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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909054/identification-of-a-substrate-selective-exosite-within-the-metalloproteinase-anthrax-lethal-factor
#1
Allison B Goldberg, Eunice Cho, Chad J Miller, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk
The metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is secreted by Bacillus anthracis to promote disease virulence through disruption of host signaling pathways. LF is a highly specific protease, exclusively cleaving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and rodent NACHT leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 1B (NLRP1B). How LF achieves such restricted substrate specificity is not understood. Previous studies have suggested the existence of an exosite interaction between LF and MKKs that promotes cleavage efficiency and specificity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898235/postexposure-prophylaxis-after-possible-anthrax-exposure-adherence-and-adverse-events
#2
Leisha D Nolen, Rita M Traxler, Grishma A Kharod, Pallavi A Kache, Stefan Katharios-Lanwermeyer, Katherine A Hendricks, Sean V Shadomy, William A Bower, Dana Meaney-Delman, Henry T Walke
Anthrax postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was recommended to 42 people after a laboratory incident that involved potential aerosolization of Bacillus anthracis spores in 2 laboratories at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2014. At least 31 (74%) individuals who initiated PEP did not complete either the recommended 60 days of antimicrobial therapy or the 3-dose vaccine regimen. Among the 29 that discontinued the antimicrobial component of PEP, most (38%) individuals discontinued PEP because of their low perceived risk of infection; 9 (31%) individuals discontinued prophylaxis due to PEP-related minor adverse events, and 10% cited both low risk and adverse events as their reason for discontinuation...
November 29, 2016: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874136/a-self-quenching-resistant-carbon-nanodot-powder-with-multicolored-solid-state-fluorescence-for-ultra-fast-staining-of-various-representative-bacterial-species-within-one-minute
#3
Yongqiang Zhang, Chunfeng Li, Yi Fan, Chengbin Wang, Ruifu Yang, Xingyuan Liu, Lei Zhou
In this study, we prepared self-quenching-resistant solid-state fluorescent carbon nanodots (SFCDs) without any other solid matrices. The SFCDs were prepared using a one-step microwave synthesis method through precise control of the heating power and time. The resulting SFCD powder showed excitation-dependent emission behavior with a maximum fluorescence quantum yield of 40%. The multicolored SFCDs were successfully used as fluorescent agents for rapid staining of 14 representative bacterial species, including Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and acid-fast bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856224/tid-standalone-software-for-mining-putative-drug-targets-from-bacterial-proteome
#4
Reena Gupta, Dibyabhaba Pradhan, Arun Kumar Jain, Chandra Shekhar Rai
TiD is a standalone application, which relies on basic assumption that a protein must be essential for pathogens survival and non-homologous with host to qualify as putative target. With an input bacterial proteome, TiD removes paralogous proteins, picks essential ones, and excludes proteins homologous with host organisms. The targets illustrate non-homology with at least 40 out of 84 gut microbes, considered safe for human. TiD classifies proposed targets as known, novel and virulent. Users can perform pathway analysis, choke point analysis, interactome analysis, subcellular localization and functional annotations through web servers cross-referenced with the application...
November 14, 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846346/xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzymes-in-bacillus-anthracis-molecular-and-functional-analysis-of-a-truncated-arylamine-n-acetyltransferase-isozyme
#5
Xavier Kubiak, Romain Duval, Benjamin Pluvinage, Alain F Chaffotte, Jean-Marie Dupret, Fernando Rodrigues-Lima
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that play an important role in the detoxification and/or bioactivation of arylamine drugs and xenobiotics. In bacteria, NATs may contribute to the resistance against antibiotics such as isoniazid or sulfamides through their acetylation, which makes this enzyme family a possible drug target. Bacillus anthracis, a bacterial species of clinical significance, expresses three NAT isozymes with distinct structural and enzymatic properties, including an inactive isozyme ((BACAN)NAT3)...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832215/avoiding-pandemic-fears-in-the-subway-and-conquering-the-platypus
#6
COMMENT
A Gonzalez, Y Vázquez-Baeza, J B Pettengill, A Ottesen, D McDonald, R Knight
Metagenomics is increasingly used not just to show patterns of microbial diversity but also as a culture-independent method to detect individual organisms of intense clinical, epidemiological, conservation, forensic, or regulatory interest. A widely reported metagenomic study of the New York subway suggested that the pathogens Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis were part of the "normal subway microbiome." In their article in mSystems, Hsu and collaborators (mSystems 1(3):e00018-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826288/temperature-exerts-control-of-bacillus-cereus-emetic-toxin-production-on-post-transcriptional-levels
#7
