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Alcohol and addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627926/using-crowdsourcing-to-examine-behavioral-economic-measures-of-alcohol-value-and-proportionate-alcohol-reinforcement
#1
Vanessa Morris, Michael Amlung, Brent A Kaplan, Derek D Reed, Tashia Petker, James MacKillop
Online crowdsourcing websites such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) are increasingly being used in addictions research. However, there is a relative paucity of such research examining the validity of administering behavioral economic alcohol-related measures, via an online crowdsourcing platform. This study sought to validate an alcohol purchase task (APT) for assessing demand and a questionnaire measure of proportionate alcohol reinforcement, using an online sample of participants recruited via MTurk. Participants (N = 865, 59% female) were recruited via MTurk to complete the APT, proportionate alcohol reinforcement questionnaire, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and demographics...
June 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627395/the-opioid-epidemic-is-an-historic-opportunity-to-improve-both-prevention-and-treatment
#2
Robert L DuPont
The current narrative describing the national opioid epidemic as the result of overprescribing opioid pain medicines fails to capture the full dimensions of problem and leads to inadequate and even confounding solutions. Overlooked is the fact that polysubstance use is nearly ubiquitous among overdose deaths, demonstrating that the opioid overdose death problem is bigger than opioids. The foundation of the nation's opioid overdose crisis - and the totality of the nation's drug epidemic - is widespread recreational pharmacology, the use of drugs for fun or "self-medication...
June 13, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627332/dissociation-between-wanting-and-liking-for-alcohol-and-caffeine-a-test-of-the-incentive-sensitisation-theory
#3
Lilani J Arulkadacham, Ben Richardson, Petra K Staiger, Nicolas Kambouropoulos, Renée L O'Donnell, Mathew Ling
Limited human studies have directly tested the dissociation between wanting and liking with human substance users, a core tenet of the Incentive Sensitisation Theory (IST). The aim of this study is to test the dissociation between wanting and liking in humans across two commonly used licit substances, alcohol and caffeine. The STRAP-R (Sensitivity To Reinforcement of Addictive and other Primary Rewards) questionnaire was administered to 285 alcohol users (mean age=33.30, SD= 8.83) and 134 coffee users (mean age=33...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624587/the-lateral-habenula-and-alcohol-role-of-glutamate-and-m-type-potassium-channels
#4
REVIEW
Avi Shah, Wanhong Zuo, Seungwoo Kang, Jing Li, Rao Fu, Haifeng Zhang, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder. Our knowledge of alcoholism hinges on our understanding of its effects on the brain. This review will center on the effects of alcohol in the lateral habenula (LHb), an epithalamic structure that connects the forebrain with the midbrain and encodes aversive signaling. Like many addictive drugs, alcohol has both rewarding and aversive properties. While alcohol's euphoric property is believed to be important for the initiation of drinking, increasing evidence suggests that alcohol's negative affect plays a critical role in excessive drinking and alcohol dependence...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624106/alcohol-use-and-smoking-after-liver-transplantation-complications-and-prevention
#5
REVIEW
José Ursic-Bedoya, Hélène Donnadieu-Rigole, Stéphanie Faure, Georges-Philippe Pageaux
The last thirty years have been very prosperous in the field of liver transplantation (LT), with great advances in organ conservation, surgical techniques, peri-operative management and long-term immunosuppression, resulting in improved patient and graft survival rates as well as quality of life. However, substance addiction after LT, namely alcohol and tobacco, results in short term morbidity together with medium and long-term mortality. The main consequences can be vascular (increased risk of hepatic artery thrombosis in smokers), hepatic (recurrent alcoholic cirrhosis in alcohol relapsers) and oncological (increased risk of malignancy in patients consuming tobacco and/or alcohol after LT)...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622136/exploring-medical-student-s-conceptions-of-substance-use-a-follow-up-evaluation
#6
Dawn L Lindsay, Holly Hagle, Piper Lincoln, Jessica Williams, Peter F Luongo
BACKGROUND: Despite the devastating impact of alcohol and other drug involvement and misuse within society, medical students still receive very limited exposure to these issues. The Scaife Advanced Medical Student Fellowship in Alcohol and Other Drug Dependency, offered by the Institute for Research, Education and Training in Addictions for over 10 years, offers a unique, three-week intensive educational experience including didactic, observation and experiential learning in these topics to first year medical students...
