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Gender disorder

Christine Mohn, Anna-Karin Olsson, Lars Helldin
Dysfunctional affectivity is common in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), and may influence quality of life, illness progression and treatment effects. This study describes Positive (PA) and Negative (NA) affect and their relationship to demographic and clinical variables in 135 individuals with SSD. Affect dimensions were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Stepwise regression analyses with affects as dependent variables and demographic and clinical factors as independent variables were performed...
June 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Lucia Monacis, Maria Sinatra, Mark D Griffiths, Valeria de Palo
Much research has focused on the validation of psychometric tools assessing Internet addiction. One of the newest measures is the Internet Disorder Scale (IDS-15) based on the modified IGD criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study aimed at investigating the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the IDS-15 by examining the construct and the concurrent and the criterion-related validity and by identifying the taxonomy and the patterns of Internet users...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
David A Diamond, Jonathan Swartz, Amy Tishelman, Judith Johnson, Yee-Ming Chan
INTRODUCTION: A central ethical dilemma in management of the patient with a disorder of sex development (DSD) is the potential conflict between respect for the fundamental right of the child for physical and emotional integrity and self-determination, and the right of parents to serve as surrogate decision-makers and act in their child's best interest. METHODS: Over the past 2 years we have encountered three complex DSD cases on the spectrum of mixed gonadal dysgenesis to ovotesticular DSD in which gender assignment and therefore optimal surgical management was uncertain...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Eugen Boltshauser, Konrad P Weber
This chapter deals with chemical and hematologic investigations which are often considered in the diagnostic workup of subacute to chronic cerebellar ataxias. Relevant investigations in blood (serum, plasma), urine, and cerebrospinal fluid are discussed. Particular attention is paid to early diagnosis of treatable metabolic ataxias (such as abetalipoproteinemia, coenzyme Q10 deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, glucose transporter type 1 deficiency, Refsum disease, and vitamin E deficiency), but autoimmune ataxias, other vitamin deficiencies, and endocrine disorders should also be kept in mind...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Olivia Schünemann, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Nina Heinrichs
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine predictors that lead to the utilization of Behavioural Couple Therapy (BCT) for patients with alcohol dependence (AD) in a -European health care system and to identify groups that have a low probability of utilizing BCT. METHODS: Using routinely collected data from a German rehabilitation clinic, a sample of 1,843 inpatients with AD living in a couple relationship was examined. Each patient could freely choose to participate in an addiction-specific BCT as a voluntary additional intervention during an inpatient treatment program...
June 14, 2018: European Addiction Research
Yongjoo Kim, S Bryn Austin, S V Subramanian, Ichiro Kawachi
BACKGROUND/ PURPOSE: Despite emerging evidence suggesting harmful influences of accurate weight perception on psychological health among individuals with obesity, little is known about the association in Asian populations. The aim of this study was investigate the association between body weight perception and depressive symptoms among Korean adults, and potential differential associations across gender. METHODS: We used data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014, comprising 3,318 female (n = 1,876) and male (n = 1,442) participants, aged 19-65 years, with no history of depression and a body-mass index (BMI)> = 18...
2018: PloS One
Fei Ye, Qiongqiong Zhan, Wenhuan Xiao, Weiwei Sha, Xiaobin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Many research indicate that the tardive dyskinesia (TD) is generally linked with long-term antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a critical role in the protection of catecholaminergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic neurons. Thus, we examined the serum GDNF levels in schizophrenia patients with TD (WTD) and without TD (NTD) and compared with healthy controls (HC), respectively. METHODS: Totally 75 males with schizophrenia were recruited into this study...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
S M Balaji
Introduction: In the recent past, the level of prevalence and incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases in India and its comparison with South-Asian neighbors have not been reported. The manuscript estimates the same using the global disease burden 2016 approach. Materials and Methods: Secondary data analysis of primary data presented by Vos et al., 2016, was used for this study. Data from the global burden of disease, data at https://vizhub.healthdata...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Inge Spronk, Catherine M Legemate, Jan Dokter, Nancy E E van Loey, Margriet E van Baar, Suzanne Polinder
BACKGROUND: Identifying predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQL) following burns is essential for optimization of rehabilitation for burn survivors. This study aimed to systematically review predictors of HRQL in burn patients. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were reviewed from inception to October 2016 for studies that investigated at least one predictor of HRQL after burns. The Quality in Prognostic Studies tool was used to assess risk of bias of included studies...
June 14, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Mikkel Magnus Thørrisen, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Randi Wågø Aas
BACKGROUND: Harmful alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for ill-health on an individual level, a global public health challenge, and associated with workplace productivity loss. This study aimed to explore the proportion of risky drinkers in a sample of employees, investigate sociodemographic associations with risky drinking, and examine implications for intervention needs, according to recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO). METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, sociodemographic data were collected from Norwegian employees in 14 companies (n = 3571) across sectors and branches...
