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Nidhi Puranik, N K Tripathi, V Pal, Ajay Kumar Goel
Surface array protein (Sap) can be an important biomarker for specific detection of Bacillus anthracis , which is released by the bacterium during its growth in culture broth. In the present work, we have cloned and expressed Sap in Escherichia coli . The culture conditions and cultivation media were optimized and used in batch fermentation process for scale up of Sap in soluble form. The recombinant Sap was purified employing affinity chromatography followed by diafiltration. The final yield of purified protein was 20 and 46 mg/l of culture during shake flasks and batch fermentation, respectively...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Vijay B Arumugham, Cristina Ulivieri, Anna Onnis, Francesca Finetti, Fiorella Tonello, Daniel Ladant, Cosima T Baldari
A central feature of the immune synapse (IS) is the tight compartmentalization of membrane receptors and signaling mediators that is functional for its ability to coordinate T cell activation. Second messengers centrally implicated in this process, such as Ca2+ and diacyl glycerol, also undergo compartmentalization at the IS. Current evidence suggests a more complex scenario for cyclic AMP (cAMP), which acts both as positive and as negative regulator of T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling and which, as such, must be subjected to a tight spatiotemporal control to allow for signaling at the IS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ganesh Ingavle, Les Baillie, Nathan Davies, Nigel Beaton, Yishan Zheng, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Susan Sandeman
Whilst various remedial human monoclonal antibodies have been developed to treat the potentially life-threatening systemic complications associated with anthrax infection, an optimal and universally effective administration route has yet to be established. In the later stages of infection when antibody administration by injection is more likely to fail one possible route to improve outcome is via the use of an antibody-bound, adsorbent haemoperfusion device. We report here the development of an adsorbent macroporous polymer column containing immobilised B...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Travis J Kochan, Matthew H Foley, Michelle S Shoshiev, Madeline J Somers, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is a crucial early requirement for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Likewise, C. difficile cannot cause disease pathologies unless their spores germinate into metabolically active, toxin-producing cells. Recent advances in our understanding of C. difficile spore germination mechanisms indicate that this process is both complex and unique. This review defines unique aspects of the germination pathways of C. difficile and compares them to two other well-studied organisms, Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium perfringens C...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Katy-Anne Thompson, Susan Paton, Thomas Pottage, Allan Bennett
AIMS: Four commercially available robotic vacuum cleaners were assessed for sampling efficiency of wet disseminated Bacillus atrophaeus spores on carpet, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and laminate flooring. Furthermore, their operability was evaluated and decontamination efficiency of one robot was assessed using a sodium hypochlorite solution. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an environmental chamber, robots self-navigated around 4 m2 of flooring containing a single contaminated 0...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Saugata Majumder, Shreya Das, Vikas Somani, Shivakiran S Makam, Kingston J Joseph, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Anthrax infection is primarily initiated by B. anthracis endospores that on entry into the host germinate to vegetative cells and cause severe bacteremia and toxaemia employing an array of host colonisation factors and the lethal tripartite toxin. The protective efficacy of conventional protective antigen (PA) based anthrax vaccines is improved by co-administration with inactivated spores or its components. In the present study, using structural vaccinology rationale we synthesized a bivalent protein r-PB encompassing toxin (PAIV) and spore components (BclACTD) and characterized its protective efficacy against B...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tobias Schilling, Sascha Dietrich, Michael Hoppert, Robert Hertel
Phages are currently under discussion as a solution for the antibiotic crisis, as they may cure diseases caused by multi-drug-resistant pathogens. However, knowledge of phage biology and genetics is limited, which impedes risk assessment of therapeutic applications. In order to enable advances in phage genetic research, the aim of this work was to create a toolkit for simple and fast genetic engineering of phages recruiting Bacillus subtilis as host system. The model organism B. subtilis represents a non-pathogenic surrogate of its harmful relatives, such as Bacillus anthracis or Bacillus cereus ...