June 16, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621645/patterns-and-factors-of-problematic-marijuana-use-in-the-canadian-population-evidence-from-three-cross-sectional-surveys
#7
W I Andrew Bonner, Mustafa Andkhoie, Charlene Thompson, Marwa Farag, Michael Szafron
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to describe marijuana use in Canada and explore factors associated with problematic use. METHODS: Data from the 2010-2012 circulations of the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey were used to create three logistic regression models for the purposes of identifying and comparing factors associated with the degree of marijuana use, as determined via the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Abuse Involvement Screening Test (non-problematic, problematic) and European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (experiential, recent, current) methods...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615766/psychosocial-factors-associated-with-relapse-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#8
Kailash Sureshkumar, Shabeeba Kailash, Pronob Kumar Dalal, Murali Mohan Reddy, P K Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Despite the recent developments in the biology of addiction, a significant part of relapse and its management is still influenced by psychosocial factors and the interplay between them. This study aims at finding the extent of association of various psychosocial factors with relapse in patients of alcohol dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study of two groups of alcohol dependence patients: abstinence (n = 31) and relapse (n = 35)...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611718/barking-up-the-wrong-tree-why-and-how-we-may-need-to-revise-alcohol-addiction-therapy
#9
Ann-Kathrin Stock
One of the main characteristics of alcohol abuse and addiction is the loss of control over alcohol intake and the continuation of drinking in the face of negative consequences. Mounting evidence strongly suggests that an alcohol-induced imbalance between goal-directed and habitual behavior may be one of the main driving factors of this key feature of addiction and furthermore play a key role in staying abstinent. Current therapies often focus only on deficient inhibitory control (i.e., goal-directed behavior), but largely neglect the potential of the well-functioning habit formation found in patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603684/addictive-behavior-interventions-among-college-students
#10
Emily R Jeffries, Austin W Lemke, Sonia M Shah, Kimberlye E Dean, Ashley A Richter, Julia D Buckner
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Addictive behaviors among college students are a significant public health concern. This manuscript reviews the past two years of literature on prevention and treatment approaches for college students who engage in addictive behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: In-person skills-based interventions and motivational interventions that incorporate personalized feedback are effective in the short-term but little support was found for long-term effects. Although web-based interventions reduced certain addictive behaviors (e...
December 2016: Current Addiction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601731/methamphetamine-alcohol-interactions-in-murine-models-of-sequential-and-simultaneous-oral-drug-taking
#11
Elissa K Fultz, Douglas L Martin, Courtney N Hudson, Tod E Kippin, Karen K Szumlinski
BACKGROUND: A high degree of co-morbidity exists between methamphetamine (MA) addiction and alcohol use disorders and both sequential and simultaneous MA-alcohol mixing increases risk for co-abuse. As little preclinical work has focused on the biobehavioral interactions between MA and alcohol within the context of drug-taking behavior, we employed simple murine models of voluntary oral drug consumption to examine how prior histories of either MA- or alcohol-taking influence the intake of the other drug...
May 24, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601497/comparison-of-long-acting-and-oral-antipsychotic-treatment-effects-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-comorbid-substance-abuse-and-a-history-of-recent-incarceration-an-exploratory-analysis-of-the-pride-study
#12
H Lynn Starr, Jason Bermak, Lian Mao, Steve Rodriguez, Larry Alphs
INTRODUCTION: Comorbid substance abuse is known to blunt response to treatment for underlying psychiatric disorders, but it has not been investigated in schizophrenia when comparing the effects of long-acting injectable antipsychotics with those of oral antipsychotics. METHODS: This exploratory analysis compared once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) with daily oral antipsychotics on time to treatment failure in patients with schizophrenia and a history of incarceration...
June 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600883/association-between-elementary-school-personality-and-high-school-smoking-and-drinking
#13
Sarah J Peterson, Gregory T Smith
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Among U.S. high school students, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with numerous concurrent and future harms. We tested whether multiple elementary school personality dispositions to behave impulsively can predict these addictive behaviors invariably across gender and race. DESIGN AND SETTING: This longitudinal design involved testing whether individual differences on impulsigenic traits in elementary school predicted drinking and smoking four years later in high school in 23 public schools in Kentucky, USA...
June 10, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600000/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-alcohol-exposure-on-cocaine-induced-place-preference-in-adulthood
#14
Victoria A Macht, Sandra J Kelly, Justin T Gass
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is associated with high rates of drug addiction in adulthood. One possible basis for increased drug use in this population is altered sensitivity to drug-associated contexts. This experiment utilized a rat model of FASD to examine behavioral and neural changes in the processing of drug cues in adulthood. Alcohol was given by intragastric intubation to pregnant rats throughout gestation and to rat pups during the early postnatal period (ET group). Controls consisted of a non-treated group (NC) and a pair-fed group given the intubation procedure without alcohol (IC)...
