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regeneration technology

Elisa Fiume, Jacopo Barberi, Enrica Verné, Francesco Baino
Nowadays, bioactive glasses (BGs) are mainly used to improve and support the healing process of osseous defects deriving from traumatic events, tumor removal, congenital pathologies, implant revisions, or infections. In the past, several approaches have been proposed in the replacement of extensive bone defects, each one with its own advantages and drawbacks. As a result, the need for synthetic bone grafts is still a remarkable clinical challenge since more than 1 million bone-graft surgical operations are annually performed worldwide...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Catherine Jaeger, Vijender Chaitankar, Anand Swaroop
Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Roberta R Rodrigues, Jared Heath Delcamp, Hammad Cheema
The development of high voltage solar cells is an attractive way to use sunlight for solar-to-fuel devices, multijunction solar-to-electric systems, and to power limited area consumer electronics. By designing a low oxidation potential organic dye (RR9)/redox shuttle (Fe(bpy)33+/2+) pair for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices, the highest single device photovoltage (1.42 V) has been realized for a DSC not relying on doped TiO2. Additionally, Fe(bpy)33+/2+ offers a robust, readily tunable ligand platform for redox potential tuning...
March 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Tom G L Vandekerckhove, Kanae Kobayashi, Joery Janda, Sam Van Nevel, Siegfried E Vlaeminck
Autotrophic denitrification with sulfur is an underexplored alternative to heterotrophic denitrification to remove nitrate from wastewater poor in organics. The application on ion exchange regeneration water (19.4-32.1 mS cm-1 ) is novel. Three fixed bed reactors were tested at 15 °C for >4 months, inoculated with activated sludge from sewage treatment. All were fast in start-up (<10 days) with high performance (94 ± 2% removal efficiency). pH control with NaOH rendered higher nitrate removal rates than limestone addition to the bed (211 ± 13 vs...
February 13, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Sachiko Kashojiya, Saori Kamimura, Takato Kameyama, Tohru Ariizumi, Hiroshi Ezura, Kenji Miura
Genome editing technology using artificial nucleases, including zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9, can mutagenize the target sites of genes of interest. This technology has been successfully applied in several crops, including the Solanaceae plants, such as tomato, potato, tobacco, and petunia. Among the three nucleases, CRISPR-Cas9 is the best for breeding, crop improvement, and the functional analysis of genes of interest, because of its simplicity and high efficiency...
March 2, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Paul S Malchesky
In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2017 are organized by category and summarized. We provide a brief reflection of the research and progress in artificial organs intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of these technologies and methods. Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level." Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ Replacement, Recovery, and Regeneration from all over the world...
March 2018: Artificial Organs
Eric R Wagner, Joshua Parry, Mahrokh Dadsetan, Dalibel Bravo, Scott M Riester, Andre J Van Wijnen, Michael J Yaszemski, Sanjeev Kakar
PURPOSE: Revascularization of natural and synthetic scaffolds is a critical part of the scaffold's incorporation and tissue ingrowth. Our goals were to create a biocompatible polymer scaffold with 3D-printing technology, capable of sustaining vascularization and tissue ingrowth. METHODS: We synthesized biodegradable polycaprolactone fumarate (PCLF) scaffolds to allow tissue ingrowth via large interconnected pores. The scaffolds were prepared with Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) microspheres seeded with or without different growth factors including VEGF,FGF-2, and/or BMP-2...
March 7, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Marianne E Prévôt, Senay Ustunel, Elda Hegmann
The development of appropriate materials that can make breakthroughs in tissue engineering has long been pursued by the scientific community. Several types of material have been long tested and re-designed for this purpose. At the same time, liquid crystals (LCs) have captivated the scientific community since their discovery in 1888 and soon after were thought to be, in combination with polymers, artificial muscles. Within the past decade liquid crystal elastomers (LCE) have been attracting increasing interest for their use as smart advanced materials for biological applications...
March 3, 2018: Materials
Jian Song, Bin Ye, Hanghang Liu, Ruiye Bi, Nian Zhang, Jing Hu, En Luo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanism of mechanical stimulation in bone formation and regeneration during distraction osteogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, microarray technology was used to investigate the time course of bone-related molecular changes in distraction osteogenesis in rats. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analyses were used to confirm the expression of genes identified in microarrays. Meanwhile, we used a lentivirus vector to inhibit Fak expression, in order to identify the osteogenic effect of Fak and Fak-Mapk pathway during distraction osteogenesis...
March 5, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Hui Zhang, Kathy O Lui, Bin Zhou
Endocardial cells are specialized endothelial cells that form the innermost layer of the heart wall. By virtue of genetic lineage-tracing technology, many of the unexpected roles of endocardium during murine heart development, diseases, and regeneration have been identified recently. In addition to heart valves developed from the well-known endothelial to mesenchymal transition, recent fate-mapping studies using mouse models reveal that multiple cardiac cell lineages are also originated from the endocardium...
March 2, 2018: Circulation Research
Jakob M Townsend, Brian T Andrews, Yi Feng, Jinxi Wang, Randolph J Nudo, Erik Van Kampen, Stevin H Gehrke, Cory J Berkland, Michael S Detamore
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a life-threatening condition defined by internal brain herniation. Severe TBI is commonly treated by a two-stage surgical intervention, where decompressive craniectomy is first conducted to remove a large portion of calvarial bone and allow unimpeded brain swelling. In the second surgery, spaced weeks to months after the first, cranioplasty is performed to restore the cranial bone. Hydrogels with paste-like precursor solutions for surgical placement may potentially revolutionize TBI treatment by permitting a single-stage surgical intervention, capable of being implanted with the initial surgery, remaining pliable during brain swelling, and tuned to regenerate calvarial bone after brain swelling has subsided...
