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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746518/an-ambient-temperature-stable-antitoxin-of-nine-co-formulated-antibodies-for-botulism-caused-by-serotypes-a-b-and-e
#1
Mingxiang Li, Dennis Lee, Chidi R Obi, Joel K Freeberg, Shauna Farr-Jones, Milan T Tomic
Safe and effective antitoxins to treat and prevent botulism are needed for biodefense. We have developed recombinant antibody-based therapeutics for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes A, B, and E. The mechanism of action of this antitoxin requires that three mAbs bind one toxin molecule to achieve clearance. Here we present a co-formulation of an antitoxin to the three most important serotypes. Combining these antibodies obviates the need to identify the serotype causing intoxication prior to drug administration, which would facilitate administration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737984/environmentally-responsive-plasmonic-nanoassemblies-for-biosensing
#2
Xiaoling Wu, Changlong Hao, Jatish Kumar, Hua Kuang, Nicholas A Kotov, Luis M Liz-Marzán, Chuanlai Xu
Assemblies of plasmonic nanoparticles enable new modalities for biosensing. Engineered superstructures from metal nanoparticles can enhance the plasmon resonances and chiroptical activity of nanoscale dispersions. Such phenomena are keys to the fabrication of highly sensitive, selective and fast-responding detection platforms, making them promising candidates for clinical applications. This tutorial review summarizes and discusses recent advances in this area. The topics covered in the review include the basic strategies adopted for assembly and engineering of plasmonic nanoparticles, optical properties of the assembled nanostructures and their applications to both in vitro and in vivo detection of biological compounds...
May 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678218/developing-inclusivity-and-exclusivity-panels-for-testing-diagnostic-and-detection-tools-targeting-burkholderia-pseudomallei-the-causative-agent-of-melioidosis
#3
Charles H D Williamson, David M Wagner, Paul Keim, Jason W Sahl
Background: Diagnostic tools designed to target Burkholderia pseudomallei , the causative agent of melioidosis that was classified as a Tier 1 Select Agent by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have typically suffered from false-positive and false-negative results because of a lack of understanding of the genomic diversity of B. pseudomallei and its genetic near neighbors. Objective: In this review, we discuss a strategy for using comparative genomics to guide the design of inclusivity and exclusivity panels for the validation of assays as defined by the Standard Method Performance Requirement (SMPR®)...
April 20, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617191/alpha-galactosylceramide-%C3%AE-galcer-enhances-vaccine-induced-protection-in-a-model-of-ricin-intoxication
#4
Jennifer L Yates, Elizabeth Leadbetter, Nicholas J Mantis
Alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) is a glycolipid derived from a marine sponge that is a potent activator of both mouse and human invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. For that reason, αGalCer is a promising vaccine adjuvant that has been shown to improve both humoral and cellular immunity when co-administered with various vaccines, including candidate vaccines for biodefense. In the current study, we tested the effectiveness of αGalCer as an adjuvant for the clinically-relevant ricin toxin subunit vaccine, RiVax...
April 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569639/a-holistic-assessment-of-the-risks-and-benefits-of-the-synthesis-of-horsepox-virus
#5
Diane DiEuliis, Gigi Kwik Gronvall
The re-creation of horsepox virus, an extinct orthopoxvirus with similarity to smallpox virus, has caused concerns in the biosecurity and biodefense communities that the technical capabilities achieved could advance the re-creation of smallpox virus by nefarious actors. The work is now published. While the authors went through due biosecurity diligence at their research institution and with the proper Canadian federal authorities, now that the experiments have been published, there is an opportunity to discuss the dual use risks and benefits of the research itself, as well as those associated with publication of such research-all of which challenge current policies...