June 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599850/tobacco-and-alcohol-use-during-adolescence-interactive-mechanisms-in-animal-models
#15
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Alex C Manhães, Thomas E Krahe, Claudio C Filgueiras, Anderson Ribeiro-Carvalho
There is a strong association between tobacco smoking and the consumption of alcoholic beverages. When compared to the effects of either drug on its own, the combined use may lead to worsened outcomes, such as less successful quitting attempts and increased likelihood of developing mood disorders. Co-consumption most frequently begins during adolescence, a developmental period that is characterized by an increased risk for substance use disorders. However, to date, most studies that have contributed to the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms that underlie tobacco or alcohol use/abuse, and their consequences, adopted adult animal models...
June 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599210/long-term-recall-of-social-relationships-related-to-addiction-and-hiv-risk-behaviors
#16
R L Stout, T Janssen, J M Braciszewski, A Vose-O'Neal
BACKGROUND: Social relationships have been demonstrated as a key predictor of relapse among addicted persons and are likely to be important determinants of HIV risk behaviors also. However, the degree to which this population can reliably and consistently identify important people (IPs) in retrospect has been understudied. METHODS: Using the modified Important People and Activities questionnaire, we investigated to what degree IPs were dropped, added, or retained, and whether data about individual IPs were reported accurately on 6- and 12-month follow up periods using a sample of 50 drug or alcohol abusing participants...
May 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597664/-addictive-substances-in-fatal-cases-of-fall-jump-from-height
#17
Martin Zdarílek, Peter Očko, Ján Šikuta, Ľuboš Nižnanský, Jozef Šidlo
The aim of the study is to analyse causes of fatal cases of falls from height focusing on the occurrence of addictive substances. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of cases dealing with falls/jumps autopsied at the Institutes of Forensic Medicine in Bratislava in the years 2005-2014 accounting for a catchment area with approximately 1.2 m population. Selection criteria were met in 360 cases, i.e. approximately 4 % of all cases autopsied. There were 68 % of men and 32 % of women involved. The age interval ranged from 10 up to 93 years (mean age 50 years)...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594448/emotion-dysregulation-as-a-mechanism-linking-anxiety-and-hazardous-drinking-among-latinos-in-primary-care
#18
Daniel J Paulus, Matthew W Gallagher, Andrew H Rogers, Andres G Viana, Monica Garza, Jeanette Valdivieso, Melissa Ochoa-Perez, Chad Lemaire, Jafar Bakhshaie, Michael J Zvolensky
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that Latinos experience significantly more mental health and alcohol use problems than non-Latino whites. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying alcohol use in this population. One factor associated with excessive alcohol use in Latinos is anxiety. A potential explanatory mechanism for this relationship is emotion dysregulation, as emotion dysregulation in the context of anxiety may lead to alcohol use problems/disorders...
June 8, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594439/genetic-and-psychosocial-predictors-of-alcohol-use-trajectories-among-disaster-exposed-adolescents
#19
Kaitlin Bountress, Carla Kmett Danielson, Vernell Williamson, Vladimir Vladmirov, Joel Gelernter, Kenneth Ruggiero, Ananda Amstadter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescent alcohol misuse is associated with numerous long-term adverse outcomes, so we examined predictors of alcohol use among disaster-exposed adolescents, a group at-risk for alcohol misuse. METHODS: The current study (n = 332) examined severity of tornado-related exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, emotional support, and a genetic risk sum score (GRSS) as predictors of alcohol use trajectories. RESULTS: Severity of exposure interacted with the GRSS to predict both intercept (12-month follow up quantity of alcohol use) and growth rate...
June 8, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590393/addiction-research-training-programs-four-case-studies-and-recommendations-for-evaluation
#20
Aimee N C Campbell, Sudie E Back, Jamie S Ostroff, Denise A Hien, Marc N Gourevitch, Christine E Sheffer, Kathleen T Brady, Kathleen Hanley, Sewit Bereket, Sarah Book
: The presence of structured addiction research training programs helps to ensure that the scientific workforce includes well-trained, diverse scientists necessary to reduce the negative impact of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use disorders. Although the field has made significant progress in the development of standards for clinical training in addiction medicine, there remains significant room for improvement in the training of addiction researchers, and also opportunities to synergize across addiction research training programs...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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