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Biodefense

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091742/biosecurity-implications-for-the-synthesis-of-horsepox-an-orthopoxvirus
#1
Diane DiEuliis, Kavita Berger, Gigi Gronvall
This article examines the biosecurity and biodefense implications resulting from the recent creation of horsepox virus, a noncirculating (extinct) species of orthopoxvirus. Here we examine the technical aspects of the horsepox virus synthesis and conclude that orthopox synthesis experiments currently remain technically challenging-and will continue to be so, even once this work is published in the scientific literature. This limits potential misuse by some types of nefarious actors. We also examine the implications of one stated purpose for the recreation of horsepox virus: the development of a smallpox vaccine...
November 1, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980459/incorporating-germination-induction-into-decontamination-strategies-for-bacterial-spores
#2
REVIEW
Lara J Kohler, Avery V Quirk, Susan L Welkos, Christopher K Cote
Bacterial spores resist environmental extremes and protect key spore macromolecules until more supportive conditions arise. Spores germinate upon sensing specific molecules, such as nutrients. Germination is regulated by specialized mechanisms, such as structural features of the spore that limit contact with germinants and enzymes that regulate germination. Importantly, germination renders spores more susceptible to inactivating processes such as heat, desiccation, and ultraviolet radiation, to which they are normally refractory...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892451/public-health-preparedness-funding-key-programs-and-trends-from-2001-to-2017
#3
Crystal R Watson, Matthew Watson, Tara Kirk Sell
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in funding over the past 16 years for key federal public health preparedness and response programs at the US Department of Health and Human Services, to improve understanding of federal funding history in this area, and to provide context for future resource allocation decisions for public health preparedness. METHODS: In this 2017 analysis, we examined the funding history of key federal programs critical to public health preparedness by reviewing program budget data collected for our annual examination of federal funding for biodefense and health security programs since fiscal year (FY) 2001...
September 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876903/label-free-detection-of-bacillus-anthracis-spore-uptake-in-macrophage-cells-using-analytical-optical-force-measurements
#4
Colin G Hebert, Sean Hart, Tomasz A Leski, Alex Terray, Qin Lu
Understanding the interaction between macrophage cells and Bacillus anthracis spores is of significant importance with respect to both anthrax disease progression, spore detection for biodefense, as well as understanding cell clearance in general. While most detection systems rely on specific molecules, such as nucleic acids or proteins and fluorescent labels to identify the target(s) of interest, label-free methods probe changes in intrinsic properties, such as size, refractive index, and morphology, for correlation with a particular biological event...
September 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854255/protein-abundances-can-distinguish-between-naturally-occurring-and-laboratory-strains-of-yersinia-pestis-the-causative-agent-of-plague
#5
Eric D Merkley, Landon H Sego, Andy Lin, Owen P Leiser, Brooke L Deatherage Kaiser, Joshua N Adkins, Paul S Keim, David M Wagner, Helen W Kreuzer
The rapid pace of bacterial evolution enables organisms to adapt to the laboratory environment with repeated passage and thus diverge from naturally-occurring environmental ("wild") strains. Distinguishing wild and laboratory strains is clearly important for biodefense and bioforensics; however, DNA sequence data alone has thus far not provided a clear signature, perhaps due to lack of understanding of how diverse genome changes lead to convergent phenotypes, difficulty in detecting certain types of mutations, or perhaps because some adaptive modifications are epigenetic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805472/network-experiences-from-a-cross-sector-biosafety-level-3-laboratory-collaboration-a-swedish-forum-for-biopreparedness-diagnostics
#6
Johanna Thelaus, Anna Lindberg, Susanne Thisted Lambertz, Mona Byström, Mats Forsman, Hans Lindmark, Rickard Knutsson, Viveca Båverud, Andreas Bråve, Pontus Jureen, Annelie Lundin Zumpe, Öjar Melefors
The Swedish Forum for Biopreparedness Diagnostics (FBD) is a network that fosters collaboration among the 4 agencies with responsibility for the laboratory diagnostics of high-consequence pathogens, covering animal health and feed safety, food safety, public health and biodefense, and security. The aim of the network is to strengthen capabilities and capacities for diagnostics at the national biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) laboratories to improve Sweden's biopreparedness, in line with recommendations from the EU and WHO...
