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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533492/anti-tumor-activity-of-anthrax-toxin-variants-that-form-a-functional-translocation-pore-by-intermolecular-complementation
#1
Shihui Liu, Qian Ma, Rasem Fattah, Thomas H Bugge, Stephen H Leppla
Anthrax lethal toxin is a typical A-B type protein toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. Lethal factor (LF) is the catalytic A-subunit, a metalloprotease having MEKs as targets. LF relies on the cell-binding B-subunit, protective antigen (PA), to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. PA binds to cell surface toxin receptors and is activated by furin protease to form an LF-binding-competent oligomer-PA pre-pore, which converts to a functional protein-conductive pore in the acidic endocytic vesicles, allowing translocation of LF into the cytosol...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522726/draft-genome-sequences-of-bacillus-cereus-e41-and-bacillus-anthracis-f34-isolated-from-algerian-salt-lakes
#2
Mohamed Seghir Daas, Albert Remus R Rosana, Jeella Z Acedo, Farida Nateche, Salima Kebbouche-Gana, John C Vederas, Rebecca J Case
Two strains of Bacillus, B. cereus E41 and B. anthracis F34, were isolated from a salt lake in Aïn M'lila-Oum El Bouaghi, eastern Algeria, and Ain Baida-Ouargla, southern Algeria, respectively. Their genomes display genes for the production of several bioactive secondary metabolites, including polyhydroxyalkanoate, iron siderophores, lipopeptides, and bacteriocins.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512703/metal-homeostasis-in-bacteria-the-role-of-arsr-smtb-family-of-transcriptional-repressors-in-combating-varying-metal-concentrations-in-the-environment
#3
REVIEW
Rudra P Saha, Saikat Samanta, Surajit Patra, Diganta Sarkar, Abinit Saha, Manoj Kumar Singh
Bacterial infections cause severe medical problems worldwide, resulting in considerable death and loss of capital. With the ever-increasing rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the lack of development of new antibiotics, research on metal-based antimicrobial therapy has now gained pace. Metal ions are essential for survival, but can be highly toxic to organisms if their concentrations are not strictly controlled. Through evolution, bacteria have acquired complex metal-management systems that allow them to acquire metals that they need for survival in different challenging environments while evading metal toxicity...
May 16, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508147/identification-of-beta-lactamases-and-beta-lactam-related-proteins-in-human-pathogenic-bacteria-using-a-computational-search-approach
#4
Aniel Jessica Leticia Brambila-Tapia, Ernesto Perez-Rueda, Humberto Barrios, Nory Omayra Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ernesto Germán Cardona-Muñoz, Mario Salazar-Páramo
A systematic analysis of beta-lactamases based on comparative proteomics has not been performed thus far. In this report, we searched for the presence of beta-lactam-related proteins in 591 bacterial proteomes belonging to 52 species that are pathogenic to humans. The amino acid sequences for 19 different types of beta-lactamases (ACT, CARB, CifA, CMY, CTX, FOX, GES, GOB, IMP, IND, KPC, LEN, OKP, OXA, OXY, SHV, TEM, NDM, and VIM) were obtained from the ARG-ANNOT database and were used to construct 19 HMM profiles, which were used to identify potential beta-lactamases in the completely sequenced bacterial proteomes...
May 16, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506101/evaluation-of-personal-inhalable-aerosol-samplers-with-different-filters-for-use-during-anthrax-responses
#5
Sergey A Grinshpun, Angela M Weber, Michael Yermakov, Reshmi Indugula, Yousef Elmashae, Tiina Reponen, Laura Rose
Risk of inhalation exposure to viable Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis) spores has primarily been assessed using short-term, stationary sampling methods which may not accurately characterize the concentration of inhalable-sized spores reaching a person's breathing zone. While a variety of aerosol sampling methods have been utilized during previous anthrax responses, no consensus has yet been established for personal air sampling. The goal of this study was to determine the best sampler-filter combination(s) for the collection and extraction of B...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496437/bacillus-anthracis-peptidoglycan-integrity-is-disrupted-by-the-chemokine-cxcl10-through-the-ftse-x-complex
#6
Katie R Margulieux, Benjamin K Liebov, Venkata S K K S Tirumala, Arpita Singh, John H Bushweller, Robert K Nakamoto, Molly A Hughes
The antimicrobial activity of the chemokine CXCL10 against vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis occurs via both bacterial FtsE/X-dependent and-independent pathways. Previous studies established that the FtsE/X-dependent pathway was mediated through interaction of the N-terminal region(s) of CXCL10 with a functional FtsE/X complex, while the FtsE/X-independent pathway was mediated through the C-terminal α-helix of CXCL10. Both pathways result in cell lysis and death of B. anthracis. In other bacterial species, it has been shown that FtsE/X is involved in cellular elongation though activation of complex-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495766/ten-genome-sequences-of-human-and-livestock-isolates-of-bacillus-anthracis-from-the-country-of-georgia
#7
Ekaterine Khmaladze, Giorgi Dzavashvili, Gvantsa Chanturia, Mikeljon P Nikolich, Patrick S G Chain, Shannon L Johnson, Paata Imnadze
Bacillus anthracis causes the acute fatal disease anthrax, is a proven biological weapon, and is endemic in Georgia, where human and animal cases are reported annually. Here, we present whole-genome sequences of 10 historical B. anthracis strains from Georgia.
