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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331609/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-pathway-enzyme-dtdp-%C3%AE-d-glucose-4-6-dehydratase-rfbb
#1
Trevor Gokey, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
Many bacteria require L-rhamnose as a key cell wall component. This sugar is transferred to the cell wall using an activated donor dTDP-L-rhamnose, which is produced by the dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of the second enzyme of this pathway dTDP-α-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RfbB) from Bacillus anthracis. Interestingly, RfbB only crystallized in the presence of the third enzyme of the pathway RfbC; however, RfbC was not present in the crystal. Our work represents the first complete structural characterization of the four proteins of this pathway in a single Gram-positive bacterium...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330180/genomic-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-type-strains-and-dairy-associated-isolates-in-the-bacillus-cereus-group-indicates-considerable-intra-clade-variability-in-toxin-production-and-cytotoxicity
#2
Rachel A Miller, Jiahui Jian, Sarah M Beno, Martin Wiedmann, Jasna Kovac
While some species in the B. cereus group are well-characterized human pathogens (e.g., B. anthracis and B. cereus s.s.), the pathogenicity of other species (e.g., B. pseudomycoides) either has not been characterized or is presently not well understood. To provide an updated characterization of the pathogenic potential of species in the B. cereus group, we classified a set of 52 isolates, including 8 type strains and 44 environmental isolates from dairy-associated sources, into 7 phylogenetic clades and characterized them for (i) the presence of toxin genes, (ii) phenotypic characteristics used for identification, and (iii) cytotoxicity to human epithelial cells...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311588/characterisation-of-the-antibacterial-properties-of-the-recombinant-phage-endolysins-ap50-31-and-lysb4-as-potent-bactericidal-agents-against-bacillus-anthracis
#3
Sangjin Park, Soo Youn Jun, Chang-Hwan Kim, Gi Mo Jung, Jee Soo Son, Seong Tae Jeong, Seong Jun Yoon, Sang Yup Lee, Sang Hyeon Kang
The recombinant phage endolysins AP50-31 and LysB4 were developed using genetic information from bacteriophages AP50 and B4 and were produced by microbial cultivation followed by chromatographic purification. Subsequently, appropriate formulations were developed that provided an acceptable stability of the recombinant endolysins. The bacteriolytic properties of the formulated endolysins AP50-31 and LysB4 against several bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus genus including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) strains were examined...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301897/complete-genome-sequences-of-three-bacillus-anthracis-bacteriophages
#4
Sivan Alkalay, Sarit Sternberg, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Ronen Hazan
The new highly effective Bacillus anthracis phages Negev_SA, Carmel_SA, and Tavor_SA were isolated from soil samples, and their complete genomes were sequenced and analyzed. The isolated phages have potential use in future phage therapy treatment against anthrax.
January 4, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284252/diagnosis-of-cutaneous-anthrax-in-resource-poor-settings-in-west-arsi-province-ethiopia
#5
Ramón Pérez-Tanoira, Jose Manuel Ramos, Laura Prieto-Pérez, Abraham Tesfamariam, Seble Balcha, Gabre Tissiano, Alfonso Cabello, Juan Cuadros, Natalia Rodríguez-Valero, Pablo Barreiro, Francisco Reyes, Miguel Górgolas
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which typically presents with ulcers after contact with animals or animal products, and is rarely seen in high-income countries but is common in those with low- and middle-incomes. Objective. The aim of this study is to show the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in endemic areas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study describes the main clinical characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in eight patients (six female and two male, age range 1 - 56 years) admitted to the rural General Hospital of Gambo, West Arsi Province of Ethiopia from 2010-2013...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259839/passive-protection-against-anthrax-in-mice-with-plasma-derived-from-horses-hyper-immunized-against-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-strain
#6
Marc Caldwell, Terri Hathcock, Kenny V Brock
In this study, equine source polyclonal anti-Bacillus anthracis immunoglobulins were generated and utilized to demonstrate passive protection of mice in a lethal challenge assay. Four horses were hyper-immunized with B. anthracis Sterne strain for approximately one year. The geometric mean anti-PA titer in the horses at maximal response following immunization was 1:77,936 (Log2 mean titer 16.25, SEM ± 0.25 95% CI [15.5 -17.0]). The geometric mean neutralizing titer at maximal response was 1:128 (Log2 mean titer 7, SEM ± 0...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235265/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-branched-acyclic-nucleoside-phosphonates-as-potential-inhibitors-of-bacterial-adenylate-cyclases
#7
Jan Frydrych, Jan Skácel, Markéta Šmídková, Helena Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Martin Dračínský, Ramachandran Gnanasekaran, Martin Lepšík, Monica Soto-Velasquez, Val J Watts, Zlatko Janeba
Inhibition of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and Bacillus anthracis edema factor (EF), the key virulence factors with adenylate cyclase (AC) activity, represents a potential method how to treat or prevent toxemia related to whooping cough and anthrax, respectively. A novel series of α-branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) having a hemiaminal ether moiety was synthesized as potential inhibitors of bacterial adenylate cyclases. ANPs prepared as bisamidates were not cytotoxic but did not exhibited any profound activity (IC50 > 10 µM) towards ACT in J774A...
