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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784318/effect-of-spray-drying-with-organic-solvents-on-the-encapsulation-release-and-stability-of-fish-oil
#1
Cristian Encina, Gloria Márquez-Ruiz, Francisca Holgado, Begoña Giménez, Cristina Vergara, Paz Robert
Fish-oil (FO) was encapsulated with hydroxypropylcelullose (HPC) by conventional spray-drying with water (FO-water) and solvent spray-drying with ethanol (FO-EtOH), methanol (FO-MeOH) and acetone (FO-Acet) in order to study the effect of the solvent on the encapsulation efficiency (EE), microparticle properties and stability of FO during storage at 40 °C. Results showed that FO-Acet presented the highest EE of FO (92.0%), followed by FO-EtOH (80.4%), FO-MeOH (75.0%) and FO-water (71.1%). A decrease of the dielectric constant increased the EE of FO, promoting triglyceride-polymer interactions instead of oil-in-water emulsion retention...
October 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778010/exposure-to-cannabinoid-agonist-win-55-212-2-during-early-adolescence-increases-alcohol-preference-and-anxiety-in-cd1-mice
#2
Jimena Laura Frontera, Victoria María Gonzalez Pini, Fernando Luis Messore, Alicia Brusco
The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is involved in the modulation of the reward system and participates in the reinforcing effects of different drugs of abuse, including alcohol. The most abundant receptor of the eCB system in the central nervous system is the CB1 receptor (CB1R), which is predominantly expressed in areas involved in drug addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens, the ventral tegmental area, the substantia nigra and the raphe nucleus. CB1R is expressed in early stages during development, and reaches maximum levels during early adolescence...
May 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771471/fluorescent-ph-responsive-probes-based-on-water-soluble-bodipy-featuring-long-wavelength-emission
#3
Gilles Ulrich, Alexandra Sutter, Mourad Elhabiri
We describe here the synthesis of water soluble Red-NIR emissive BODIPY derivatives displaying optical (absorption and emission) responses in pH ranges of interest. Substitution effects close to the tertiary aniline or the phenol subunits selected as the proton sensitive sites allowed us to finely tune the pH ranges. Furthermore, introduction of sulfobetaine functions at the boron centre of these pH responsive BODIPYs afforded valuable fluorescent dyes in the Red-NIR region in aqueous media, for which the steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsions prevent their non emissive aggregation...
May 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770896/mitochondrial-morphology-and-function-impaired-by-dimethyl-sulfoxide-and-dimethyl-formamide
#4
Long Ma, Jia-Xin Dong, Wen-Rong Fu, Xue-Yi Li, Jing Chen, Yi Liu
In this work, the effects of two non-ionic, non-hydroxyl organic solvents, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) on the morphology and function of isolated rat hepatic mitochondria were investigated and compared. Mitochondrial ultrastructures impaired by DMSO and DMF were clearly observed by transmission electron microscopy. Spectroscopic and polarographic results demonstrated that organic solvents induced mitochondrial swelling, enhanced the permeation to H+ /K+ , collapsed the potential inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and increased the IMM fluidity...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769465/effects-of-oral-calcium-dosage-and-timing-on-ethanol-induced-sensitization-of-locomotion-in-dba-2-mice
#5
Chikako Shimizu, Yutaka Mitani, Youichi Tsuchiya, Toshitaka Nabeshima
Ethanol (EtOH) dosage, frequency, and paired associative learning affect the risk of alcoholism. Recently, Spanagel et al. reported that acamprosate calcium (Acam Ca) prescribed for alcoholism exerts an anti-relapse effect via Ca. Ca is contained in foods, sometimes consumed with alcohol. Therefore, we investigated the association among oral Ca ingestion, EtOH-induced locomotor sensitization, and plasma Ca levels on how to consume Ca for moderate drinking. We used DBA/2 CrSlc mice, and CaCl2 as water-soluble Ca salts...