May 11, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481931/high-stringency-evaluation-of-the-inactivation-exclusion-efficacy-of-a-maldi-tof-ms-chemical-extraction-method-with-filtration-of-extract-through-0-1-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-filters-on-bacillus-anthracis-vollum-vegetative-cells-and-spores
#8
Simon A Weller, Jennie Latham
A previous report indicated that a formic acid chemical extraction method for the preparation of protein extracts for matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification, with filtration of extracts through 0.2 μm regenerated cellulose (RC) filters, would not reliably inactivate or exclude Bacillus anthracis Vollum cells or spores when tested under high stringency conditions. B. anthracis was recovered from 13/36 extracts (3/18 from vegetative cell extracts and 10/18 from bacterial spore extracts)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475305/elucidation-of-the-recognition-sequence-of-sortase-b-from-bacillus-anthracis-by-using-a-newly-developed-lc-ms-based-method
#9
Chasper Puorger, Salvatore Di Girolamo, Georg Lipps
Sortases are enzymes which are responsible for the attachment of secreted proteins to the cell wall of Gram positive bacteria. Hereby the sortases recognize short, five residues long amino acid sequences present in the target proteins and fuse them to the peptidoglycan layer via a transpeptidation reaction, creating a new peptide bond between the C-terminus of the recognition sequence and the cell wall. The transpeptidation activity of sortases is highly used in protein engineering for modification of target proteins...
May 5, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472295/biochemical-characterization-of-the-gtp-sensing-protein-cody-of-bacillus-anthracis
#10
Shikha Joon, Monisha Gopalani, Amit Rahi, Parul Kulshreshtha, Himanshu Gogoi, Sonika Bhatnagar, Rakesh Bhatnagar
The pleiotropism of the GTP-sensing transcriptional regulator CodY is evident by the gamut of processes that it regulates in almost all low G+C gram-positive bacteria, including general metabolism, biosynthesis of some amino acids and transport systems, nitrogen uptake, sporulation, biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. The role of CodY in virulence has been established in Bacillus anthracis, the top rated bioterrorism agent. In this study, we investigated the biochemical attributes of this global regulator...
May 3, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472119/comparative-analysis-of-the-sensitivity-of-metagenomic-sequencing-and-pcr-to-detect-a-biowarfare-simulant-bacillus-atrophaeus-in-soil-samples
#11
Delphine Plaire, Simon Puaud, Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat, Jean-Marc Elalouf
To evaluate the sensitivity of high-throughput DNA sequencing for monitoring biowarfare agents in the environment, we analysed soil samples inoculated with different amounts of Bacillus atrophaeus, a surrogate organism for Bacillus anthracis. The soil samples considered were a poorly carbonated soil of the silty sand class, and a highly carbonated soil of the silt class. Control soil samples and soil samples inoculated with 10, 103, or 105 cfu were processed for DNA extraction. About 1% of the DNA extracts was analysed through the sequencing of more than 108 reads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472044/the-putative-drug-efflux-systems-of-the-bacillus-cereus-group
#12
Karl A Hassan, Annette Fagerlund, Liam D H Elbourne, Aniko Vörös, Jasmin K Kroeger, Roger Simm, Nicolas J Tourasse, Sarah Finke, Peter J F Henderson, Ole Andreas Økstad, Ian T Paulsen, Anne-Brit Kolstø
The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes seven closely related species, three of which, B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, are pathogens of humans, animals and/or insects. Preliminary investigations into the transport capabilities of different bacterial lineages suggested that genes encoding putative efflux systems were unusually abundant in the B. cereus group compared to other bacteria. To explore the drug efflux potential of the B. cereus group all putative efflux systems were identified in the genomes of prototypical strains of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442608/unexpected-relations-of-historical-anthrax-strain
#13
M H Antwerpen, J W Sahl, D Birdsell, T Pearson, M J Pearce, C Redmond, H Meyer, P S Keim
In 1998, it was claimed that an 80-year-old glass tube intentionally filled with Bacillus anthracis and embedded in a sugar lump as a WWI biological weapon still contained viable spores. Today, genome sequencing of three colonies isolated in 1998 and subjected to phylogenetic analysis surprisingly identified a well-known B. anthracis reference strain isolated in the United States in 1981, pointing to accidental laboratory contamination.IMPORTANCE Next-generation sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analyses are useful and reliable tools for the classification of recent and historical samples...