March 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490188/dna-nanotechnology-enabled-interfacial-engineering-for-biosensor-development
#6
Dekai Ye, Xiaolei Zuo, Chunhai Fan
Biosensors represent biomimetic analytical tools for addressing increasing needs in medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, security, and biodefense. Nevertheless, widespread real-world applications of biosensors remain challenging due to limitations of performance, including sensitivity, specificity, speed, and reproducibility. In this review, we present a DNA nanotechnology-enabled interfacial engineering approach for improving the performance of biosensors. We first introduce the main challenges of the biosensing interfaces, especially under the context of controlling the DNA interfacial assembly...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401327/beyond-the-dirty-dozen-a-proposed-methodology-for-assessing-future-bioweapon-threats
#7
Theodore J Cieslak, Mark G Kortepeter, Ronald J Wojtyk, Hugo-Jan Jansen, Ricardo A Reyes, James O Smith
Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Appropriately, in each of these cases, the possibility of bioterrorism was raised, although each outbreak ultimately proved to have a natural origin...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350543/a-publicly-available-landscape-analysis-tool-for-biodefense-policy
#8
Kristin M Omberg, Lyndsey R Franklin, Daniel R Jackson, Karen L Taylor, Karen L Wahl, Ann Lesperance, Ellen M Wynkoop, Jessica A S Gray, Owen P Leiser, Sarah L Frazar, Richard Ozanich, Rachel Bartholomew
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350155/yersinia-pestis-survival-and-replication-in-potential-ameba-reservoir
#9
David W Markman, Michael F Antolin, Richard A Bowen, William H Wheat, Michael Woods, Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mary Jackson
Plague ecology is characterized by sporadic epizootics, then periods of dormancy. Building evidence suggests environmentally ubiquitous amebae act as feral macrophages and hosts to many intracellular pathogens. We conducted environmental genetic surveys and laboratory co-culture infection experiments to assess whether plague bacteria were resistant to digestion by 5 environmental ameba species. First, we demonstrated that Yersinia pestis is resistant or transiently resistant to various ameba species. Second, we showed that Y...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238328/impact-of-aerosol-dust-on-xmap-multiplex-detection-of-different-class-pathogens
#10
Denis A Kleymenov, Vladimir A Gushchin, Alexander L Gintsburg, Artem P Tkachuk
Environmental or city-scale bioaerosol surveillance can provide additional value for biodefense and public health. Efficient bioaerosol monitoring should rely on multiplex systems capable of detecting a wide range of biologically hazardous components potentially present in air (bacteria, viruses, toxins and allergens). xMAP technology from LuminexTM allows multiplex bead-based detection of antigens or nucleic acids, but its use for simultaneous detection of different classes of pathogens (bacteria, virus, toxin) is questionable...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231870/improving-the-care-and-treatment-of-monkeypox-patients-in-low-resource-settings-applying-evidence-from-contemporary-biomedical-and-smallpox-biodefense-research
#11
REVIEW
Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum, Beatrice Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Brett W Petersen
Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations-including complications and sequelae-as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224407/quantification-of-regional-aerosol-deposition-patterns-as-a-function-of-aerodynamic-particle-size-in-rhesus-macaques-using-pet-ct-imaging
#12
P A Dabisch, Z Xu, J A Boydston, J Solomon, J K Bohannon, J J Yeager, J R Taylor, R J Reeder, P Sayre, J Seidel, D J Mollura, M C Hevey, P B Jahrling, M G Lackemeyer
Aerosol aerodynamic particle size is known to affect deposition patterns of inhaled aerosol particles, as well as the virulence of inhaled bioaerosol particles. While a significant amount of work has been performed to describe the deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract, only a limited amount of work has been performed to describe the deposition of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract of nonhuman primates, an animal model commonly utilized in pharmacological and toxicological studies, especially in the biodefense field...
September 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193346/biomimetic-platelet-camouflaged-nanorobots-for-binding-and-isolation-of-biological-threats
#13
Jinxing Li, Pavimol Angsantikul, Wenjuan Liu, Berta Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Xiaocong Chang, Elodie Sandraz, Yuyan Liang, Siyu Zhu, Yue Zhang, Chuanrui Chen, Weiwei Gao, Liangfang Zhang, Joseph Wang
One emerging and exciting topic in robotics research is the design of micro-/nanoscale robots for biomedical operations. Unlike industrial robots that are developed primarily to automate routine and dangerous tasks, biomedical nanorobots are designed for complex, physiologically relevant environments, and tasks that involve unanticipated biological events. Here, a biologically interfaced nanorobot is reported, made of magnetic helical nanomotors cloaked with the plasma membrane of human platelets. The resulting biomimetic nanorobots possess a biological membrane coating consisting of diverse functional proteins associated with human platelets...
