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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136087/the-utility-and-perspectives-of-ngs-based-methods-in-bsl-3-and-bsl-4-laboratory-sequencing-and-analysis-strategies
#1
Tomasz Wolkowicz
Modern diagnostics is in general based on molecular biology methods. Nowadays sequencing-based methods, especially whole genome sequencing, are becoming increasingly important. Implementation of such methods into routine diagnostic of highly dangerous pathogens, like Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Ebola virus, MERS, Lassa virus etc. would be very helpful. The best diagnostic strategy would be the metagenomic sequencing directly from the clinical sample. Implementation of majority of currently available WGS platforms inside the BSL-3 or 4 laboratory is impractical because of the size of the equipment and time consuming wet lab part (e...
November 10, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#2
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133571/development-of-protective-immunity-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits-challenged-with-bacillus-anthracis-spores-and-treated-with-antibiotics-and-obiltoxaximab-a-monoclonal-antibody-against-protective-antigen
#3
Lisa N Henning, Sarah Carpenter, Gregory V Stark, Natalya V Serbina
Recommended management of inhalational anthrax, a high-priority bioterrorist threat, includes antibiotics and antitoxins. Obiltoxaximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against anthrax Protective Antigen (PA) is licensed under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Animal Rule for treatment of inhalational anthrax. Because of spore latency, disease re-emergence after treatment cessation is a concern and there is a need to understand development of endogenous protective immune responses following antitoxin-containing anthrax treatment regimens...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125719/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-obiltoxaximab-after-intramuscular-administration-to-healthy-humans
#4
Christa F Nagy, Timothy S Leach, Alex King, Robert Guttendorf
Inhalational anthrax is a highly lethal infection caused by Bacillus anthracis and a serious bioterrorism threat. Protective antigen (PA) is a critical component required for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that neutralizes PA, is approved in the United States for intravenous use for the treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or appropriate...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122874/whole-genome-sequences-of-variants-of-bacillus-anthracis-sterne-and-their-toxin-gene-deletion-mutants
#5
A Staab, R D Plaut, C Pratt, S P Lovett, M R Wiley, T D Biggs, R C Bernhards, L C Beck, G F Palacios, S Stibitz, K L Jones, B G Goodwin, M A Smith, S Sozhamannan
Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three laboratory variants of Bacillus anthracis Sterne and their double (Δlef Δcya) and triple (Δpag Δlef Δcya) toxin gene deletion derivatives.
November 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113932/rapid-identification-of-bacillus-anthracis-by-real-time-pcr-with-dual-hybridization-probes-in-environmental-swabs
#6
Olga Bassy, Óscar Jiménez-Mateo, M Victoria Ortega, Carmen Granja, Juan Carlos Cabria
In the present study, we report the development of a real-time PCR assay for the identification of Bacillus anthracis, based on the amplification of a unique chromosomal marker, the E4 sequence, with dual hybridization probes. The assay was evaluated using a panel of ten B. anthracis strains, two B. anthracis isolates from human clinical samples, 12 B. anthracis environmental swabs and 40 non- B. anthracis strains. All 12 B. anthracis strains and clinical isolates were correctly detected, and the method did not show cross-reactions with other micro-organisms...
November 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098371/effect-of-humidity-on-sporicidal-activity-of-iodine-vapor-on-bacillus-thuringiensis
#7
Xuesong Jiang, Kyle R Overdeep, Elliot R Wainwright, Timothy P Weihs, Hai-Quan Mao
The emergence of Bacillus anthracis as a potential bioterrorism and biological warfare agent points to the need for safe, effective, and economical sporicides for infection prevention and control. This work examined the efficacy of iodine vapor decontamination technologies to inactivate a surrogate for B. anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis spores on glass materials. 10(6)-10(7) colony-forming units of spores inoculated onto circular glass cover slips were treated with different concentrations of iodine vapor under various temperature and relative humidity...