July 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798957/holographic-deep-learning-for-rapid-optical-screening-of-anthrax-spores
#7
YoungJu Jo, Sangjin Park, JaeHwang Jung, Jonghee Yoon, Hosung Joo, Min-Hyeok Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Myung Chul Choi, Sang Yup Lee, YongKeun Park
Establishing early warning systems for anthrax attacks is crucial in biodefense. Despite numerous studies for decades, the limited sensitivity of conventional biochemical methods essentially requires preprocessing steps and thus has limitations to be used in realistic settings of biological warfare. We present an optical method for rapid and label-free screening of Bacillus anthracis spores through the synergistic application of holographic microscopy and deep learning. A deep convolutional neural network is designed to classify holographic images of unlabeled living cells...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750854/tularemia-vaccine-safety-reactogenicity-take-skin-reactions-and-antibody-responses-following-vaccination-with-a-new-lot-of-the-francisella-tularensis-live-vaccine-strain-a-phase-2-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Mark J Mulligan, Jack T Stapleton, Wendy A Keitel, Sharon E Frey, Wilbur H Chen, Nadine Rouphael, Srilatha Edupuganti, Allison Beck, Patricia L Winokur, Hana M El Sahly, Shital M Patel, Robert L Atmar, Irene Graham, Edwin Anderson, Samer S El-Kamary, Marcela F Pasetti, Marcelo B Sztein, Heather Hill, Johannes B Goll
BACKGROUND: Tularemia is caused by Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative bacterium that has been weaponized as an aerosol. For protection of personnel conducting biodefense research, the United States Army required clinical evaluation of a new lot of tularemia live vaccine strain manufactured in accordance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices. METHODS: A phase 2 randomized clinical trial compared the new lot (DVC-LVS) to the existing vaccine that has been in use for decades (USAMRIID-LVS)...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710692/host-factors-involved-in-ebola-virus-replication
#9
Angela L Rasmussen
Ebola virus (EBOV) is a highly pathogenic emerging virus that represents a serious threat to global public health and a major priority for biodefense. The 2014 West African outbreak demonstrated the potential of EBOV to cause an epidemic affecting thousands of people. The severity of disease and high case fatality rate of EBOV is largely due to the host response elicited by the virus. EBOV infection hijacks a number of host pathways to carry out replication and stimulate potent inflammatory responses, while simultaneously subverting the host antiviral immune response...
July 15, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694806/a-bivalent-anthrax-plague-vaccine-that-can-protect-against-two-tier-1-bioterror-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#10
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Michelle L Kirtley, Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584101/deubiquitinating-enzyme-vcip135-dictates-the-duration-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-a-intoxication
#11
Yien Che Tsai, Archana Kotiya, Erkan Kiris, Mei Yang, Sina Bavari, Lino Tessarollo, George A Oyler, Allan M Weissman
Botulism is characterized by flaccid paralysis, which can be caused by intoxication with any of the seven known serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), all of which disrupt synaptic transmission by endoproteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins. BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) has the most prolonged or persistent effects, which can last several months, and exerts its effects by specifically cleaving and inactivating SNAP25. A major factor contributing to the persistence of intoxication is the long half-life of the catalytic light chain, which remains enzymatically active months after entry into cells...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495718/biodefense-in-the-21st-century
#12
Gigi Kwik Gronvall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456726/optimization-of-the-production-process-and-characterization-of-the-yeast-expressed-sars-cov-recombinant-receptor-binding-domain-rbd219-n1-a-sars-vaccine-candidate
#13
Wen-Hsiang Chen, Shivali M Chag, Mohan V Poongavanam, Amadeo B Biter, Ebe A Ewere, Wanderson Rezende, Christopher A Seid, Elissa M Hudspeth, Jeroen Pollet, C Patrick McAtee, Ulrich Strych, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez
From 2002 to 2003, a global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spread to 5 continents and caused 8000 respiratory infections and 800 deaths. To ameliorate the effects of future outbreaks as well as to prepare for biodefense, a process for the production of a recombinant protein vaccine candidate is under development. Previously, we reported the 5 L scale expression and purification of a promising recombinant SARS vaccine candidate, RBD219-N1, the 218-amino acid residue receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS coronavirus expressed in yeast-Pichia pastoris X-33...
