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Alcohol and addiction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534313/class-based-chronicities-of-suffering-and-seeking-help-comparing-addiction-treatment-programs-in-uganda
#1
Julia Vorhölter
Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article looks at changing discourses and practices in the field of mental health care in Uganda. In particular, it analyzes two psychotherapeutic institutions designed to treat drug- and alcohol-addiction, and their accessibility and affordability for people from different class backgrounds. The first center is a high-class residential facility near Kampala which offers state-of-the-art addiction therapy, but is affordable only for the rich. The second center, a church-funded organization in Northern Uganda, cares mainly for people from poor, rural families who cannot afford exp/tensive treatment...
May 22, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533147/diversities-of-behavioral-traits-and-neuropsychological-function-in-different-substance-addiction
#2
Hui-Yi Wang, Tzong-Shi Wang, Yi-Chyan Chen
OBJECTIVE: There are various temperaments and personality characters that modulate the development of substance addiction. The pharmacological properties of substances would alter the homeostasis of brain function and influence the neuropsychological performance through different neurotransmissions which then facilitate diverse emotional and behavioral responses. Our goal is to assess the interaction between personality characteristics, neuropsychological performances and Stroop interference in alcoholics, heroin and amphetamine dependent persons...
May 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531770/treatment-consumption-and-treatment-re-enrollment-in-ghb-dependent-patients-in-the-netherlands
#3
Martijn S van Noorden, Ton Mol, Jeroen Wisselink, Wil Kuijpers, Boukje A G Dijkstra
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess treatment consumption and re-enrollment in treatment in patients with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-dependence in Dutch Addiction Treatment Centers (ATCs) in comparison with other addictions. METHODS: A cohort-study using nationwide administrative data from regular Dutch ATCs associated with the Dutch National Alcohol and Drugs Information System (LADIS), covering an estimated 95% of ATCs. We selected in- and out-patients with alcohol, drug and/or behavioral addictions with a first treatment episode in 2008-2011 and consecutive treatments until 2013 (n=71,679)...
May 16, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531176/stigma-of-addiction-and-mental-illness-in-healthcare-the-case-of-patients-experiences-in-dental-settings
#4
Mario A Brondani, Rana Alan, Leeann Donnelly
OBJECTIVE: To explore the ways in which stigma is experienced in healthcare and dental settings by patients with a history of addiction and mental illness. METHODS: Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews with a purposefully selected convenience sample of residents from two community treatment centres in Vancouver, Canada were conducted. The interview guide contained questions about experiences while seeking health and dental care and was based on an existing framework of labeling, stereotyping, exclusion, discrimination, and power imbalance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528402/impact-of-brown-rice-specific-%C3%AE-oryzanol-on-epigenetic-modulation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-brain-striatum-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#5
Chisayo Kozuka, Tadashi Kaname, Chigusa Shimizu-Okabe, Chitoshi Takayama, Masato Tsutsui, Masayuki Matsushita, Keiko Abe, Hiroaki Masuzaki
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527647/correlation-between-plasma-homocysteine-levels-and-craving-in-alcohol-dependent-stabilized-patients
#6
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation among serum homocysteine concentrations, craving, hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption in patients stabilized for withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Participants were adult outpatients accessed at the Addiction Treatment Unit...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526932/inpatient-addiction-consultation-for-hospitalized-patients-increases-post-discharge-abstinence-and-reduces-addiction-severity
#7
Sarah E Wakeman, Joshua P Metlay, Yuchiao Chang, Grace E Herman, Nancy A Rigotti
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and drug use results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders are overrepresented in general medical settings. Hospital-based interventions offer an opportunity to engage with a vulnerable population that may not otherwise seek treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether inpatient addiction consultation improves substance use outcomes 1 month after discharge. DESIGN: Prospective quasi-experimental evaluation comparing 30-day post-discharge outcomes between participants who were and were not seen by an addiction consult team during hospitalization at an urban academic hospital...
May 19, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525781/sleep-waves-and-recovery-from-drug-and-alcohol-dependence-towards-a-rhythm-analysis-of-sleep-in-residential-treatment
#8
Robert Meadows, Sarah Nettleton, Joanne Neale
This paper reports on a study of sleep amongst men and women who are living in residential rehabilitation centres in the UK and who are receiving support for their recovery from addiction to alcohol and other forms of substance use. Conceptually and methodologically, the paper draws on the work of the French sociologist Lefebvre and, in particular, his rhythmanalysis. We argue that this approach offers a useful way of exploring sleep in terms of biological, experiential, temporal, spatial and social rhythms...
