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musculoskeletal tissue foundation

Varun Puvanesarajah, Andrea M Spiker, Brett A Shannon, Maureen Grundy, Adam S Levin, Carol D Morris
Primary musculoskeletal cancer and metastatic disease to bone in pregnant patients presents major treatment challenges. Although uncommon, musculoskeletal malignancies in pregnant women have been reported. When diagnosing and treating these patients, the mother's health must be managed appropriately while ensuring that fetal development is not deleteriously affected. Extensive radiographic imaging and more advanced techniques are often necessary to fully characterize the extent of disease. When possible, magnetic resonance imaging should be used instead of computed tomography to limit exposure of the conceptus to radiation...
September 2016: Surgical Oncology
Sarah Ilkhanipour Rooney, Rachel Baskin, Daniel J Torino, Rameen P Vafa, Pooja S Khandekar, Andrew F Kuntz, Louis J Soslowsky
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that ibuprofen is detrimental to tissue healing after acute injury; however, the effects of ibuprofen when combined with noninjurious exercise are debated. HYPOTHESIS: Administration of ibuprofen to rats undergoing a noninjurious treadmill exercise protocol will abolish the beneficial adaptations found with exercise but will have no effect on sedentary muscle and tendon properties. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
September 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Michael E Cody, David T Nakamura, Kirstin M Small, Hiroshi Yoshioka
MR imaging has emerged as the mainstay in imaging internal derangement of the soft tissues of the musculoskeletal system largely because of superior contrast resolution. The complex geometry and diminutive size of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and its constituent structures can make optimal imaging of the TFCC challenging; therefore, production of clinically useful images requires careful optimization of image acquisition parameters. This article provides a foundation for advanced TFCC imaging including factors to optimize magnetic resonance images, arthrography, detailed anatomy, and classification of injury...
August 2015: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
Fernando Sepúlveda, Luis Baerga, William Micheo
Historically, the foundation of physical medicine and rehabilitation training has provided the capabilities to optimize nonoperative treatments of a variety of musculoskeletal conditions, including acute and chronic muscle, tendon, ligament, and cartilage disorders. Such treatments include the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), therapeutic modalities (eg, thermal and manual therapies), and corticosteroid injections in conjunction with specific rehabilitation exercises. Although NSAIDs, modalities, and corticosteroids may be helpful for short-term pain reduction and early recovery of function, they do not typically reverse the structural changes associated with degenerative conditions and may contribute to worse long-term outcomes by potentially interfering with tissue healing...
April 2015: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Thierra K Nalley, Kristi L Lewton
Primate locomotor adaptation and evolution is a principal and thriving area of research by biological anthropologists. Research in this field generally targets hypotheses regarding locomotor kinetics and kinematics, form-function associations in both the soft and hard tissue components of the musculoskeletal system, and reconstructing locomotor behavior in fossil primates. A wide array of methodological approaches is used to address adaptive hypotheses in all of these realms. Recent advances in three-dimensional shape capture, musculoskeletal physiological measurements, and analytical processing technologies (e...
April 2015: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
H Caviglia, M Candela, M E Landro, A L Douglas Price, D Neme, G A Galatro
Development of inhibitors against factor VIII (FVIII) or FIX is the most serious complication of replacement therapy in patients with haemophilia. Haemophilic pseudotumours in a patient with inhibitors can lead to devastating consequences. The aim of this study is to show our experience in the treatment of 10 pseudotumours in 7 patients with inhibitors who were treated by the same multidisciplinary team in the period between January 2000 and March 2013. Seven severe haemophilia A patients were treated at the Haemophilia Foundation in Buenos Aires, Argentina, for 10 pseudotumours...
September 2015: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
MaCalus V Hogan, Yohei Kawakami, Christopher D Murawski, Freddie H Fu
PURPOSE: The use of musculoskeletal bioengineering and regenerative medicine applications in orthopaedic surgery has continued to evolve. The aim of this systematic review was to address tissue-engineering strategies for knee ligament reconstruction. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed/Medline using the terms "knee AND ligament" AND "tissue engineering" OR "regenerative medicine" was performed. Two authors performed the search, independently assessed the studies for inclusion, and extracted the data for inclusion in the review...
May 2015: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Dovina Qu, Christopher Z Mosher, Margaret K Boushell, Helen H Lu
The primary current challenge in regenerative engineering resides in the simultaneous formation of more than one type of tissue, as well as their functional assembly into complex tissues or organ systems. Tissue-tissue synchrony is especially important in the musculoskeletal system, wherein overall organ function is enabled by the seamless integration of bone with soft tissues such as ligament, tendon, or cartilage, as well as the integration of muscle with tendon. Therefore, in lieu of a traditional single-tissue system (e...
March 2015: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jinzeng Yang
As the single largest organ in the body, the skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in the postprandial state. Skeletal muscles provide the physiological foundation for physical activities and fitness. Reduced muscle mass and strength is commonly associated with many chronic diseases, including obesity and insulin resistance. The complications of diabetes on skeletal muscle mass and physiology, resulting from either insulin deprivation or insulin resistance, may not be life-threatening, but accelerate the lost physiological functions of glucose homeostasis...
2014: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Han-Tsung Liao, Kacey G Marra, J Peter Rubin
Due to the natural properties of fat, fat grafting remains a popular procedure for soft tissue volume augmentation and reconstruction. However, clinical outcome varies and is technique dependent. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains α-granules, from which multiple growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor can be released after activation. In recent years, the scope of PRP therapies has extended from bone regeneration, wound healing, and healing of musculoskeletal injuries, to enhancement of fat graft survival...