December 13, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229702/galactosylation-of-the-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharide-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-its-contribution-to-anthrax-pathogenesis
#8
Alice Chateau, Justin Mark Lunderberg, So Young Oh, Teresa Abshire, Arthur Friedlander, Conrad P Quinn, Dominique M Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, elaborates a secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) that is essential for bacterial growth and cell division. B. anthracis SCWP is comprised of trisaccharide repeats, [→4)-β-ManNAc-(1→4)-β-GlcNAc-(1→6)-α-GlcNAc-(1→], where α-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal and β-Gal at O3 and O4, respectively, and β-GlcNAc is substituted with α-Gal at O3. The genes whose products promote the galactosylation of B. anthracis SCWP are not yet known...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224733/validated-maldi-tof-ms-method-for-anthrax-lethal-factor-provides-early-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-therapeutics
#9
Maribel Gallegos-Candela, Anne E Boyer, Adrian R Woolfitt, Judy Brumlow, Renato C Lins, Conrad P Quinn, Alex R Hoffmaster, Gabriel Meister, John R Barr
Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endoprotease and a critical virulence factor for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. The mass spectrometry (MS) method for total-LF quantification includes three steps; 1) LF specific antibody capture/concentration, 2) LF-specific hydrolysis of a peptide substrate, and 3) detection and quantification of LF-cleaved peptides by isotope-dilution MALDI-TOF/MS. Recombinant LF spiked plasma was used for calibration and quality control (QC) materials. Specificity was 100% from analysis of serum and plasma from 383 non-infected humans, 31 rabbits, and 24 rhesus macaques...
December 7, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221871/investigation-on-paper-cup-waste-degradation-by-bacterial-consortium-and-eudrillus-eugeinea-through-vermicomposting
#10
Karthika Arumugam, Seenivasagan Renganathan, Babalola Olubukola Oluranti, Vasanthy Muthunarayanan
Disposable Paper cups are a threat to the environment and are composed of 90% high strength paper with 5% thin coating of polyethylene. This polyethylene prevents the paper cup from undergoing degradation in the soil. Hence, in the present study two different approaches towards the management of paper cup waste through vermicomposting technology has been presented. The experimental setup includes 2 plastic reactors namely Vermicompost (VC) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Earthworm (Eudrillus eugeinea)) and Vermicompost with bacterial consortium (VCB) (Cow dung + Paper cup waste + Eudrillus eugeinea + Microbial consortia such as Bacillus anthracis, B...
December 5, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210983/the-potential-pathogenic-contributions-of-endothelial-barrier-and-arterial-contractile-dysfunction-to-shock-due-to-b-anthracis-lethal-and-edema-toxins
#11
REVIEW
Dante A Suffredini, Xizhong Cui, Wanying Xu, Yan Li, Peter Q Eichacker
Shock with B. anthracis infection is particularly resistant to conventional cardiovascular support and its mortality rate appears higher than with more common bacterial pathogens. As opposed to many bacteria that lack exotoxins directly depressing hemodynamic function, lethal and edema toxin (LT and ET respectively) both cause shock and likely contribute to the high lethality rate with B. anthracis. Selective inhibition of the toxins is protective in infection models, and administration of either toxin alone in animals produces hypotension with accompanying organ injury and lethality...
December 6, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200425/correction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-preclinical-trials-testing-anti-toxin-therapies-for-b-anthracis-infection-a-need-for-more-robust-study-designs-and-results
#12
Wanying Xu, Lernik Ohanjanian, Junfeng Sun, Xizhong Cui, Dante Suffredini, Yan Li, Judith Welsh, Peter Q Eichacker
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0182879.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199987/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose-3-5-epimerase-rfbc
#13
Aleksander Shornikov, Ha Tran, Jennifer Macias, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
The exosporium layer of Bacillus anthracis spores is rich in L-rhamnose, a common bacterial cell-wall component, which often contributes to the virulence of pathogens by increasing their adherence and immune evasion. The biosynthetic pathway used to form the activated L-rhamnose donor dTDP-L-rhamnose consists of four enzymes (RfbA, RfbB, RfbC and RfbD) and is an attractive drug target because there are no homologs in mammals. It was found that co-purifying and screening RfbC (dTDP-6-deoxy-D-xylo-4-hexulose 3,5-epimerase) from B...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199984/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-dtdp-4-dehydrorhamnose-reductase-rfbd
#14
Ashley Law, Alexander Stergioulis, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of the deadly disease Anthrax. Its use in bioterrorism and its ability to re-emerge have brought renewed interest in this organism. B. anthracis is a Gram-positive bacterium that adds L-rhamnose to its cell-wall polysaccharides using the activated donor dTDP-β-L-rhamnose. The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the activated donor are absent in humans, which make them ideal targets for therapeutic development to combat pathogens. Here, the 2.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the fourth enzyme in the dTDP-β-L-rhamnose-biosynthetic pathway from B...