May 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524260/presence-of-ethanol-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#9
B Förstera, B Muñoz, M K Lobo, R Chandra, D M Lovinger, L G Aguayo
Alcohol abuse causes major social, economic and health-related problems worldwide. Alcohol, like other drugs of abuse, increases levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, facilitating behavioural reinforcement and substance abuse. Previous studies suggested that glycine receptors (GlyRs) are involved in the regulation of accumbal dopamine levels. Here, we investigated the presence of GlyRs in accumbal dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of C57BL/6J mice, analyzing mRNA expression-levels and immunoreactivity of GlyR subunits, as well as ethanol sensitivity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523209/using-online-respondent-driven-sampling-for-vietnamese-youths-alcohol-use-and-associated-risk-factors
#10
Melvyn W B Zhang, Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Huong Thi Le, Nguyen Hoang Long, Huong Thi Le, Nguyen Duc Hinh, Tran Dinh Tho, Bao Nguyen Le, Vu Thi Minh Thuc, Chau Ngo, Nguyen Huu Tu, Carl A Latkin, Roger Cm Ho
OBJECTIVES: The average alcohol consumption per capita among Vietnamese adults has consistently increased. Although alcohol-related disorders have been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research shedding light on this issue among Internet users. The study aimed to examine the severity of alcohol-related disorders and other associated factors that might predispose individuals towards alcohol usage in a sample of youths recruited online. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,080 Vietnamese youths...
April 2017: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521782/combining-alcohol-interventions-with-tobacco-addictions-treatment-in-primary-care-the-combat-study-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#11
Nadia Minian, Dolly Baliunas, Laurie Zawertailo, Aliya Noormohamed, Norman Giesbrecht, Christian S Hendershot, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
BACKGROUND: Tobacco and alcohol use present multiplicative risk for aerodigestive cancers. Reducing alcohol consumption improves smoking cessation outcomes and reduces cancer risk. Risky alcohol consumption and smoking are often treated separately despite concurrent treatment potentially leading to better outcomes for each. However, no rapidly scalable program exists for combined interventions in primary care clinics spread across wide geographic areas. This cluster randomized trial aims to report on the effects of a novel clinical decision support system (CDSS) on intervention rates by primary care practitioners addressing risky alcohol use in a smoking cessation program...
May 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515554/personality-profile-and-short-term-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence-a-study-from-south-india
#12
Soundarya Soundararajan, Gitanjali Narayanan, Arpana Agrawal, Pratima Murthy
BACKGROUND: Studying personality profiles allows researchers to generate important hypotheses in risk factors and correlates of alcohol use/misuse. Studies examining the association between personality traits and treatment outcome are limited in India. We studied the correlation between personality and treatment outcome in patients with alcohol dependence. METHODS: Adult participants with alcohol dependence were recruited from the inpatient and outpatient wards of de-addiction unit of a tertiary care facility in India using a prospective design and followed up after 3 months...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513227/temporal-relationship-of-sex-risk-behaviors-and-substance-use-severity-among-men-in-substance-use-treatment
#13
Howard Newville, James L Sorensen, Mary Hatch-Maillette, Donald A Calsyn
Sex risk behaviors and substance use are intertwined. Many men continue to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors even when enrolled in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We hypothesized that changes in sex risk behaviors would coincide with changes in drug/alcohol use severity among men in SUD treatment. During an HIV risk-reduction trial, men in methadone maintenance and outpatient drug-free treatment (N = 359) completed assessments at baseline and six months after. We assessed changes in sex risk and substance use severity, using the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite), controlling for treatment condition...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512684/therapeutic-applications-of-classic-hallucinogens
#14
Michael P Bogenschutz, Stephen Ross
This chapter reviews what is known about the therapeutic uses of the serotonergic or classic hallucinogens, i.e., psychoactive drugs such as LSD and psilocybin that exert their effects primarily through agonist activity at serotonin 2A (5HT2A) receptors. Following a review of the history of human use and scientific study of these drugs, the data from clinical research are summarized, including extensive work on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of alcoholism and other addictions, studies of the use of LSD and psilocybin to relieve distress concerning death, particularly in patients with advanced or terminal cancer, and more limited data concerning the use of classic hallucinogens to treat mood and anxiety disorders...