August 2014: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
M Ete Chan, Gunes Uzer, Clinton T Rubin
The delivery of mechanical signals to the skeleton using vibration is being considered as a non-drug treatment of osteoporosis. Delivered over a range of magnitudes and frequencies, vibration has been shown to be both anabolic and anti-catabolic to the musculoskeletal tissues, yet caution must be emphasized as these mechanical signals, particularly chronic exposure to higher intensities, is a known pathogen to many physiological systems. In contrast, accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that low intensity vibration (LIV) improves bone quality through regulating the activity of cells responsible for bone remodeling, as well as biasing the differentiation fate of their mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell progenitors...
March 2013: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Robert Schleip, Divo Gitta Müller
Conventional sports training emphasizes adequate training of muscle fibres, of cardiovascular conditioning and/or neuromuscular coordination. Most sports-associated overload injuries however occur within elements of the body wide fascial net, which are then loaded beyond their prepared capacity. This tensional network of fibrous tissues includes dense sheets such as muscle envelopes, aponeuroses, as well as specific local adaptations, such as ligaments or tendons. Fibroblasts continually but slowly adapt the morphology of these tissues to repeatedly applied challenging loading stimulations...
January 2013: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Matthew D Winter
The usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of equine lameness is unquestionable. As with most imaging modalities, advances in technology happen quickly, and the information that can be obtained can seem limitless. An understanding of MR sequences, expected signal intensity of normal tissues, and the role of multiplanar imaging is the foundation for interpreting MR images. The rapid development of new techniques and sequences and the potential for biochemical changes to be indirectly assessed using MR spectroscopy offer possibilities for the continued development of this modality and ensure its continued application in the diagnosis of equine lameness...
December 2012: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Alisha Wilkens, Hongbin Liu, Kristen Park, Lindsey B Campbell, Marie Jackson, Anna Kostanecka, Mary Pipan, Kosuke Izumi, Phillip Pallister, Ian D Krantz
Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare, multi-system developmental diagnosis typically caused by tetrasomy of chromosome 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. The spectrum of clinical manifestations in Pallister-Killian syndrome is wide and includes craniofacial anomalies, clefts, ophthalmologic, audiologic, cardiac, musculoskeletal, diaphragmatic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cutaneous anomalies in association with intellectual disability and seizures. Growth parameters are often normal to elevated at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally...
December 2012: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
J P Halloran, S Sibole, C C van Donkelaar, M C van Turnhout, C W J Oomens, J A Weiss, F Guilak, A Erdemir
Articular cartilage experiences significant mechanical loads during daily activities. Healthy cartilage provides the capacity for load bearing and regulates the mechanobiological processes for tissue development, maintenance, and repair. Experimental studies at multiple scales have provided a fundamental understanding of macroscopic mechanical function, evaluation of the micromechanical environment of chondrocytes, and the foundations for mechanobiological response. In addition, computational models of cartilage have offered a concise description of experimental data at many spatial levels under healthy and diseased conditions, and have served to generate hypotheses for the mechanical and biological function...
November 2012: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Armando A Davila, Donald W Buck, David Chopp, Caitlin M Connor, Scott Persing, Vinay Rawlani, John Y S Kim
BACKGROUND: There are many products approved for aesthetic soft tissue augmentation. Despite this abundance, there is limited objective data regarding safety, longevity, and complication rates. Instead, most reports rely on subjective measures to report volume changes and outcomes, making product comparison difficult. OBJECTIVES: The authors developed and validated a mathematical model to prospectively calculate and analyze three-dimensional (3D) volumetric changes associated with nasolabial fold augmentation based on human acellular dermis...
May 2012: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Kiran Rafiq, Melani S Cheers, Charles A Ettensohn
A central challenge of developmental and evolutionary biology is to understand how anatomy is encoded in the genome. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms that control the development of specific anatomical features will require the analysis of model morphogenetic processes and an integration of biological information at genomic, cellular and tissue levels. The formation of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin embryo is a powerful experimental system for developing such an integrated view of the genomic regulatory control of morphogenesis...
February 2012: Development
Trent M Guess, Hongzeng Liu, Sampath Bhashyam, Ganesh Thiagarajan
Combining musculoskeletal simulations with anatomical joint models capable of predicting cartilage contact mechanics would provide a valuable tool for studying the relationships between muscle force and cartilage loading. As a step towards producing multibody musculoskeletal models that include representation of cartilage tissue mechanics, this research developed a subject-specific multibody knee model that represented the tibia plateau cartilage as discrete rigid bodies that interacted with the femur through deformable contacts...
2013: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
E Y S Chao, K Y Volokh, H Yoshida, N Shiba, T Ide
This paper is written to honor Professor Y. C. Fung, the applied mechanician who has made seminal contributions in biomechanics. His work has generated great spin-off utility in the field of musculoskeletal biomechanics. Following the concept of the Rigid Body-Spring Model theory by T. Kawai (1978) for non-linear analysis of beam, plate, and shell structures and the soil-gravel mixture foundation, we have derived a generalized Discrete Element Analysis (DEA) method to determine human articular joint contact pressure, constraining ligament tension and bone-implant interface stresses...
September 2010: Molecular & Cellular Biomechanics: MCB
Karen L Posey, Peiman Liu, Huiqiu R Wang, Alka C Veerisetty, Joseph L Alcorn, Jacqueline T Hecht
Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), a large extracellular glycoprotein expressed in musculoskeletal tissues, cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. These mutations lead to massive intracellular retention of COMP, chondrocyte death and loss of growth plate chondrocytes that are necessary for linear growth. In contrast, COMP null mice have only minor growth plate abnormalities, normal growth and longevity. This suggests that reducing mutant and wild-type COMP expression in chondrocytes may prevent the toxic cellular phenotype causing the skeletal dysplasias...
2010: PloS One
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