November 2, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095156/structure-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-dtdp-l-rhamnose-biosynthetic-enzyme-glucose-1-phosphate-thymidylyltransferase-rfba
#8
Jackson Baumgartner, Jesi Lee, Andrei S Halavaty, George Minasov, Wayne F Anderson, Misty L Kuhn
L-Rhamnose is a ubiquitous bacterial cell-wall component. The biosynthetic pathway for its precursor dTDP-L-rhamnose is not present in humans, which makes the enzymes of the pathway potential drug targets. In this study, the three-dimensional structure of the first protein of this pathway, glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RfbA), from Bacillus anthracis was determined. In other organisms this enzyme is referred to as RmlA. RfbA was co-crystallized with the products of the enzymatic reaction, dTDP-α-D-glucose and pyrophosphate, and its structure was determined at 2...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083419/patb1-is-an-o-acetyltransferase-that-decorates-secondary-cell-wall-polysaccharides
#9
David Sychantha, Dustin J Little, Robert N Chapman, Geert-Jan Boons, Howard Robinson, P Lynne Howell, Anthony J Clarke
O-Acetylation of the secondary cell wall polysaccharides (SCWP) of the Bacillus cereus group of pathogens, which includes Bacillus anthracis, is essential for the proper attachment of surface-layer (S-layer) proteins to their cell walls. Using a variety of pseudosubstrates and a chemically synthesized analog of SCWP, we report here the identification of PatB1 as a SCWP O-acetyltransferase in Bacillus cereus. Additionally, we report the crystal structure of PatB1, which provides detailed insights into the mechanism of this enzyme and defines a novel subfamily of the SGNH family of esterases and lipases...
October 30, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059238/bacillus-anthracis-lethal-toxin-negatively-modulates-ilc3-function-through-perturbation-of-il-23-mediated-mapk-signaling
#10
Sudarshan Seshadri, David S J Allan, James R Carlyle, Lauren A Zenewicz
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes lethal toxin that down-regulates immune functions. Translocation of B. anthracis across mucosal epithelia is key for its dissemination and pathogenesis. Group 3 innate lymphocytes (ILC3s) are important in mucosal barrier maintenance due to their expression of the cytokine IL-22, a critical regulator of tissue responses and repair during homeostasis and inflammation. We found that B. anthracis lethal toxin perturbed ILC3 function in vitro and in vivo, revealing an unknown IL-23-mediated MAPK signaling pathway...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058092/anthrax-immune-globulin-improves-hemodynamics-and-survival-during-b-anthracis-toxin-induced-shock-in-canines-receiving-titrated-fluid-and-vasopressor-support
#11
Dante A Suffredini, Xizhong Cui, Dharmvir Jaswal, Kenneth E Remy, Yan Li, Junfeng Sun, Steven B Solomon, Yvonne Fitz, Mahtab Moayeri, Stephen Leppla, Peter Q Eichacker
BACKGROUND: Although anthrax immune globulin (AIG) improved survival in antibiotic-treated Bacillus anthracis-challenged animal models, whether it adds to the benefit of conventional hemodynamic support for B. anthracis toxin-associated shock is unknown. METHODS: We therefore tested AIG in sedated, mechanically ventilated canines challenged with 24-h B. anthracis lethal and edema toxin infusions and supported for 96 h with a previously demonstrated protective regimen of titrated normal saline and norepinephrine...
October 23, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053428/dust-bathing-behaviors-of-african-herbivores-and-the-potential-risk-of-inhalational-anthrax
#12
Zoe R Barandongo, John K E Mfune, Wendy C Turner
Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045884/effect-of-phosphate-ion-on-the-structure-of-lumazine-synthase-an-antigen-presentation-system-from-bacillus-anthracis
#13
Yangjie Wei, Newton Wahome, Prashant Kumar, Neal Whitaker, Wendy L Picking, C Russell Middaugh
Lumazine synthase (LS) is an oligomeric enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of riboflavin in microorganisms, fungi and plants. LS has become of significant interest to biomedical science because of its critical biological role and attractive structural properties for antigen presentation in vaccines. LS derived from Bacillus anthracis (BaLS) consists of 60 identical subunits forming an icosahedron. Its crystal structure has been solved, but its dynamic conformational properties have not yet been studied. We investigated the conformation of BaLS in response to different stress conditions (e...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042503/erratum-for-hagan-et-al-petrobactin-is-exported-from-bacillus-anthracis-by-the-rnd-type-exporter-apex
#14
A K Hagan, A Tripathi, D Berger, D H Sherman, P C Hanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041790/a-retrospective-study-of-anthrax-on-the-ghaap-plateau-northern-cape-province-of-south-africa-with-special-reference-to-the-2007-2008-outbreaks
#15
Ayesha Hassim, Edgar H Dekker, Charles Byaruhanga, Tommy Reardon, Henriette Van Heerden
Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-positive, endospore-forming and soil-borne bacterium Bacillus anthracis. When in spore form, the organism can survive in dormancy in the environment for decades. It is a controlled disease of livestock and wild ungulates in South Africa. In South Africa, the two enzootic regions are the Kruger National Park and the Ghaap Plateau in the Northern Cape province. Farms on the Plateau span thousands of hectares comprising of wildlife - livestock mixed use farming...