December 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198864/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-anthrax-edema-factor
#15
Guan-Sheng Jiao, Seongjin Kim, Mahtab Moayeri, April Thai, Lynne Cregar-Hernandez, Linda McKasson, Sean O'Malley, Stephen H Leppla, Alan T Johnson
Anthrax is a highly lethal disease caused by the Gram-(+) bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Edema toxin (ET) is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of disease in humans exposed to B. anthracis. ET is a bipartite toxin composed of two proteins secreted by the vegetative bacteria, edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Our work towards identifying a small molecule inhibitor of anthrax edema factor is the subject of this letter. First we demonstrate that the small molecule probe 5'-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5'-adenosine (FSBA) reacts irreversibly with EF and blocks enzymatic activity...
November 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197182/protection-of-macrophages-from-intracellular-pathogens-by-mir-182-5p-mimic-a-gene-expression-meta-analysis-approach
#16
David J Gregory, Igor Kramnik, Lester Kobzik
The goals of this study were to i) define which host genes are of particular importance during the interactions between macrophages and intracellular pathogens, and ii) use this knowledge to gain fresh, experimental understanding of how macrophage activities may be manipulated during host defence. We designed an in silico method for meta-analysis of microarray gene expression data, and used this to combine data from 16 different studies of cells in the monocyte-macrophage lineage infected with 7 different pathogens...
December 2, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177636/sequence-analysis-and-comparative-bioinformatics-study-of-camelysin-gene-caly-isolated-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#17
Fateha Irshad, Zahid Mushtaq, Shakeel Akhtar
Bacillus strains have been widely used for the production of fibrinolytic enzymes having role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Purification and overproduction of such enzymes has increased their usage in medical fields including metalloproteinases with the ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). Camelysin, a neutral metalloproteinase has been isolated from different species of bacteria like Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis with fibrinolytic, collagenolytic and actin degradation activity...
November 24, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174643/inactivation-of-bacillus-anthracis-spores-to-decontaminate-subway-railcar-and-related-materials-via-the-fogging-of-peracetic-acid-and-hydrogen-peroxide-sporicidal-liquids
#18
William R Richter, Joseph P Wood, Morgan Q S Wendling, James V Rogers
The inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores on subway and used subway railcar materials was evaluated using fogged peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide (PAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). A total of 21 separate decontamination tests were conducted using bacterial spores of both B. anthracis Ames (B.a.) and Bacillus atrophaeus (B.g.) inoculated onto several types of materials. Tests were conducted using commercial off-the-shelf fogging equipment filled with either PAA or H2O2 to fumigate a ∼15 cubic meter chamber under uncontrolled ambient relative humidity and controlled temperature (10 or 20 °C) from 8 to 168 h...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165439/proteomic-signatures-differentiating-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-sporulation-on-soil-relative-to-laboratory-media
#19
D S Wunschel, J R Hutchison, B L Deatherage Kaiser, E D Merkley, B M Hess, A Lin, M G Warner
The process of sporulation is vital for the stability and infectious cycle of Bacillus anthracis. The spore is the infectious form of the organism and therefore relevant to biodefense. While the morphological and molecular events occurring during sporulation have been well studied, the influence of growth medium and temperature on the proteins expressed in sporulated cultures is not well understood. Understanding the features of B. anthracis sporulation specific to natural vs. laboratory production will address an important question in microbial forensics...
November 22, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145870/bacillus-anthracis-gamma-phage-lysis-among-soil-bacteria-an-update-on-test-specificity
#20
Cari B Kolton, Nicole L Podnecky, Sean V Shadomy, Jay E Gee, Alex R Hoffmaster
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and animals, is enzootic in parts of the U.S. state of Texas where cases are typically reported in animals annually. The gamma phage lysis assay is a common diagnostic method for identification of B. anthracis and is based on the bacterium's susceptibility to lysis. This test has been shown to be 97% specific for B. anthracis, as a small number of strains of other Bacillus spp. are known to be susceptible. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a combination of B...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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