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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918487/integrating-deoxyribozymes-into-colorimetric-sensing-platforms
#1
REVIEW
Dingran Chang, Sandy Zakaria, Mimi Deng, Nicholas Allen, Kha Tram, Yingfu Li
Biosensors are analytical devices that have found a variety of applications in medical diagnostics, food quality control, environmental monitoring and biodefense. In recent years, functional nucleic acids, such as aptamers and nucleic acid enzymes, have shown great potential in biosensor development due to their excellent ability in target recognition and catalysis. Deoxyribozymes (or DNAzymes) are single-stranded DNA molecules with catalytic activity and can be isolated to recognize a wide range of analytes through the process of in vitro selection...
December 3, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775159/a-dual-purpose-universal-influenza-vaccine-candidate-confers-protective-immunity-against-anthrax
#2
Maria T Arévalo, Junwei Li, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Yanping Chen, Ashley Navarro, Lihong Wu, Yongyong Yan, Mingtao Zeng
Preventative influenza vaccines must be reformulated annually because of antigen shift and drift of circulating influenza viral strains. However, seasonal vaccines do not always match the circulating strains, and there is the ever-present threat that avian influenza viruses may adapt to humans. Hence, a universal influenza vaccine is needed to provide protective immunity against a broad range of influenza viruses. We designed an influenza antigen consisting of 3 tandem M2e repeats plus HA2, in combination with a detoxified anthrax edema toxin delivery system (EFn plus PA) to enhance immune responses...
October 24, 2016: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710702/state-of-the-art-advances-in-radiation-biodosimetry-for-mass-casualty-events-involving-radiation-exposure
#3
Mary Sproull, Kevin Camphausen
With the possibility of large-scale terrorist attacks around the world, the need for modeling and development of new medical countermeasures for potential future chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) has been well established. Project Bioshield, initiated in 2004, provided a framework to develop and expedite research in the field of CBRN exposures. To respond to large-scale population exposures from a nuclear event or radiation dispersal device (RDD), new methods for determining received dose using biological modeling became necessary...
November 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578439/epidemiology-and-management-of-the-2013-16-west-african-ebola-outbreak
#4
M L Boisen, J N Hartnett, A Goba, M A Vandi, D S Grant, J S Schieffelin, R F Garry, L M Branco
The 2013-16 West African Ebola outbreak is the largest, most geographically dispersed, and deadliest on record, with 28,616 suspected cases and 11,310 deaths recorded to date in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. We provide a review of the epidemiology and management of the 2013-16 Ebola outbreak in West Africa aimed at stimulating reflection on lessons learned that may improve the response to the next international health crisis caused by a pathogen that emerges in a region of the world with a severely limited health care infrastructure...
September 29, 2016: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482881/a-role-for-science-in-responding-to-health-crises
#5
Leremy A Colf, Reginald Brothers, Christina E Murata
The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) Directorate plays a role in public health that extends beyond biodefense. These responsibilities were exercised as part of the 2014-16 Ebola outbreak, leading to productive and beneficial contributions to the international public health response and improved operations in the United States. However, we and others have identified numerous areas for improvement. Based on our successes and lessons learned, we propose a number of ways that DHS, the interagency, and academia can act now to ensure improved responses to future public health crises...
July 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27412594/myristoylation-of-the-arenavirus-envelope-glycoprotein-stable-signal-peptide-is-critical-for-membrane-fusion-but-dispensable-for-virion-morphogenesis
#6
Joanne York, Jack H Nunberg
UNLABELLED: Arenaviruses are responsible for severe and often fatal hemorrhagic disease. In the absence of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines, these viruses pose serious threats to public health and biodefense. Arenaviruses enter the host cell by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes, a process mediated by the virus envelope glycoprotein GPC. Unlike other class I viral fusion proteins, GPC retains its stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential third subunit in the mature complex...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389971/agility-in-adversity-vaccines-on-demand
#7
Anne S De Groot, Leonard Moise, David Olive, Leo Einck, William Martin
Is the US ready for a biological attack using Ebola virus or Anthrax? Will vaccine developers be able to produce a Zika virus vaccine, before the epidemic spreads around the world? A recent report by The Blue Ribbon Study Panel on Biodefense argues that the US is not ready for these challenges, however, technologies and capabilities that could address these deficiencies are within reach. Vaccine technologies have advanced and readiness has improved in recent years, due to advances in sequencing technology and computational power making the 'vaccines on demand' concept a reality...