February 26, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Dawei Wei, Sayed Haidar Abbas Raza, Jiupan Zhang, Linsheng Gui, Siddiq Ur Rahman, Rajwali Khan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Hubdar Ali Kaleri, Linsen Zan
The sine oculis homeobox homolog 4 (SIX4) gene belongs to the SIX gene family, which plays a critical role in muscle regeneration and early stages of ontogeny. This study aimed to detect promoter variations of bovine SIX4 genes in Qinchuan cattle, and to evaluate the effect of transcription regulations and body measurement traits. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed that the mRNA expression levels of SIX4 gene were found significantly highest in longissimus thoracis tissue and individual before attaining the stage of physiological maturity...
February 26, 2018: Gene
Francesco Petrella, Lorenzo Spaggiari
Two main fields of clinical applications of stem cells in thoracic surgery have been explored: (a) regenerative medicine, that is a branch of translational research in tissue engineering and molecular biology dealing with the replacement, engineering or regeneration of cells, tissues and organs to restore normal function; (b) drug loading and delivery, that is an emerging field proposing stem cells as vectors to deliver anti-cancer agents for targeted therapies.Bronchopleural fistula is a pathological connection between the bronchus and the pleural cavity that may develop after lung resection, thus causing pleural empyema due to colonization by resident airway bacteria; stem cells and regenerative medicine approach can effectively contribute to impaired bronchial healing, thus preventive a septic and ventilator catastrophe...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shuangshuang Ren, Yingfang Yao, He Zhang, Ruirui Fan, Yijun Yu, Jie Yang, Rui Zhang, Chao Liu, Weibin Sun, Leiying Miao
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a specific connective tissue composed of organized and aligned collagenous fibers that fix the tooth root in the alveolar bone. The alignment of PDL fibers and their function have been neglected in the past, as many studies investigated the regeneration of the periodontium, including alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. In this study, we fabricated biodegradable aligned fibers (ε-caprolactone/collagen) by near-field electrospinning (NFE) to control the arrangement of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), aiming to guide the oriented regeneration of the periodontal ligament...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Jasmin S Shaikh, Navajsharif S Shaikh, Sawanta S Mali, Jyoti V Patil, Krishna K Pawar, Pongsakorn Kanjanaboos, Chang Kook Hong, J H Kim, Pramod S Patil
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have aroused great interest and been regarded as a potential renewable energy resource among the third-generation solar cell technologies to fulfill the 21st century global energy demand. DSSCs have notable advantages such as low cost, easy fabrication process and being eco-friendly in nature. The progress of DSSCs over the last 20 years has been nearly constant due to some limitations, like poor long-term stability, narrow absorption spectrum, charge carrier transportation and collection losses and poor charge transfer mechanism for regeneration of dye molecules...
February 28, 2018: Nanoscale
Katherine G Akers, Yoan Chérasse, Yuki Fujita, Sakthivel Srinivasan, Takeshi Sakurai, Masanori Sakaguchi
Neural stem and progenitor cells continue to generate new neurons in particular regions of the brain during adulthood. One of these neurogenic regions is the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, which plays an important role in cognition and emotion. By exploiting this innate neuronal regeneration mechanism in the DG, new technologies have the potential to promote resistance to or recovery from brain dysfunction or degeneration. However, a deeper understanding of how adult DG neurogenesis is regulated by factors such as sleep and epigenetic modifications of gene expression could lead to further breakthroughs in the clinical application of neural stem and progenitor cells...
February 27, 2018: Stem Cells
Chang-Lin Wu, Jian-An He, Da-Yong Gu, Chao-Peng Shao, Yi Zhu, Xin-Tang Dang
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to establish a novel strategy based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology for platelet compatibility testing. METHODS: A novel surface matrix was prepared based on poly (OEGMA-co-HEMA) via surface-initiated polymerization as a biosensor surface platform. Type O universal platelets and donor platelets were immobilized on these novel matrices via amine-coupling reaction and worked as a capturing ligand for binding the platelet antibody...
January 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Rachel Chen
Oligosaccharides, in either free or bound forms, play crucial roles in a wide range of biological processes. Increasing appreciation of their roles in cellular communication, interaction, pathogenesis, and prebiotic functions has stimulated tremendous interests in their synthesis. Pure and structurally defined oligosaccharides are essential for fundamental studies. On the other hand, for those with near term medical and nutraceutical applications, their large-scale synthesis is necessary. Unfortunately, oligosaccharides are notoriously difficult in their synthesis, and their enormous diverse structures leave a vast gap between what have been synthesized in laboratory and those present in various biological systems...
February 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Aleksandr Ovsianikov, Ali Khademhosseini, Vladimir Mironov
Tissue engineering (TE) is a highly interdisciplinary research field driven by the goal to restore, replace, or regenerate defective tissues. Throughout more than two decades of intense research, different technological approaches, which can be principally categorized into scaffold-based and scaffold-free strategies, have been developed. In this opinion article, we discuss the emergence of a third strategy in TE. This synergetic strategy integrates the advantages of both of these traditional approaches, while being clearly distinct from them...
February 20, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Min Zeng, Sha Jin, Kaiming Ye
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting...
February 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
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