François Kerbaul, Antoine Roch, Pierre Michelet, Karine Baumstarck, Laurent Bonello
According to recent literature, pretreatment with a P2Y12 ADP receptor antagonist before coronary angiography appears no longer suitable in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) due to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. Optimal delay of the invasive strategy in this specific context is unknown. We hypothesize that without P2Y12 ADP receptor antagonist pretreatment, a very early invasive strategy may be beneficial. The EARLY trial (Early or Delayed Revascularization for Intermediate- and High-Risk Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes?) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, 2-parallel-group study that plans to enroll 740 patients...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355951/evaluation-of-outpatient-acupuncture-for-relief-of-pregnancy-related-conditions
#7
REVIEW
Barbara Buchberger, Laura Krabbe
BACKGROUND: Acupuncture is a non-pharmacological option to relieve pregnancy-related complaints. OBJECTIVES: To critically appraise the best available evidence for the use of acupuncture in outpatient care. SEARCH STRATEGY: The MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases were searched for English-language and German-language papers published from January 1980 to March 2017 using search terms related to pregnancy combined with 'acupuncture'...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355909/risperidone-versus-other-antipsychotics-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness-and-co-occurring-substance-misuse
#8
REVIEW
Henk S Temmingh, Taryn Williams, Nandi Siegfried, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Up to 75% of people with serious mental illness (SMI) such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have co-occurring substance use disorders (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis can have an adverse effect on treatment and prognosis of SMI. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of risperidone compared to treatment with other antipsychotics (first-generation and other second-generation antipsychotics) used in people with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance misuse...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355908/losigamone-add-on-therapy-for-focal-epilepsy
#9
REVIEW
Yousheng Xiao, Man Luo, Jin Wang, Hongye Luo
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide; nearly a third of these people have epilepsy that is not well controlled by a single antiepileptic drug (AED) and they usually require treatment with a combination of two or more AEDs. In recent years, many newer AEDs have been investigated as add-on therapy for focal epilepsy; losigamone is one of these drugs and is the focus of this systematic review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2012 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6) and updated in 2015...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355886/antidepressants-for-depression-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#10
REVIEW
Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nandi Siegfried, Dickens H Akena, Dan J Stein, Ekwaro A Obuku, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: Rates of major depression among people living with HIV (PLWH) are substantially higher than those seen in the general population and this may adversely affect antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Several unique clinical and psychosocial factors may contribute to the development and persistence of depression in PLWH. Given these influences, it is unclear if antidepressant therapy is as effective for PLWH as the general population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of antidepressant therapy for treatment of depression in PLWH...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355845/knee-osteoarthritis-when-arthroscopy-can-help
#11
Moin Khan, Vickas Khanna, Anthony Adili, Olufemi R Ayeni, Asheesh Bedi, Mohit Bhandari
Arthroscopic surgery for the knee is one of the most common orthopedic procedures performed globally. Significant attention recently has focused on the role of arthroscopic surgery in the setting of osteoarthritis and its role in degenerative knee pathology. A number of recently performed randomized control trials and systematic reviews suggest limited benefit for arthroscopic surgery and partial meniscectomy for this indication. With this recent focus on arthroscopy use for osteoarthritis it is often forgotten that arthroscopy plays an important role in the management of other pathology involving the knee in patients who may have a concomitant diagnosis of osteoarthritis...
January 22, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355785/efficacy-safety-and-economics-of-bracing-after-spine-surgery-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
Mary P Zhu, Lindsay A Tetreault, Fatimah Sorefan-Mangou, Philip Garwood, Jefferson R Wilson
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Bracing is often used after spinal surgery to immobilize the spine, improve fusion, and relieve pain. However, controversy exists regarding the efficacy, necessity and safety of various bracing techniques in the post-surgical setting. PURPOSE: In this systematic review, we aimed to compare the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of postoperative bracing versus no postoperative bracing following spinal surgery in patients with several common operative spinal pathologies...