May 16, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769064/antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activities-of-triterpenoid-and-phenolic-derivatives-from-two-cameroonian-melastomataceae-plants-dissotis-senegambiensis-and-amphiblemma-monticola
#6
Raissa Tioyem Nzogong, Fabrice Sterling Tchantchou Ndjateu, Steve Endeguele Ekom, Jules-Arnaud Mboutchom Fosso, Maurice Ducret Awouafack, Mathieu Tene, Pierre Tane, Hiroyuki Morita, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat against humankind and the search for new therapeutics is needed. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and compounds isolated from Dissotis senegambiensis and Amphiblemma monticola, two Cameroonian Melastomataceae species traditionally used for the treatment of fever, malaria and infectious diseases. METHODS: The plant extracts were prepared by maceration in ethanol...
May 16, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763975/chemical-constituents-of-the-seed-cake-of-camellia-oleifera-and-their-antioxidant-and-antimelanogenic-activities
#7
Wan-Fang Zhu, Ci-Li Wang, Feng Ye, Hao-Peng Sun, Cong-Yu Ma, Wen-Yuan Liu, Feng Feng, Masahiko Abe, Toshihiro Akihisa, Jie Zhang
There is a growing interest in the exploitation of agricultural byproducts. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace of Camellia oleifera Abel. (Theaceae), produced when tea seed is processed. Eighteen compounds were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of the seed cake of C. oleifera. Their structures were determined by ESI-MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR together with literature data. All fractions and compounds were evaluated for the antioxidant, and melanogenesis inhibitory activities...
May 15, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755370/effects-of-ethanol-on-sensory-inputs-to-the-medial-giant-interneurons-of-crayfish
#8
Matthew E Swierzbinski, Jens Herberholz
Crayfish are capable of two rapid, escape reflexes that are mediated by two pairs of giant interneurons, the lateral giants (LG) and the medial giants (MG), which respond to threats presented to the abdomen or head and thorax, respectively. The LG has been the focus of study for many decades and the role of GABAergic inhibition on the escape circuit is well-described. More recently, we demonstrated that the LG circuit is sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol and this sensitivity is likely mediated by interactions between ethanol and the GABAergic system...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755316/single-ethanol-withdrawal-regulates-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-gaba-a-receptors-via-pkc%C3%AE-activation
#9
Juan Chen, Yang He, Yan Wu, Hang Zhou, Li-Da Su, Wei-Nan Li, Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang, Yu-Dong Zhou, Yi Shen
Alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) is one of the most widely abused drugs with profound effects on brain function and behavior. GABAA receptors (GABAA Rs) are one of the major targets for EtOH in the brain. Temporary plastic changes in GABAA Rs after withdrawal from a single EtOH exposure occur both in vivo and in vitro , which may be the basis for chronic EtOH addiction, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. Extrasynaptic δ-GABAA R endocytosis is implicated in EtOH-induced GABAA R plasticity, but the mechanisms by which the relative abundance and localization of specific GABAA Rs are altered by EtOH exposure and withdrawal remain unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753887/peri-adolescent-drinking-of-ethanol-and-or-nicotine-modulates-astroglial-glutamate-transporters-and-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-1-in-female-alcohol-preferring-rats
#10
Fawaz Alasmari, Richard L Bell, P S S Rao, Alaa M Hammad, Youssef Sari
Impairment in glutamate neurotransmission mediates the development of dependence upon nicotine (NIC) and ethanol (EtOH). Previous work indicated that continuous access to EtOH or phasic exposure to NIC reduces expression of the glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) but not the glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Additionally, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expression was affected following exposure to EtOH or NIC. However, little is known about the effects of EtOH and NIC co-consumption on GLT-1, xCT, GLAST, and mGluR1 expression...