September 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311112/a-high-sensitivity-fiber-optic-evanescent-wave-sensor-with-a-three-layer-structure-composed-of-canada-balsam-doped-with-geo2
#8
Nianbing Zhong, Mingfu Zhao, Lianchao Zhong, Qiang Liao, Xun Zhu, Binbin Luo, Yishan Li
In this paper, we present a high-sensitivity polymer fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor with a three-layer structure that includes bottom, inter-, and surface layers in the sensing region. The bottom layer and inter-layer are POFs composed of standard cladding and the core of the plastic optical fiber, and the surface layer is made of dilute Canada balsam in xylene doped with GeO2. We examine the morphology of the doped GeO2, the refractive index and composition of the surface layer and the surface luminous properties of the sensing region...
November 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27280174/fast-sensitive-point-of-care-electrochemical-molecular-system-for-point-mutation-and-select-agent-detection
#9
J A MacLeod, A C Nemeth, W C Dicke, D Wang, S Manalili Wheeler, J C Hannis, G B Collier, J J Drader
Point of care molecular diagnostics benefits from a portable battery-operated device capable of performing a fast turnaround using reliable inexpensive cartridges. We describe a prototype device for performing a molecular diagnostics test for clinical and biodefense samples in 16 minutes using a prototype capable of an 8 minute PCR reaction, followed by hybridization and detection on an electrochemical microarray based on the i-STAT® system. We used human buccal swabs for hemochromatosis testing including in-device DNA extraction...
July 7, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259672/the-biodefense-field
#10
EDITORIAL
Emilio Mordini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224530/discovery-of-high-affinity-anti-ricin-antibodies-by-b-cell-receptor-sequencing-and-by-yeast-display-of-combinatorial-vh-vl-libraries-from-immunized-animals
#11
Bo Wang, Chang-Han Lee, Erik L Johnson, Christien A Kluwe, Josephine C Cunningham, Hidetaka Tanno, Richard M Crooks, George Georgiou, Andrew D Ellington
Ricin is a toxin that could potentially be used as a bioweapon. We identified anti-ricin A chain antibodies by sequencing the antibody repertoire from immunized mice and by selecting high affinity antibodies using yeast surface display. These methods led to the isolation of multiple antibodies with high (sub-nanomolar) affinity. Interestingly, the antibodies identified by the 2 independent approaches are from the same clonal lineages, indicating for the first time that yeast surface display can identify native antibodies...
August 2016: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194767/small-molecule-fusion-inhibitors-bind-the-ph-sensing-stable-signal-peptide-gp2-subunit-interface-of-the-lassa-virus-envelope-glycoprotein
#12
Sundaresh Shankar, Landon R Whitby, Hedi E Casquilho-Gray, Joanne York, Dale L Boger, Jack H Nunberg
UNLABELLED: Arenavirus species are responsible for severe life-threatening hemorrhagic fevers in western Africa and South America. Without effective antiviral therapies or vaccines, these viruses pose serious public health and biodefense concerns. Chemically distinct small-molecule inhibitors of arenavirus entry have recently been identified and shown to act on the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) to prevent membrane fusion. In the tripartite GPC complex, pH-dependent membrane fusion is triggered through a poorly understood interaction between the stable signal peptide (SSP) and the transmembrane fusion subunit GP2, and our genetic studies have suggested that these small-molecule inhibitors act at this interface to antagonize fusion activation...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159829/structural-analysis-of-nested-neutralizing-and-non-neutralizing-b-cell-epitopes-on-ricin-toxin-s-enzymatic-subunit
#13
Michael J Rudolph, David J Vance, Michael S Cassidy, Yinghui Rong, Charles B Shoemaker, Nicholas J Mantis
In this report, we describe the X-ray crystal structures of two single domain camelid antibodies (VH H), F5 and F8, each in complex with ricin toxin's enzymatic subunit (RTA). F5 has potent toxin-neutralizing activity, while F8 has weak neutralizing activity. F5 buried a total of 1760 Å(2) in complex with RTA and made contact with three prominent secondary structural elements: α-helix B (Residues 98-106), β-strand h (Residues 113-117), and the C-terminus of α-helix D (Residues 154-156). F8 buried 1103 Å(2) in complex with RTA that was centered primarily on β-strand h...