September 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034628/-screening-of-full-human-anthrax-lethal-factor-neutralizing-antibody-in-transgenic-mice
#16
Xiaolin Wang, Xiangyang Chi, Ju Liu, Weicen Liu, Shuling Liu, Shunfang Qiu, Zhonghua Wen, Pengfei Fan, Kun Liu, Xiaohong Song, Ling Fu, Jun Zhang, Changming Yu
Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The major virulence factor of B. anthracis consists of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). PA binds with LF to form lethal toxin (LT), and PA binds with EF to form edema toxin (ET). Antibiotics is hard to work in advanced anthrax infections, because injuries and deaths of the infected are mainly caused by lethal toxin (LT). Thus, the therapeutic neutralizing antibody is the most effective treatment of anthrax...
November 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029417/anti-tumor-activity-of-anthrax-toxin-variants-that-form-a-functional-translocation-pore-by-intermolecular-complementation
#17
Shihui Liu, Qian Ma, Rasem Fattah, Thomas H Bugge, Stephen H Leppla
Anthrax lethal toxin is a typical A-B type protein toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. Lethal factor (LF) is the catalytic A-subunit, a metalloprotease having MEKs as targets. LF relies on the cell-binding B-subunit, protective antigen (PA), to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. PA binds to cell surface toxin receptors and is activated by furin protease to form an LF-binding-competent oligomer-PA pre-pore, which converts to a functional protein-conductive pore in the acidic endocytic vesicles, allowing translocation of LF into the cytosol...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021156/safety-and-accuracy-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-to-identify-highly-pathogenic-organisms
#18
James T Rudrik, Marty K Soehnlen, Michael J Perry, Maureen Sullivan, Wanda Reiter-Kintz, Philip A Lee, Denise Pettit, Anthony Tran, Erin Swaney
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization -- time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) sample preparation methods including the direct, on-plate formic acid, and ethanol/formic acid tube extraction were evaluated for their ability to render highly pathogenic organisms non-viable and safe for handling in a Biosafety Level-2 laboratory. Of these, the tube extraction procedure was the most successful, with none of the tested strains surviving this sample preparation method. Tube extracts from several agents of bioterrorism and their near neighbors were analyzed in an eight laboratory study to examine the utility of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS MALDI-TOF MS systems and their IVD, research use only, and Security-Relevant databases, as applicable, to accurately identify these agents...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991912/the-cody-dependent-clhab2-operon-is-involved-in-cell-shape-chaining-and-autolysis-in-bacillus-cereus-atcc-14579
#19
Eugénie Huillet, Ludovic Bridoux, Pagakrong Wanapaisan, Agnès Rejasse, Qi Peng, Watanalai Panbangred, Didier Lereclus
The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus cereus is able to grow in chains of rod-shaped cells, but the regulation of chaining remains largely unknown. Here, we observe that glucose-grown cells of B. cereus ATCC 14579 form longer chains than those grown in the absence of glucose during the late exponential and transition growth phases, and identify that the clhAB2 operon is required for this chain lengthening phenotype. The clhAB2 operon is specific to the B. cereus group (i.e., B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982993/high-quality-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-anthracis-strain-14ra5914-isolated-during-an-outbreak-in-germany-in-2014
#20
Mandy C Elschner, Anne Busch, Annette Schliephake, Wolfgang Gaede, Eric Zuchantke, Herbert Tomaso
Bacillus anthracis is a zoonotic agent causing anthrax, a notifiable disease in animals. The last anthrax outbreak among cattle in Germany occurred in April 2014 in Saxony-Anhalt. Here we report a high-quality genome sequence of the Bacillus anthracis strain 14RA5914 Dobichau isolated from the spleen of a dead cow.
October 5, 2017: Genome Announcements
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