May 4, 2018: Viruses
Colin J Carlson, Wayne M Getz, Kyrre L Kausrud, Carrie A Cizauskas, Jason K Blackburn, Fausto A Bustos Carrillo, Rita Colwell, W Ryan Easterday, Holly H Ganz, Pauline L Kamath, Ole A Økstad, Wendy C Turner, Anne-Brit Kolstø, Nils C Stenseth
Environmentally transmitted diseases are comparatively poorly understood and managed, and their ecology is particularly understudied. Here we identify challenges of studying environmental transmission and persistence with a six-sided interdisciplinary review of the biology of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Anthrax is a zoonotic disease capable of maintaining infectious spore banks in soil for decades (or even potentially centuries), and the mechanisms of its environmental persistence have been the topic of significant research and controversy...
May 6, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
El Hadji Seck, Jean-Charles Dufour, Didier Raoult, Jean-Christophe Lagier
Halophilic prokaryotes are described as microorganisms living in hypersaline environments. Here, we list the halotolerant and halophilic bacteria which have been isolated in humans. Of the 52 halophilic prokaryotes, 32 (61.54%) were moderately halophilic, 17 (32.69%) were slightly halophilic and three (5.76%) were extremely halophilic prokaryotes. At the phylum level, 29 (54.72%) belong to Firmicutes, 15 (28.84%) to Proteobacteria, four (7.69%) to Actinobacteria, three (5.78%) to Euryarchaeota and one (1.92%) belongs to Bacteroidetes...
May 4, 2018: Future Microbiology
Kyle S Enger, Jade Mitchell, Bharathi Murali, Dawn N Birdsell, Paul Keim, Patrick L Gurian, David M Wagner
Bacillus spores resist inactivation, but the extent of their persistence on common surfaces is unclear. This work addresses knowledge gaps regarding biothreat agents in the environment to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment models. Studies were conducted to investigate the long-term inactivation of Bacillus anthracis and three commonly used surrogate organisms - B. cereus, B. atrophaeus and B. thuringiensis on three materials: laminate countertop, stainless steel and polystyrene Petri dishes. Viable spores were measured at 1, 30, 90, 196, 304 and 1038 days...
May 3, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Qingmei Jia, Richard Bowen, Barbara Jane Dillon, Saša Masleša-Galić, Brennan T Chang, Austin C Kaidi, Marcus A Horwitz
Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis are the causative agents of Tier 1 Select Agents anthrax, plague, and tularemia, respectively. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines against plague and tularemia and the licensed anthrax vaccine is suboptimal. Here we report F. tularensis LVS ΔcapB (Live Vaccine Strain with a deletion in capB)- and attenuated multi-deletional Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-vectored vaccines against all three aforementioned pathogens. We show that LVS ΔcapB- and Lm-vectored vaccines express recombinant B...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
K E Lekota, A Hassim, P Rogers, E H Dekker, R Last, L de Klerk-Lorist, H van Heerden
OBJECTIVES: Anthrax is a disease with an age old history in Africa caused by the Gram-positive endospore forming soil bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Epizootics of wild ungulates occur annually in the enzootic region of Pafuri, Kruger National Park (KNP) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Rigorous routine surveillance and diagnostics in KNP, has not revealed these rare isolates since the 1990s, despite unabated annual outbreaks. In 2011 a cheetah was diagnosed as anthrax positive from a private game reserve in Limpopo Province and reported to State Veterinary Services for further investigation...
May 2, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Zayed Attia, John C Rowe, Eunsoo Kim, Sanjay Varikuti, Haley H Steiner, Ahmad Zaghawa, Hany Hassan, Estelle Cormet-Boyaka, Abhay R Satoskar, Prosper N Boyaka
It is well established that dendritic cells and macrophages play a role in antigen presentation to B and T cells and in shaping B and T cell responses via cytokines they produce. We have previously reported that depletion of neutrophils improves the production of mucosal IgA after sublingual immunization with Bacillus anthracis edema toxin as adjuvant. These past studies also demonstrated that an inverse correlation exists between the number of neutrophils and production of IgA by B cells. Using specific inhibitors of elastase, we addressed whether the elastase activity of neutrophil could be the factor that interferes with production of IgA and possibly other immunoglobulin isotypes...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
J Leland Booth, Elizabeth S Duggan, Vineet I Patel, Wenxin Wu, Dennis M Burian, David C Hutchings, Vicky L White, K Mark Coggeshall, Mikhail G Dozmorov, Jordan P Metcalf
The lung is the entry site for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the most deadly form of the disease. Spores must escape through the alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) barrier and migrate to regional lymph nodes, germinate and enter the circulatory system to cause disease. Several mechanisms to explain alveolar escape have been postulated, and all these tacitly involve the AEC barrier. In this study, we incorporate our primary human type I AEC model, microarray and gene enrichment analysis, qRT-PCR, multiplex ELISA, and neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis assays to study the response of AEC to B...