April 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438974/b-anthracis-edema-toxin-increases-fractional-free-water-and-sodium-reabsorption-in-an-isolated-perfused-rat-kidney-model
#14
Dharmvir S Jaswal, Xizhong Cui, Parizad Torabi-Parizi, Lernik Ohanjanian, Hannish Sampath-Kumar, Yvonne Fitz, Yan Li, Wanying Xu, Peter Q Eichacker
Introduction:B. anthracis edema toxin (ET) consists of protective antigen (PA), necessary for host cell toxin uptake, and edema factor (EF), the toxic moiety which increases host cell cAMP. Since vasopressin stimulates renal water and sodium reabsorption via increased tubular cell cAMP, we hypothesized ET would also. To test this hypothesis, we employed an isolated perfused rat kidney model. Methods and Results: Kidneys were isolated and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit. Perfusate and urine samples were obtained at baseline and every 10 minutes over 150 minutes following addition to the perfusate of challenges with or without treatments...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428293/draft-genome-sequence-of-bacillus-cereus-la2007-a-human-pathogenic-isolate-harboring-anthrax-like-plasmids
#15
Angela Pena-Gonzalez, Chung K Marston, Luis M Rodriguez-R, Cari B Kolton, Julia Garcia-Diaz, Amanda Theppote, Michael Frace, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Alex R Hoffmaster
We present the genome sequence of Bacillus cereus LA2007, a strain isolated in 2007 from a fatal pneumonia case in Louisiana. Sequence-based genome analysis revealed that LA2007 carries a plasmid highly similar to Bacillus anthracis pXO1, including the genes responsible for the production and regulation of anthrax toxin.
April 20, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426247/response-to-letter-on-immunoassays-for-field-screening-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-ricin
#16
Richard M Ozanich, Rachel A Bartholomew, Cynthia J Bruckner-Lea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418740/immunoassays-for-field-screening-of-bacillus-anthracis-and-ricin
#17
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418302/anthrax-cases-associated-with-animal-hair-shaving-brushes
#18
Christine M Szablewski, Kate Hendricks, William A Bower, Sean V Shadomy, Nathaniel Hupert
During the First World War, anthrax cases in the United States and England increased greatly and seemed to be associated with use of new shaving brushes. Further investigation revealed that the source material and origin of shaving brushes had changed during the war. Cheap brushes of imported horsehair were being made to look like the preferred badger-hair brushes. Unfortunately, some of these brushes were not effectively disinfected and brought with them a nasty stowaway: Bacillus anthracis. A review of outbreak summaries, surveillance data, and case reports indicated that these cases originated from the use of ineffectively disinfected animal-hair shaving brushes...
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415766/anti-proliferative-role-of-recombinant-lethal-toxin-of-bacillus-anthracis-on-primary-mammary-ductal-carcinoma-cells-revealing-its-therapeutic-potential
#19
Rekha Khandia, Bramhadev Pattnaik, Katherukamem Rajukumar, Atul Pateriya, Sandeep Bhatia, Harshad Murugkar, Anil Prakash, Hare Krishna Pradhan, Kuldeep Dhama, Ashok Munjal, Sunil K Joshi
Bacillus anthracis secretes three secretary proteins; lethal factor (LF), protective antigen (PA) and edema factor (EF). The LF has ability to check proliferation of mammary tumors, chiefly depending on mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of recombinant LF (rLF), recombinant PA (rPA) and lethal toxin (rLF + rPA = LeTx) on the primary mammary ductal carcinoma cells revealed significant (p < 0.01) reduction in proliferation of tumor cells with mean inhibition indices of 28...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415384/preparation-and-characterization-of-expanded-graphite-metal-oxides-for-antimicrobial-application
#20
Wei-Che Hung, Kuo-Hui Wu, Dong-Yi Lyu, Ken-Fa Cheng, Wen-Chien Huang
Composite materials based on expanded graphite (EG) and metal oxide (MO) particles was prepared by an explosive combustion and blending method. The objective of the study was to develop EG impregnated with metal oxide particulates (Ag2O, CuO and ZnO) and evaluate the level of protection the materials conferred against biological agents. The physical properties of the EG/MO composites were examined using SEM, EDX and XRD spectroscopy, and the results indicated that the MO particles were incorporated into the EG matrix after impregnation...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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