January 17, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355727/one-year-follow-up-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-sertraline-and-cognitive-behavior-group-therapy-in-depressed-primary-care-patients-mind-study
#13
Roland Mergl, Antje-Kathrin Allgaier, Martin Hautzinger, James C Coyne, Ulrich Hegerl, Verena Henkel
BACKGROUND: The long-term course of symptoms in patients with mild-to-moderate depression is not well understood. A 12-month-follow-up analysis was performed on those participants from a randomized controlled 10-week trial (RCT, MIND-study), who had received either treatment with an antidepressant (sertraline) or a psychotherapeutic intervention (group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)). METHODS: The longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation (LIFE) was applied to 77 patients with mild-to moderate depression...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355548/treating-cough-due-to-non-cf-and-cf-bronchiectasis-with-non-pharmacological-airway-clearance-chest-expert-panel-report
#14
Adam T Hill, Alan F Barker, Donald C Bolser, Paul Davenport, Belinda Ireland, Anne B Chang, Stuart B Mazzone, Lorcan McGarvey
BACKGROUND: In bronchiectasis, due to cystic fibrosis (CF) and other causes, airways clearance is one of the mainstays of management. We conducted a systematic review on airways clearance using non-pharmacological methods as recommended by international guidelines to develop recommendations or suggestions to update the 2006 CHEST guideline on cough. METHODS: The systematic search for evidence examined the question, "Is there evidence of clinically important treatment effects for non-pharmacological therapies in cough treatment for patients with bronchiectasis?"...
January 17, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355457/curtailed-two-stage-design-for-comparing-two-arms-in-randomized-phase-ii-clinical-trials
#15
Chia-Min Chen, Yunchan Chi, Hsing-Ming Chang
In phase II clinical trials, patients are recruited sequentially and consequently the time required to complete the clinical trial will become long if the accrual rate is low. To speed up the drug development process and account for ethical issues, stochastically and non-stochastically curtailed two-stage designs have been proposed in single-arm phase II clinical trials. More recently, randomized phase II clinical trials are being increasingly recommended to avoid biased evaluation of the treatment effect when compared with a historical control...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355419/dentist-perceived-barriers-and-attractors-to-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-provided-by-mental-health-providers-in-dental-practices
#16
R E Heyman, A K Wojda, J M Eddy, N C Haydt, J F Geiger, A M Smith Slep
Over 1 in 5 dental patients report moderate to severe dental fear. Although the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for dental fear has been examined in over 20 randomized controlled trials-with 2 meta-analyses finding strong average effect sizes ( d > 1)-CBT has received almost no dissemination beyond the specialty clinics that tested it. The challenge, then, is not how to treat dental fear but how to disseminate and implement such an evidence-based treatment in a way that recognizes the rewards and barriers in the US health care system...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355415/cariology-clinical-trials-what-are-we-and-what-should-we-be-looking-at
#17
N P T Innes
Randomized control trial (RCT) methodology has compared interventions for the prevention and management of dental caries since the late 1960s. Despite almost 50 years and evidence of significant wastage within the wider biomedical research field, there has been little investigation into what works well and where weaknesses lie. This paper aims to draw attention to areas for improvement within cariology clinical trial methodology by summarizing systematic reviews on interventions and outcomes, and using examples to illustrate some challenges with intervention delivery fidelity, outcome analyses, and intervention co-production...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355409/changes-in-caries-risk-in-a-practice-based-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
P Rechmann, B W Chaffee, B M T Rechmann, J D B Featherstone
To demonstrate that Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) can be successfully implemented in dental practice, 30 dentists were recruited to perform a 2-y CAMBRA trial. Twenty-one dentists (18 private practices, 3 community clinics) participated in a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm, double-blind clinical trial with individual-level assignment of 460 participants to standard of care (control) versus active CAMBRA treatment (intervention). Control or active antimicrobial and remineralizing agents were dispensed at baseline and 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-mo recall visits according to risk level and assigned treatment arm...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355292/effectiveness-of-ultrasound-guided-vs-direct-approach-corticosteroid-injections-for-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Po-Cheng Chen, Lin-Yi Wang, Ya-Ping Pong, Yi-Jung Hsin, Mei-Yun Liaw, Chia-Wei Chiang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of ultrasound-guided vs direct approach corticosteroid injection in patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. METHODS: A double-blind randomized controlled study. Wrists affected by carpal tunnel syndrome were randomized to the ultrasound-guided (n = 22 wrists) or direct approach injection group (n = 17 wrists) before receiving 1 ml Betamethasone. Outcome measures were physical findings and electrodiagnostic parameters assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months after injection...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355094/the-association-and-dose-response-relationship-between-dietary-intake-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-risk-of-chd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#20
Jingkai Wei, Ruixue Hou, Yuzhi Xi, Alysse Kowalski, Tiansheng Wang, Zhi Yu, Yirui Hu, Eeshwar K Chandrasekar, Hao Sun, Mohammed K Ali
Previous studies show inconsistent associations between α-linolenic acid (ALA) and risk of CHD. We aimed to examine an aggregate association between ALA intake and risk of CHD, and assess for any dose-response relationship. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases for prospective cohort studies examining associations between ALA intake and CHD, including composite CHD and fatal CHD. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis models, comparing the highest category of ALA intake with the lowest across studies...
January 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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