April 25, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
E Vázquez-Espinosa, C Laganà, F Vazquez
In the period from 1915 to 1924 anthrax outbreaks were described by Bacillus anthracis due to the contamination of razor brushes that reached Europe and the United States from areas such as Japan, China or Russia. The brushes were made with badger hair, and then, to reduce the cost with horse hair and other animals. World War I supoosed that the traffics of these brushes, that passed through Europe, changed and the processes of sterilization of the same were deficient giving rise to these outbreaks, that in a percentage of 20% produced the death of the users...
April 25, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Cinzia Calvio, Fabio Romagnuolo, Francesca Vulcano, Giovanna Speranza, Carlo F Morelli
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT) catalyzes the transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety from a donor substrate such as glutathione to water (hydrolysis) or to an acceptor amino acid (transpeptidation) through the formation of a γ-glutamyl enzyme intermediate. The vast majority of the known GGTs has a short sequence covering the glutamate binding site, called lid-loop. Although being conserved enzymes, both B. subtilis GGT and the related enzyme CapD from B. anthracis lack the lid loop and, differently from other GGTs, both accept poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) as a substrate...
July 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Jeffrey Szabo, John Hall, Steve Reese, Jim Goodrich, Sri Panguluri, Greg Meiners, Hiba Ernst
The EPA's Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) facility is a full-scale representation of a drinking water distribution system. In collaboration with the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), EPA designed the WSTB facility to support full-scale evaluations of water infrastructure decontamination, real-time sensors, mobile water treatment systems, and decontamination of premise plumbing and appliances. The EPA research focused on decontamination of 1) Bacillus globigii (BG) spores, a non-pathogenic surrogate for Bacillus anthracis and 2) Bakken crude oil...
March 20, 2018: Journal—American Water Works Association
Jun Ho Jeon, Deok-Bum Park, Sun-Je Woo, Hae-Ri Lee, Ok-Kyu Park, Jungchan Park, Gi-Eun Rhie
Poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) of anthrax is an important pathogenic factor due to its anti-phagocytic activity. Additionally, PGA has the ability to activate mouse macrophages for the secretion of cytokines through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. Peptidoglycan (PGN), a major bacterial cell-wall component, induces inflammatory responses in the host. We assessed whether PGA can induce maturation and cytokine expression in immature mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in the existence of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimum motif of PGN with immunostimulatory activity...
April 12, 2018: Cytokine
Shijun Li, Qing Ma, Hong Chen, Dingming Wang, Ying Liu, Xiaoyu Wei, Lv You, Guanghai Yao, Kecheng Tian, Guangpeng Tang
Upon publication of the original article (1) it was highlighted by the authors that a grant awarded to support the research work of the study was missed in the acknowledgements. It should also be acknowledged that the grant titled "Genotyping and Molecular Epidemiological Characteristic of Bacillus anthracis in Guizhou Province" awarded by the Program of Natural Science Foundation of Guizhou Province (Grant No. Qian Ke He J Word [2015] 2084)also contributed to the resources for this research. This has since been formally noted in this correction article...
April 12, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Baoyi Lv, Yuxue Cui, Wen Tian, Jing Li, Bing Xie, Fang Yin
Ship ballasting operations may transfer harmful aquatic organisms across global ocean. This study aims to reveal the occurrences and abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and human bacterial pathogens (HBPs) in ballast tank sediments. Nine samples were collected and respectively analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing technologies. Ten ARGs (aadA1, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, ermB, mefA, strB, sul1, sul2, tetM, and tetQ) and the Class-I integron gene (intI1) were highly prevalent (105 -109 gene copies/g) in ballast tank sediments...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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