May 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753033/nemolizumab-in-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis-randomized-phase-ii-long-term-extension-study
#11
Kenji Kabashima, Masutaka Furue, Jon M Hanifin, Grazyna Pulka, Andreas Wollenberg, Ryszard Galus, Takafumi Etoh, Ryosuke Mihara, Miwa Nakano, Thomas Ruzicka
BACKGROUND: Nemolizumab, an anti-interleukin-31 receptor A monoclonal antibody, improved pruritus, dermatitis, and sleep in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis inadequately controlled by topical treatments in a phase II, 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (Part A) (NCT01986933). OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term efficacy and safety of nemolizumab injected subcutaneously every 4 weeks (Q4W) or every 8 weeks (Q8W) in a 52-week double-blind extension (Part B)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752644/a-new-candidate-laser-dye-based-1-4-bis-%C3%AE-2-naphthothiazolyle-vinyl-benzene-spectroscopic-behavior-laser-parameters-and-excitation-energy-transfer
#12
Abeer N Al-Romaizan, Mahmoud A Hussein
A new candidate laser dye based 1,4-bis[β-(2-naphthothisolyl) vinyl] benzene (BNTVB) were prepared, and characterized in various organic solvents. The center polarity is less sensitive than electronic absorption. A red shift was noticed in the fluorescence spectra (ca. 40 nm) with increment in the solvent's polarity, this means that BNTVB's polarity appreciates upon excitation. The dipole moment of ground state (μg ) and the excited singlet state dipole moment (μe ) are determined from Kawski - Chamma and Bakshiev-Viallet equations using the disparity of Stokes shift with solvent polarity function of ε (dielectric constant) and n (refractive index) of the solvent...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750511/reduction-and-reductive-deuteration-of-tertiary-amides-mediated-by-sodium-dispersions-with-distinct-proton-donor-dependent-chemoselectivity
#13
Bin Zhang, Hengzhao Li, Yuxuan Ding, Yuhao Yan, Jie An
A practical and scalable single electron transfer reduction mediated by sodium dispersions has been developed for the reduction and reductive deuteration of tertiary amides. The chemoselectivity of this method highly depends on the nature of the proton donor. The challenging reduction via C-N bond cleavage has been achieved using Na/EtOH, affording alcohol products, while the use of Na/NaOH/H2O leads to the formation of amines via selective C-O scission. Sodium dispersions with high specific surface areas are crucial to obtain high yields and good chemoselectivity...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748827/dihydroisocoumarins-from-radix-glycyrrhizae
#14
Songsong Zhao, Xinjia Yan, Ying Zhao, Jing Wen, Zhenzhen Zhao, Hongwei Liu
BACKGROUND: Radix Glycyrrhizae is the rhizome of Glycyrrhiza inflata Bat., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. or Glycyrrhiza glabra L. The present paper describes the isolation and the structural elucidation of three new dihydroisocoumarins obtained from the 70% EtOH extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae. And the cytotoxic activities of these new compounds were also evaluated using four cell lines, subsequently. RESULTS: A pair of new dihydroisocoumarin epimers ((3R,4S)-4,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxoisochroman-5-yl)methyl acetate (1) and ((3R,4R)-4,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-oxoisochroman-5-yl)methyl acetate (2) along with a new dihydroisocoumarin (3R,4R)-4,8-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethylisochroman-1-one (3) were isolated from Radix Glycyrrhizae...
May 11, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746134/ajmaline-oxindole-and-cytotoxic-macroline-akuammiline-bisindole-alkaloids-from-alstonia-penangiana
#15
Joanne Soon-Yee Yeap, Suerialoasan Navanesan, Kae-Shin Sim, Kien-Thai Yong, Subramaniam Gurusamy, Siew-Huah Lim, Yun-Yee Low, Toh-Seok Kam
Examination of the EtOH extract of the Malayan Alstonia penangiana resulted in the isolation of 10 new alkaloids, comprising two ajmaline (1, 2), four macroline oxindole (3-6), and four macroline-akuammiline bisindole alkaloids (7-10). The structures of these alkaloids were determined based on analysis of the spectroscopic data and, in the case of the oxindole 6 and the bisindole alkaloid 7, also confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The bisindole alkaloids 7 and 8 showed pronounced in vitro growth inhibitory activity against an array of human cancer cell lines, including KB, vincristine-resistant KB, PC-3, LNCaP, MCF7, MDA-MB-231, HT-29, HCT 116, and A549 cells with IC50 values in the 0...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746106/improved-efficacy-of-synthesizing-m-iii-labeled-dota-complexes-in-binary-mixtures-of-water-and-organic-solvents-a-combined-radio-and-physicochemical-study
#16
Marylaine Pérez-Malo, Gergely Szabó, Elisabeth Eppard, Adrienn Vagner, Ernő Brücher, Imre Tóth, Alessandro Maiocchi, Eul Hyun Suh, Zoltán Kovács, Zsolt Baranyai, Frank Rösch
Typically, the synthesis of radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals is performed in buffered aqueous solutions. We found that the presence of organic solvents like ethanol increased the radiolabeling yields of [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacatic acid). In the present study, the effect of organic cosolvents [ethanol (EtOH), isopropyl alcohol, and acetonitrile] on the radiolabeling yields of the macrocyclic chelator DOTA with several trivalent radiometals (gallium-68, scandium-44, and lutetium-177) was systematically investigated...