August 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360935/portable-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-biosensor-and-assay-for-a-highly-sensitive-and-rapid-detection-of-foodborne-bacteria-in-complex-matrices
#14
Yilun Luo, Evangelyn C Alocilja
BACKGROUND: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is a powerful analytical tool in determining the presence of bacterial contaminants in complex biological samples. In this paper, a portable NMR-based (pNMR) biosensor and assay to detect the foodborne bacteria Escherichia coli O157:H7 is reported. It uses antibody-functionalized polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles as proximity biomarker of the bacteria which accelerates NMR resonance signal decay. RESULTS: The pNMR biosensor operates at 0...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314075/expert-views-on-biological-threat-characterization-for-the-u-s-government-a-delphi-study
#15
Crystal R Watson, Matthew C Watson, Gary Ackerman, Gigi Kwik Gronvall
Biological threat characterization (BTC) involves laboratory research conducted for the purpose of biological defense. BTC research is important for improving biological risk assessment and informing resource prioritization. However, there are also risks involved in BTC work, including potential for escape from the laboratory or the misuse of research results. Using a modified Delphi study to gather opinions from U.S. experts in biosecurity and biodefense, this analysis explores what principles and safeguards can maximize the benefits of BTC research and ensure that it is conducted safely and securely...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299529/modeling-and-simulation-in-dose-determination-for-biodefense-products-approved-under-the-fda-animal-rule
#16
Kimberly L Bergman, K Krudys, S K Seo, J Florian
Development of effective medical countermeasures for biodefense is vital to United States biopreparedness and response in the age of terrorism, both foreign and domestic. A traditional drug development pathway toward approval is not possible for most biodefense-related indications, creating the need for alternative development pathways such as the FDA's Animal Rule. Under this unique regulatory mechanism, FDA-approval is based on adequate and well-controlled animal studies when it is neither ethical nor feasible to conduct human efficacy studies...
April 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258144/construction-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-simulant-strains-suitable-for-environmental-release
#17
Sangjin Park, Changhwan Kim, Daesang Lee, Dong Hyun Song, Ki Cheol Cheon, Hong Suk Lee, Seong Joo Kim, Jee Cheon Kim, Sang Yup Lee
For a surrogate bacterium to be used in outdoor studies, it is important to consider environmental and human safety and ease of detection. Recently, Bacillus thuringiensis, a popular bioinsecticide bacterium, has been gaining attention as a surrogate bacterium for use in biodefense. In this study, we constructed simulant strains of B. thuringiensis with enhanced characteristics for environmental studies. Through transposon mutagenesis, pigment genes were inserted into the chromosome, producing yellow-colored colonies for easy detection...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235018/characterization-of-pathogenesis-of-and-immune-response-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei-k96243-using-both-inhalational-and-intraperitoneal-infection-models-in-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Jeremy J Bearss, Melissa Hunter, Jennifer L Dankmeyer, Kristen A Fritts, Christopher P Klimko, Chris H Weaver, Jennifer L Shoe, Avery V Quirk, Ronald G Toothman, Wendy M Webster, David P Fetterer, Joel A Bozue, Patricia L Worsham, Susan L Welkos, Kei Amemiya, Christopher K Cote
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a Gram negative bacterium designated as a Tier 1 threat. This bacterium is known to be endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia and can infect humans and animals by several routes. Inhalational melioidosis has been associated with monsoonal rains in endemic areas and is also a significant concern in the biodefense community. There are currently no effective vaccines for B. pseudomallei and antibiotic treatment can be hampered by non-specific symptomology and also the high rate of naturally occurring antibiotic resistant strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117174/stability-and-pre-formulation-development-of-a-plant-produced-anthrax-vaccine-candidate
#19
R Mark Jones, Michael Burke, Devon Dubose, Jessica A Chichester, Slobodanka Manceva, April Horsey, Stephen J Streatfield, Jeff Breit, Vidadi Yusibov
Second generation anthrax vaccines focus on the use of recombinant protective antigen (rPA) to elicit a strong, toxin neutralizing antibody responses in immunized subjects. The main difference between the rPA vaccines compared to the current licensed vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA), is the rPA vaccines are highly purified preparations of only rPA. These second generation rPA vaccines strive to elicit strong immune responses with substantially fewer doses than AVA while provoking less side effects. Many of the rPA candidates have shown to be effective in pre-clinical studies, but most of the second generation molecules have stability issues which reduce their efficacy over time...
October 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107743/high-sensitivity-four-layer-polymer-fiber-optic-evanescent-wave-sensor
#20
Xin Xin, Nianbing Zhong, Qiang Liao, Yanyan Cen, Ruohua Wu, Zhengkun Wang
We present a novel four-layer structure consisting of bottom, second, third, and surface layers in the sensing region, for a D-shaped step-index fiber-optic evanescent wave (FOEW) sensor. To reduce the background noise, the surface of the longitudinal section in the D-shaped region is coated with a light-absorbing film. We check the morphologies of the second and surface layers, examine the refractive indices (RIs) of the third and surface layers, and analyze the composition of the surface layer. We also investigate the effects of the thicknesses and RIs of the third and surface layers and the LA film on the light transmission and sensitivity of the FOEW sensors...
May 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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