Markus Kranzler, Katharina Stollewerk, Katia Rouzeau-Szynalski, Laurence Blayo, Michael Sulyok, Monika Ehling-Schulz
In recent years, the emetic toxin cereulide, produced by Bacillus cereus, has gained high relevance in food production and food safety. Cereulide is synthesized non-ribosomal by the multi-enzyme complex Ces-NRPS, which is encoded on a megaplasmid that shares its backbone with the Bacillus anthracis pX01 toxin plasmid. Due to its resistance against heat, proteolysis and extreme pH conditions, the formation of this highly potent depsipeptide toxin is of serious concern in food processing procedures including slow cooling procedures and/or storage of intermediate products at ambient temperatures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822867/rapid-snp-detection-and-genotyping-of-bacterial-pathogens-by-pyrosequencing
#8
Kingsley K Amoako, Matthew C Thomas, Timothy W Janzen, Noriko Goji
Bacterial identification and typing are fixtures of microbiology laboratories and are vital aspects of our response mechanisms in the event of foodborne outbreaks and bioterrorist events. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is leading the way in terms of expanding our ability to identify and characterize bacteria through the identification of subtle differences between genomes (e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions). Modern high-throughput technologies such as pyrosequencing can facilitate the typing of bacteria by generating short-read sequence data of informative regions identified by WGS analyses, at a fraction of the cost of WGS...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814939/validation-of-high-throughput-screening-of-human-sera-for-detection-of-anti-pa-igg-by-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-elisa-as-an-emergency-response-to-an-anthrax-incident
#9
Vera A Semenova, Evelene Steward-Clark, Panagiotis Maniatis, Monica Epperson, Amit Sabnis, Jarad Schiffer
To improve surge testing capability for a response to a release of Bacillus anthracis, the CDC anti-Protective Antigen (PA) IgG Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was re-designed into a high throughput screening format. The following assay performance parameters were evaluated: goodness of fit (measured as the mean reference standard r(2)), accuracy (measured as percent error), precision (measured as coefficient of variance (CV)), lower limit of detection (LLOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), dilutional linearity, diagnostic sensitivity (DSN) and diagnostic specificity (DSP)...
November 1, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809794/alternative-pre-approved-and-novel-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-anthrax
#10
REVIEW
Breanne M Head, Ethan Rubinstein, Adrienne F A Meyers
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore forming and toxin producing rod-shaped bacterium that is classified as a category A bioterror agent. This pathogenic microbe can be transmitted to both animals and humans. Clinical presentation depends on the route of entry (direct contact, ingestion, injection or aerosolization) with symptoms ranging from isolated skin infections to more severe manifestations such as cardiac or pulmonary shock, meningitis, and death...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798209/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-linezolid-and-levofloxacin-on-bacillus-anthracis-toxin-production-spore-formation-and-cell-growth
#11
Breanne M Head, Michelle Alfa, Daniel S Sitar, Ethan Rubinstein, Adrienne F A Meyers
BACKGROUND: Owing to its ability to form spores and toxins, Bacillus anthracis is considered a bioterror agent. Although current therapeutic strategies can be effective, treatment does not prevent sporulation and toxin production. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the combined effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor and a bactericidal agent on B. anthracis toxin production, sporulation and cell growth. METHODS: Susceptibility and synergy titrations were conducted on B...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795328/genes-required-for-bacillus-anthracis-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharide-synthesis
#12
So-Young Oh, J Mark Lunderberg, Alice Chateau, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas
: The secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) is thought to be essential for vegetative growth and S-layer assembly in Bacillus anthracis, however the genetic determinants for assembly of its trisaccharide repeat structure are not known. Here we report that WpaA (BAS0847) and WpaB (BAS5274) share features with membrane proteins involved in the assembly of O-antigen lipopolysaccharide in Gram-negative bacteria and propose that WpaA and WpaB contribute to the assembly of the SCWP in B...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793731/comparative-genomics-of-bacillus-anthracis-from-the-wool-industry-highlights-polymorphisms-of-lineage-a-br-vollum
#13
Sylviane Derzelle, Lisandra Aguilar-Bultet, Joachim Frey
BACKGROUND: With the advent of affordable next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, major progress has been made in the understanding of the population structure and evolution of the B. anthracis species. Here we report the use of whole genome sequencing and computer-based comparative analyses to characterize six strains belonging to the A.Br.Vollum lineage. These strains were isolated in Switzerland, in 1981, during iterative cases of anthrax involving workers in a textile plant processing cashmere wool from the Indian subcontinent...