August 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27118328/novel-strategies-for-development-of-hemorrhagic-fever-arenavirus-live-attenuated-vaccines
#14
Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Juan Carlos de la Torre
INTRODUCTION: Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose significant public health problems in their endemic regions. Moreover, HF arenaviruses represent credible biodefense threats. There are not FDA-approved arenavirus vaccines and current anti-arenaviral therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. AREAS COVERED: Live-attenuated vaccines (LAV) represent the most feasible approach to control HF arenaviruses within their endemic regions...
September 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055100/dna-launched-live-attenuated-vaccines-for-biodefense-applications
#15
Peter Pushko, Igor S Lukashevich, Scott C Weaver, Irina Tretyakova
A novel vaccine platform uses DNA immunization to launch live-attenuated virus vaccines in vivo. This technology has been applied for vaccine development against positive-strand RNA viruses with global public health impact including alphaviruses and flaviviruses. The DNA-launched vaccine represents the recombinant plasmid that encodes the full-length genomic RNA of live-attenuated virus downstream from a eukaryotic promoter. When administered in vivo, the genomic RNA of live-attenuated virus is transcribed...
September 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049653/defending-against-smallpox-a-focus-on-vaccines
#16
Emily A Voigt, Richard B Kennedy, Gregory A Poland
Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented medical victory for the lasting benefit of human health and prosperity. Concerns remain, however, about the development and use of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon, which necessitates the need for continued vaccine development...
September 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048939/prospects-for-point-of-care-pathogen-diagnostics-using-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer H Granger, Nicholas E Schlotter, Alexis C Crawford, Marc D Porter
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has enabled the detection of pathogens and disease markers at extremely low levels. This review examines the potential impact of SERS in addressing unmet needs in pathogen diagnostics both in a traditional clinical setting and in the point of care (POC) arena. It begins by describing the strengths and weaknesses of today's diagnostics technologies in order to set a contextual stage for an overview which highlights a few of the many recent developments using SERS in biodefense, human and animal health, and monitoring food and water safety...
July 11, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038091/particulate-delivery-systems-for-vaccination-against-bioterrorism-agents-and-emerging-infectious-pathogens
#18
REVIEW
Yuchen Fan, James J Moon
Bioterrorism agents that can be easily transmitted with high mortality rates and cause debilitating diseases pose major threats to national security and public health. The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa and ongoing Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, now spreading throughout Latin America, are case examples of emerging infectious pathogens that have incited widespread fear and economic and social disruption on a global scale. Prophylactic vaccines would provide effective countermeasures against infectious pathogens and biological warfare agents...
April 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26998722/role-of-small-biotechnology-companies-in-the-fledgling-biodefense-vaccine-industry
#19
Kelly L Warfield, M Javad Aman
Infectious disease vaccines are among the greatest achievements in modern medicine. However, despite over 200 years of history, development of vaccines remains extremely challenging even for large pharma. After the events of September 2001, a new biodefense vaccine industry formed to develop vaccines for pathogens of bioterror potential, in the absence of a commercial market. Infusion of government funds was expected to entice innovative companies, mostly small biotechnology, to take on this task. Fourteen years later, the biotechnology community has a mixed record in the area of biodefense...
March 21, 2016: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26863312/preparing-for-nontraditional-biothreats
#20
Leremy A Colf
Biological threats consist of traditional, emerging, enhanced, and advanced threats, but current biodefense approaches focus almost entirely on a subset of traditional threats. There is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive, rational, and systematic plan to address and mitigate the broader risk space. Myriad possible strategies exist, but an ideal strategy will extend beyond a list of agents. This article proposes a functionality-based approach based on systematic identification of key functional elements, essentially focusing on mechanisms of what constitutes a threat: The key threat element is addressed directly instead of extensive characterization of ancillary details...
January 2016: Health Security
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