May 10, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744362/antioxidant-hepatoprotective-and-antidepression-effects-of-rumex-tingitanus-extracts-and-identification-of-a-novel-bioactive-compound
#17
Dhekra Mhalla, Karama Zouari Bouassida, Rachid Chawech, Amira Bouaziz, Samar Makni, Lobna Jlaiel, Slim Tounsi, Raoudha Mezghani Jarraya, Mohamed Trigui
Over the last few decades, Rumex species have been recognized as a promising source of new compounds with numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of Rumex tingitanus (R. tingitanus) leaves extracts was evaluated in vitro and then confirmed in vivo as well as the antidepressant-like and toxicological effects of the extracts. The ethyl acetate fraction (Rt EtOAcF) followed by hydroalcoholic extract (Rt EtOH-H2 O) showed a remarkable in vitro antioxidant activity. The hydroalcoholic extract (Rt EtOH-H2 O) showed significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4 -) induced liver toxicity which is seen from inhibition of the malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and enhancement of the liver antioxidant enzymes activities...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743984/ingredients-from-litsea-garrettii-as-potential-preventive-agents-against-oxidative-insult-and-inflammatory-response
#18
Yan-Ru Li, Guo-Hui Li, Lin Sun, Lin Li, Yue Liu, De-Gang Kong, Shu-Qi Wang, Dong-Mei Ren, Xiao-Ning Wang, Hong-Xiang Lou, Tao Shen
Oxidative stress and inflammation undoubtedly contribute to the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and the nuclear factor κ B (NF- κ B) play central roles in regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation and thus are targets for developing agents against oxidative stress- and inflammation-related diseases. Our previous study indicated that the EtOH extract of Litsea garrettii protected human bronchial epithelial cells against oxidative insult via the activation of Nrf2...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738915/cytotoxic-garcimultiflorones-k-q-lavandulyl-benzophenones-from-garcinia-multiflora-branches
#19
Zhao-Quan Wang, Xing-Yu Li, Dong-Bao Hu, Chun-Lin Long
Seven undescribed lavandulyl benzophenones garcimultiflorones K-Q, and fourteen known compounds were isolated from the CHCl3 soluble fraction of 95% EtOH extract of Garcinia multiflora branches. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic techniques including NMR spectroscopy, MS analysis, and ECD calculations. Seven isolated compounds expect for garcimultiflorone L and garcimultiflorone O exhibited cytotoxic activities in vitro against five cancer cell lines (HL-60, A549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480)...
May 5, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736774/the-cerebellar-gaba-a-r-system-as-a-potential-target-for-treating-alcohol-use-disorder
#20
David J Rossi, Ben D Richardson
In the brain, fast inhibitory neurotransmission is mediated primarily by the ionotropic subtype of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subtype A (GABAA R). It is well established that the brain's GABAA R system mediates many aspects of neurobehavioral responses to alcohol (ethanol; EtOH). Accordingly, in both preclinical studies and some clinical scenarios, pharmacologically targeting the GABAA R system can alter neurobehavioral responses to acute and chronic EtOH consumption. However, many of the well-established interactions of EtOH and the GABAA R system have been identified at concentrations of EtOH ([EtOH]) that would only occur during abusive consumption of EtOH (≥40 mM), and there are still inadequate treatment options for prevention of or recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD, including abuse and dependence)...
May 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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