May 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511843/interpellating-recovery-the-politics-of-identity-in-recovery-focused-treatment
#15
Renae Fomiatti, David Moore, Suzanne Fraser
Much research tends to treat alcohol and other drug 'recovery' as a process of positive identity change and development. In this article, we depart from this dominant approach by examining how the social and material practices of alcohol and other drug treatment are themselves active in the constitution of 'recovery identity'. Using Judith Butler's theorisation of interpellation, we examine the accounts of treatment experiences and practices provided in interviews with people who inject drugs. In contrast to the existing literature, we argue that the 'recovering addict' is a socially produced category rather than a coherent psychological identity...
May 13, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510498/deficits-in-go-no-go-task-performance-in-male-undergraduate-high-risk-alcohol-users-are-driven-by-speeded-responding-to-go-stimuli
#16
Xin Zhao, Wang Qian, Lily Fu, Joseph H R Maes
BACKGROUND: Response disinhibition plays an important role in addictive behaviors. However, results of studies on the performance on response inhibition tasks of individuals evidencing potentially problematic levels of alcohol drinking are mixed. OBJECTIVES: We assessed conditions under which persons with a relatively high risk of alcohol dependence show inhibition deficits in such tasks and investigated the nature of those deficits. METHODS: Fifty-eight male undergraduate students, 27 of which were high-risk drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, performed a go/no-go inhibition task with differing percentages of no-go trials (50% vs...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507526/behavioral-and-neural-manifestations-of-reward-memory-in-carriers-of-low-expressing-versus-high-expressing-genetic-variants-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#17
Anni Richter, Adriana Barman, Torsten Wüstenberg, Joram Soch, Denny Schanze, Anna Deibele, Gusalija Behnisch, Anne Assmann, Marieke Klein, Martin Zenker, Constanze Seidenbecher, Björn H Schott
Dopamine is critically important in the neural manifestation of motivated behavior, and alterations in the human dopaminergic system have been implicated in the etiology of motivation-related psychiatric disorders, most prominently addiction. Patients with chronic addiction exhibit reduced dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in the striatum, and the DRD2 TaqIA (rs1800497) and C957T (rs6277) genetic polymorphisms have previously been linked to individual differences in striatal dopamine metabolism and clinical risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503193/correlates-comorbidities-and-suicidal-tendencies-of-problematic-game-use-in-a-national-wide-sample-of-korean-adults
#18
Subin Park, Hong Jin Jeon, Jung Woo Son, Haesoo Kim, Jin Pyo Hong
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, correlates, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies of problematic game use in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. METHODS: Of the 6022 subjects who participated in the 2011 Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study and completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, 1397 game users were evaluated for problematic game use using 9-item DSM-5 proposed criteria for Internet gaming disorder...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501394/-changes-in-hazardous-drinking-in-spanish-adolescent-population-in-the-last-decade-2004-2013-using-a-quantitative-and-qualitative-design
#19
Alejandro Pérez-Milena, Manuel de Dios Redondo-Olmedilla, María Luz Martínez-Fernández, Idoia Jiménez-Pulido, Inmaculada Mesa-Gallardo, Francisco Javier Leal-Helmling
OBJECTIVE: To determine the changes in hazardous drinking in adolescents in the last decade, as well as their motivations and experiences. DESIGN: Firstly, a descriptive design using a self-report questionnaire, and secondly an explanatory qualitative design, with video recordings of discussion groups with content analysis (coding, triangulation of categories and verification of results). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Pupils from an urban High School, administering a questionnaire every 3 years from 2004 to 2013...
May 10, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499916/effects-of-neonatal-and-adolescent-neuroactive-steroid-manipulation-on-locomotor-activity-induced-by-ethanol-in-male-wistar-rats
#20
Iris Bartolomé, Anna Llidó, Sònia Darbra, Marc Pallarès
Neonatal neuroactive steroids levels are crucial for brain development. Alterations of neonatal neuroactive steroids levels induce anxiolytic-like effects and improve exploration in novel environments in adulthood. These behavioural traits, i.e. sensation/novelty seeking, anxiety or impulsivity, are associated with vulnerability to drug use and abuse. Adolescence is also recognized as a particularly critical developmental phase to contribute to vulnerable phenotype. However, the influence of neuroactive steroids during development in the vulnerability to drug addiction has been poorly studied...
May 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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