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Alcohol and addiction

Huiping Zhang, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is influenced by gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review outlines the findings regarding the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. METHODS: We searched PubMed (by April 2016) and identified 29 studies that examined the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. We also evaluated the methods used in these studies...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Daniel V Mogford, Rebecca J Lawrence
Aims and method To investigate the burden of medical comorbidity in a population receiving in-patient treatment for drug and alcohol problems. All patients admitted over a 6-month period were included in the data-set. We recorded diagnostic information on admission that allowed the calculation of predicted 10-year survival using a previously validated comorbidity index. Results Despite the majority of the sample having a predicted 10-year survival chance of greater than 75%, a sizeable minority (16.7%) are carrying a high burden of medical comorbidity, with a predicted 10-year survival chance of less than 50%...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Ka Ho Robin Kwok, Sze Ngar Vanessa Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Binge drinking is a phenomenon of excessive alcohol use seen in many countries. The objectives of this systematic review are a) to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status on binge drinking in adolescents, b) to compare how binge drinking and parental socioeconomic status was measured across studies, and c) to compare the differences between developed and developing countries. METHOD: We searched PsycINFO and Ovid Medline databases for articles up to January 2016...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Nuria García Marchena, Pedro Araos, Francisco Javier Pavón, Guillermo Ponce, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Arias, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Suárez, Antoni Pastor, Rafael De la Torre, Marta Torrens, Gabriel Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol addiction is associated with high psychiatric comorbidity. Objective stratification of patients is necessary to optimize care and improve prognosis. The present study is designed to gain insights into this challenge by addressing the following objectives: a) to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a sample of outpatients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, b) to describe the existence of gender differences and c) to validate 2-acyl-glycerols as biomarkers of alcohol use disorder and/or psychiatric comorbidity...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Arpana Agrawal, Julia D Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association. METHODS: Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Miguel Garrido-Fernández, Juan A Marcos-Sierra, Ana López-Jiménez, Iñigo Ochoa de Alda
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of multi-family therapy at reducing the addiction severity and at improving the psychological and family dynamics of opiate addicts receiving methadone treatment at a public treatment center. The study compares multi-family therapy with a reflecting team (MFT-RT) and a standard treatment following a methadone maintenance treatment program. The results show that multi-family therapy with a reflecting team effectively reduces the addiction severity in several of the areas evaluated and noted that this effect is superior to standard treatment...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
Vincenzo De Iuliis, Raimondo Gelormini, Mariarosaria Flacco, Giuseppe Moriello, Marika Caruso, Eugenia Barone, Maria Golato, Elena Toniato, Pio Conti, Stefano Martinotti
BACKGROUND: Valproate is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant that is effective in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures as well as in partial seizures as a second-line drug. It has been widely demonstrated in the literature that the effect of valproate on type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors may reduce relapse to ethanol abuse. This retrospective study evaluated a 3-year period in which 42 patients from the Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse (DASA) were treated with valproate...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Fabien Cohen
This article reminds you that, whatever the psychoactive substance in question, it is not one that has repercussions on the oral health of its user. This affects both the tooth, the periodontal and oral mucosa. Drug addicts, especially those engaged in polydrug use, represent the population at the largest risk for oral cancer. Of all the factors, smoking is by far the largest risk. The alcohol has a synergistic effect with the tobacco, so that the combined effect is more than multiplied. Preventing risks of these products is possible through good oral hygiene and lifestyle, preventive care and followed by a regular dentist...
October 10, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Bethany L Stangl, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Molly R Zametkin, Megan E Cooke, Martin H Plawecki, Sean O'Connor, Vijay A Ramchandani
BACKGROUND: Self-administration is a hallmark of all addictive drugs, including alcohol. Human laboratory models of alcohol self-administration have characterized alcohol-seeking behavior, and served as surrogate measures of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders. Intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) is a novel method that assess alcohol exposure driven primarily by the pharmacological response to alcohol, and may have utility in characterizing unique behavioral and personality correlates of alcohol-seeking and consumption...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
While the co-morbidity of alcohol (ethanol) and tobacco (nicotine) dependence is well described, the processes that underpin this strong connection are still under debate. With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), it is now becoming more important to look to the neurobiological mechanisms involving alcohol and nicotine interactions to effectively treat a new generation of co-dependent individuals. Researchers have already recognized that the neuropathology produced by the combination of nicotine and ethanol is likely to produce an addictive nature very different to that of either one alone, and are employing a mixture of pre-clinical techniques to establish and investigate every stage in the development of both nicotine and ethanol-seeking behaviors...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Bartłomiej Kuszczak, Natalia Olszak
Ibogaine is a natural chemical compound, which belongs to the indole alkaloid family. It can be naturally found within the root bark of african plant Tabernanthe iboga. Ibogaine plays a significant role among tribal cultures. Ibogaine, in small amount, causes reduction of hunger, thirst and exhaustion. In bigger amount, however, it can cause intensive visions. Other effects include reduction or complete disappearance of absitnence symptoms visible in people addicted to the nicotine, alcohol, methamphetamine, cocaine or opioids, what has been scientifically proven after the tests on animals and small groups of people...
July 29, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Angela Federico, Stefano Tamburin, Alice Maier, Marco Faccini, Rebecca Casari, Laura Morbioli, Fabio Lugoboni
Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most widely prescribed drug class in developed countries, but they have high potential for tolerance, dependence and abuse. Cognitive deficits in long-term BZD users have long been known, but previous results might have been biased by patients' old age, coexisting neurological or psychiatric conditions or concurrent alcohol or psychotropic drug dependence. The study was aimed to explore the neuropsychological effect of high-dose BZD dependence, which represents an emerging addiction phenomenon...
October 11, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Kathlene Tracy, Samantha P Wallace
OBJECTIVE: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects...
2016: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Bindu Rani, M Chaturvedi, Omkaar Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Alexey Ostroumov, Alyse M Thomas, Blake A Kimmey, Jordan S Karsch, William M Doyon, John A Dani
Stress is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural mechanisms underlying interactions between stress and alcohol remain largely unknown. Addictive drug reinforcement and stress signaling involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to stress attenuates alcohol-induced dopamine responses and increases alcohol self-administration. The blunted dopamine signaling resulted from ethanol-induced excitation of GABA neurons in the ventral tegmental area...
October 4, 2016: Neuron
G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
John F Kelly
BACKGROUND: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is a world-wide recovery mutual-help organization that continues to arouse controversy. In large part, concerns persist because of AA's ostensibly quasi-religious/spiritual orientation and emphasis. In 1990 the United States' Institute of Medicine called for more studies on AA's effectiveness and its mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) stimulating a flurry of federally funded research. This paper reviews the religious/spiritual origins of AA and its program and contrasts its theory with findings from this latest research...
October 8, 2016: Addiction
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