January 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165439/proteomic-signatures-differentiating-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-sporulation-on-soil-relative-to-laboratory-media
#14
D S Wunschel, J R Hutchison, B L Deatherage Kaiser, E D Merkley, B M Hess, A Lin, M G Warner
The process of sporulation is vital for the stability and infectious cycle of Bacillus anthracis. The spore is the infectious form of the organism and therefore relevant to biodefense. While the morphological and molecular events occurring during sporulation have been well studied, the influence of growth medium and temperature on the proteins expressed in sporulated cultures is not well understood. Understanding the features of B. anthracis sporulation specific to natural vs. laboratory production will address an important question in microbial forensics...
December 18, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091742/biosecurity-implications-for-the-synthesis-of-horsepox-an-orthopoxvirus
#15
Diane DiEuliis, Kavita Berger, Gigi Gronvall
This article examines the biosecurity and biodefense implications resulting from the recent creation of horsepox virus, a noncirculating (extinct) species of orthopoxvirus. Here we examine the technical aspects of the horsepox virus synthesis and conclude that orthopox synthesis experiments currently remain technically challenging-and will continue to be so, even once this work is published in the scientific literature. This limits potential misuse by some types of nefarious actors. We also examine the implications of one stated purpose for the recreation of horsepox virus: the development of a smallpox vaccine...
November 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980459/incorporating-germination-induction-into-decontamination-strategies-for-bacterial-spores
#16
REVIEW
L J Kohler, A V Quirk, S L Welkos, C K Cote
Bacterial spores resist environmental extremes and protect key spore macromolecules until more supportive conditions arise. Spores germinate upon sensing specific molecules, such as nutrients. Germination is regulated by specialized mechanisms or structural features of the spore that limit contact with germinants and enzymes that regulate germination. Importantly, germination renders spores more susceptible to inactivating processes such as heat, desiccation, and ultraviolet radiation, to which they are normally refractory...
January 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892451/public-health-preparedness-funding-key-programs-and-trends-from-2001-to-2017
#17
Crystal R Watson, Matthew Watson, Tara Kirk Sell
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. METHODS: In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876903/label-free-detection-of-bacillus-anthracis-spore-uptake-in-macrophage-cells-using-analytical-optical-force-measurements
#18
Colin G Hebert, Sean Hart, Tomasz A Leski, Alex Terray, Qin Lu
Understanding the interaction between macrophage cells and Bacillus anthracis spores is of significant importance with respect to both anthrax disease progression, spore detection for biodefense, as well as understanding cell clearance in general. While most detection systems rely on specific molecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins and fluorescent labels to identify the target(s) of interest, label-free methods probe changes in intrinsic properties, such as size, refractive index, and morphology, for correlation with a particular biological event...
September 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854255/protein-abundances-can-distinguish-between-naturally-occurring-and-laboratory-strains-of-yersinia-pestis-the-causative-agent-of-plague
#19
Eric D Merkley, Landon H Sego, Andy Lin, Owen P Leiser, Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser, Joshua N Adkins, Paul S Keim, David M Wagner, Helen W Kreuzer
The rapid pace of bacterial evolution enables organisms to adapt to the laboratory environment with repeated passage and thus diverge from naturally-occurring environmental ("wild") strains. Distinguishing wild and laboratory strains is clearly important for biodefense and bioforensics; however, DNA sequence data alone has thus far not provided a clear signature, perhaps due to lack of understanding of how diverse genome changes lead to convergent phenotypes, difficulty in detecting certain types of mutations, or perhaps because some adaptive modifications are epigenetic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805472/network-experiences-from-a-cross-sector-biosafety-level-3-laboratory-collaboration-a-swedish-forum-for-biopreparedness-diagnostics
#20
Johanna Thelaus, Anna Lindberg, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Mona Byström, Mats Forsman, Hans Lindmark, Rickard Knutsson, Viveca Båverud, Andreas Bråve, Pontus Jureen, Annelie Lundin Zumpe, Öjar Melefors
The Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics (FBD) is a network that fosters collaboration among the 4 agencies with responsibility for the laboratory diagnostics of high-consequence pathogens, covering animal health and feed safety, food safety, public health and biodefense, and security. The aim of the network is to strengthen capabilities and capacities for diagnostics at the national biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories to improve Sweden's biopreparedness, in line with recommendations from the EU and WHO...
July 2017: Health Security
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