June 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Austin J Gallyer, Sean P Dougherty, Anna R Gai, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Mary E Duffy, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: Firefighters are at increased risk for both problematic alcohol use and suicidality. Research has found that problematic alcohol use is related to suicidality among this population; however, limited data exist regarding what might account for this association. The present two-study investigation (1) examined the association between suicidality and problematic alcohol use among two large samples of firefighters and (2) tested whether interpersonal theory of suicide constructs-perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB)-serve as indirect indicators of this relationship...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Bruno M Coêlho, Geilson L Santana, Maria C Viana, Laura H Andrade, Yuan-Pang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. METHODS: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037)...
June 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Valentina Baglivo, Bo Cao, Benson Mwangi, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Antonio Lasalvia, Nicola Dusi, Chiara Bonetto, Doriana Cristofalo, Franco Alessandrini, Giada Zoccatelli, Elisa Ciceri, Lamonaca Dario, Ceccato Enrico, Pileggi Francesca, Fausto Mazzi, Santonastaso Paolo, Matteo Balestrieri, Jair C Soares, Mirella Ruggeri, Paolo Brambilla
Background: Hippocampal abnormalities have been largely reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of the psychosis. The hippocampus consists of several subfields but it remains unclear their involvement in the early stages of psychosis. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate volumetric alterations in hippocampal subfields in patients at the first-episode psychosis (FEP). Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were collected in 134 subjects (58 FEP patients; 76 healthy controls [HC])...
April 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Nomi Werbeloff, Grazia Rutigliano, Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Daniel Stahl, Philip McGuire, David Osborn
Background: The benefits of indicated primary prevention among individuals at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) are limited by the difficulty in detecting these individuals. To overcome this problem, a transdiagnostic, clinically based, individualized risk calculator has recently been developed and subjected to a first external validation in 2 different catchment areas of the South London and Maudsley (SLaM) NHS Trust. Methods: Second external validation of real world, real-time electronic clinical register-based cohort study...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
G van den Brink, L Stapersma, L E Vlug, D Rizopolous, A G Bodelier, H van Wering, P C W M Hurkmans, R J L Stuyt, D M Hendriks, J A T van der Burg, E M W J Utens, J C Escher
BACKGROUND: Youths with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk for developing anxiety and depressive symptoms with a reported 20%-50% prevalence rate. AIMS: This prospective study aimed to: (1) describe the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms in a large Dutch cohort of young IBD patients, and (2) identify demographic and clinical risk factors for anxiety and depression. METHODS: IBD patients (n = 374; 10-25 years) were screened for anxiety, depression and quality of life using validated age-specific questionnaires...
June 13, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Francisco Caamano-Isorna, Amy Adkins, Lucía Moure-Rodríguez, Abigail H Conley, Danielle Dick
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of sexual and physical assault among university students and its association with alcohol use. The research is part of a wider cohort study (Spit for ScienceTM ) at a large public university in the United States. The follow-up data include the first two cohorts (2011, 2012; n = 5,170). The dependent variables were victim of sexual assault and victim of physical assault. The independent variables were alcohol dependence and abuse according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ting Shen, Yuyi You, Chitra Joseph, Mehdi Mirzaei, Alexander Klistorner, Stuart L Graham, Vivek Gupta
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a unique role in the neuronal development, differentiation, and survival in the developing and adult nervous system. A common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the pro-region of the human BDNF gene, resulting in a valine to methionine substitution (Val66Met), has been associated with the susceptibility, incidence, and clinical features of several neurodegenerative disorders. Much research has been dedicated to evaluating the effects of polymorphism in the past decade, and functional effects of this genetic variation...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Liang-Jen Wang, Sung-Chou Li, Min-Jing Lee, Miao-Chun Chou, Wen-Jiun Chou, Sheng-Yu Lee, Chih-Wei Hsu, Lien-Hung Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, and its dysregulation of gene expression involves microRNAs (miRNAs). The purpose of this study was to identify potential miRNAs biomarkers and then use these biomarkers to establish a diagnostic panel for ADHD. Design and methods: RNA samples from white blood cells (WBCs) of five ADHD patients and five healthy controls were combined to create one pooled patient library and one control library. We identified 20 candidate miRNAs with the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique (Illumina)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Masaru Kuno, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Akiko Nakagawa, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. Comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autistic traits may impair treatment response in OCD. To identify possible neurostructural deficits underlying autistic traits, we performed white matter tractography on diffusion tensor images (DTI) and assessed autistic trait severity using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in 33 OCD patients. Correlations between AQ and the DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were examined in major white matter tracts that were suggested to be altered in previous OCD studies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mette Rasmussen, Mads Klinge, Jesper Krogh, Merete Nordentoft, Hanne Tønnesen
OBJECTIVES: We compared the effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation intervention among smokers with and without a severe mental disorder (SMD) and identified factors associated with successful quitting. The main hypothesis was that smokers with an SMD would be less likely to stay continuously smoke-free for 6 months. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: In all, 302 smoking cessation clinics in Denmark from municipal clinics, pharmacies, hospitals, midwives, primary care facilities and other private providers who reported data to the national Danish Smoking Cessation Database from 2006 to 2016 participated in this study...
June 11, 2018: BMJ Open
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