December 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775243/design-and-synthesis-of-fluorescent-acyclic-nucleoside-phosphonates-as-potent-inhibitors-of-bacterial-adenylate-cyclases
#14
Petra Břehová, Markéta Šmídková, Jan Skácel, Martin Dračínský, Helena Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Monica P Soto Velasquez, Val J Watts, Zlatko Janeba
Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and Bacillus anthracis edema factor (EF) are key virulence factors with adenylate cyclase (AC) activity that substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of whooping cough and anthrax, respectively. There is an urgent need to develop potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial ACs with prospects for the development of potential antibacterial therapeutics and to study their molecular interactions with the target enzymes. Novel fluorescent 5-chloroanthraniloyl-substituted acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (Cl-ANT-ANPs) were designed and synthesized in the form of their diphosphates (Cl-ANT-ANPpp) as competitive ACT and EF inhibitors with sub-micromolar potency (IC50 values: 11-622 nm)...
November 21, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766255/fapr-from-control-of-membrane-lipid-homeostasis-to-a-biotechnological-tool
#15
Daniela Albanesi, Diego de Mendoza
Phospholipids and fatty acids are not only one of the major components of cell membranes but also important metabolic intermediates in bacteria. Since the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway is essential and energetically expensive, organisms have developed a diversity of homeostatic mechanisms to fine-tune the concentration of lipids at particular levels. FapR is the first global regulator of lipid synthesis discovered in bacteria and is largely conserved in Gram-positive organisms including important human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764712/detection-probability-models-for-bacteria-and-how-to-obtain-them-from-heterogeneous-spiking-data-an-application-to-bacillus-anthracis
#16
Ronny Hedell, Olga Stephansson, Petter Mostad, Mats Gunnar Andersson
Efficient and correct evaluation of sampling results with respect to hypotheses about the concentration or distribution of bacteria generally requires knowledge about the performance of the detection method. To assess the sensitivity of the detection method an experiment is usually performed where the target matrix is spiked (i.e. artificially contaminated) with different concentrations of the bacteria, followed by analyses of the samples using the pre-enrichment method and the analytical detection method of interest...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754314/biodegradable-polymeric-nanoparticles-based-vaccine-adjuvants-for-lymph-nodes-targeting
#17
Alice Gutjahr, Capucine Phelip, Anne-Line Coolen, Claire Monge, Anne-Sophie Boisgard, Stéphane Paul, Bernard Verrier
Vaccines have successfully eradicated a large number of diseases. However, some infectious diseases (such as HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis or Bacillus anthracis) keep spreading since there is no vaccine to prevent them. One way to overcome this issue is the development of new adjuvant formulations which are able to induce the appropriate immune response without sacrificing safety. Lymph nodes are the site of lymphocyte priming by antigen-presenting cells and subsequent adaptive immune response, and are a promising target for vaccine formulations...
October 12, 2016: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744366/genotypic-heterogeneity-of-emetic-toxin-producing-bacillus-cereus-isolates-from-china
#18
Yong Yang, Hua Gu, Xiaofeng Yu, Li Zhan, Jiancai Chen, Yun Luo, Yunyi Zhang, Yanjun Zhang, Yiyu Lu, Jianmin Jiang, Lingling Mei
Emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus (emetic B. cereus) is the third member of B. cereus group whose toxins are encoded by megaplasmids, beside anthrax and insecticidal toxins of B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis respectively. 18 emetic isolates collected from food poisoning events, clinical and non-random food samples in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed by plasmid screening, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), as well as toxic gene identification to investigate their genotypic diversity...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736999/evaluating-composite-sampling-methods-of-bacillus-spores-at-low-concentrations
#19
Becky M Hess, Brett G Amidan, Kevin K Anderson, Janine R Hutchison
Restoring all facility operations after the 2001 Amerithrax attacks took years to complete, highlighting the need to reduce remediation time. Some of the most time intensive tasks were environmental sampling and sample analyses. Composite sampling allows disparate samples to be combined, with only a single analysis needed, making it a promising method to reduce response times. We developed a statistical experimental design to test three different composite sampling methods: 1) single medium single pass composite (SM-SPC): a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons with a single pass across each coupon; 2) single medium multi-pass composite: a single cellulose sponge samples multiple coupons with multiple passes across each coupon (SM-MPC); and 3) multi-medium post-sample composite (MM-MPC): a single cellulose sponge samples a single surface, and then multiple sponges are combined during sample extraction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736971/correction-bacillus-anthracis-spore-surface-protein-bcla-mediates-complement-factor-h-binding-to-spores-and-promotes-spore-persistence
#20
Yanyu Wang, Sarah A Jenkins, Chunfang Gu, Ankita Shree, Margarita Martinez-Moczygemba, Jennifer Herold, Marina Botto, Rick A Wetsel, Yi Xu
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005678.].
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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