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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333677/diminished-alternative-reinforcement-as-a-mechanism-linking-conduct-problems-and-substance-use-in-adolescence-a-longitudinal-examination
#1
Rubin Khoddam, Junhan Cho, N J Jackson, Adam M Leventhal
AIMS: To determine whether diminished alternative reinforcement (i.e., engagement and enjoyment from substance-free activities) mediated the longitudinal association of conduct problems with substance use in early-mid adolescence. DESIGN: Structural equation modeling tested whether the association between Wave 1 (baseline) conduct problems and Wave 3 (24-month follow-up) substance use outcomes was mediated by diminished alternative reinforcement at Wave 2 (12-month follow-up)...
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332004/host-agent-vector-environment-measures-for-electronic-cigarette-research-used-in-nih-grants
#2
Mary L Garcia-Cazarin, Rachel J Mandal, Rachel Grana, Kay L Wanke, Helen I Meissner
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the focus and comprehensiveness of domains measured in e-cigarette research. METHODS: A portfolio analysis of National Institutes of Health grants focusing on e-cigarette research and funded between the fiscal years 2007 and 2015 was conducted. Grant proposals were retrieved using a government database and coded using the Host-Agent-Vector-Environment (HAVE) model as a framework to characterise the measures proposed...
January 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330986/use-of-psychoactive-drugs-among-medical-undergraduates-in-abbottabad
#3
Haq Nawaz, Aftab Alam Khan, Saima Bukhari
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance abuse is prevalent among medical undergraduates of Pakistan, India & Western countries which can adversely affect the physical & psychological grooming of a medical undergraduate thus threatening to compromise their role as future physicians & health-care providers in the society. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance/drug consumption among undergraduate students of a public sector medical college in Abbottabad...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330255/high-intensity-cigarette-smoking-is-associated-with-incident-diabetes-mellitus-in-black-adults-the-jackson-heart-study
#4
Wendy B White, Loretta R Cain, Emelia J Benjamin, Andrew P DeFilippis, Michael J Blaha, Wei Wang, Victoria Okhomina, Rachel J Keith, Mahmoud Al Rifai, Sina Kianoush, Michael D Winniford, Rose M Robertson, Aruni Bhatnagar, Adolfo Correa, Michael E Hall
BACKGROUND: Previous reports on whether smoking is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between cigarette smoking and incident diabetes mellitus in the Jackson Heart Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Jackson Heart Study participants enrolled at baseline without prevalent diabetes mellitus (n=2991) were classified by self-report as current smokers, past smokers (smoked ≥400 cigarettes/life and no longer smoking), or never smokers...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330242/patient-perspectives-on-discussions-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-primary-care
#5
Mark P Doescher, Ming Wu, Elizabeth Rainwater, Ali S Khan, Dorothy A Rhoades
PURPOSE: Patient preferences regarding the role of the primary care provider (PCP) in discussing electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are unknown. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional survey to 568 adult patients in a family medicine clinic to explore e-cigarette use, sources of information on e-cigarettes, perceived knowledge about e-cigarette health effects, views regarding PCP knowledge of e-cigarettes, interest in discussing e-cigarettes with PCPs and preferred format for e-cigarette information...
January 2018: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329371/alcohol-use-in-adolescence-and-later-working-memory-findings-from-a-large-population-based-birth-cohort
#6
Liam Mahedy, Matt Field, Suzanne Gage, Gemma Hammerton, Jon Heron, Matt Hickman, Marcus R Munafò
Aims: The study aimed to examine the association between adolescent alcohol use and working memory (WM) using a large population sample. Methods: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to investigate the association between alcohol use at age 15 years and WM 3 years later, assessed using the N-back task (N ~ 3300). A three-category ordinal variable captured mutually exclusive alcohol groupings ranging in order of severity (i.e. low alcohol users, frequent drinkers and frequent/binge drinkers)...
January 10, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329351/educational-gradients-in-the-use-of-electronic-cigarettes-and-heat-not-burn-tobacco-products-in-japan
#7
Yuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Tabuchi
OBJECTIVES: In addition to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), tobacco companies have recently begun to sell heat-not-burn tobacco products, Ploom and iQOS in Japan. Previous research has reported an inverse association between combustible cigarette smoking and educational attainment, but little is known about the association for e-cigarettes, especially heat-not-burn tobacco products. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between educational attainment and e-cigarette and heat-not-burn tobacco use...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326450/cariogenicity-of-e-cigarettes
#8
S Umerji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326298/smoking-duration-alone-provides-stronger-risk-estimates-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-than-pack-years
#9
Surya P Bhatt, Young-Il Kim, Kathy F Harrington, John E Hokanson, Sharon M Lutz, Michael H Cho, Dawn L DeMeo, James M Wells, Barry J Make, Stephen I Rennard, George R Washko, Marilyn G Foreman, Donald P Tashkin, Robert A Wise, Mark T Dransfield, William C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for COPD. Smoking burden is frequently measured in pack-years, but the relative contribution of cigarettes smoked per day versus duration towards the development of structural lung disease, airflow obstruction and functional outcomes is not known. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a large multicentre cohort (COPDGene) of current and former smokers. Primary outcome was airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC); secondary outcomes included five additional measures of disease: FEV1, CT emphysema, CT gas trapping, functional capacity (6 min walk distance, 6MWD) and respiratory morbidity (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ)...
January 11, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324894/the-obesity-epidemic-and-rising-diabetes-incidence-in-a-low-income-racially-diverse-southern-us-cohort
#10
Baqiyyah N Conway, Xijing Han, Heather M Munro, Amy L Gross, Xiao-Ou Shu, Margaret K Hargreaves, Wei Zheng, Alvin C Powers, William J Blot
BACKGROUND: Obesity is known to be a major risk factor for diabetes, but the magnitude of risk and variation between blacks and whites are less well documented in populations heavily affected by obesity. Herein we assess rates and risks of incident diabetes in a diverse southern population where obesity is common. METHODS: A total of 24,000 black and 14,064 white adults aged 40-79 in the Southern Community Cohort Study with no self-reported diabetes at study enrollment during 2002-2009 was followed for up to 10 (median 4...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324732/tobacco-product-use-among-military-veterans-united-states-2010-2015
#11
Satomi Odani, Israel T Agaku, Corinne M Graffunder, Michael A Tynan, Brian S Armour
In 2015, an estimated 18.8 million U.S. adults were military veterans (1). Although the prevalence of tobacco-attributable conditions is high among veterans (2), there is a paucity of data on use of tobacco products, other than cigarettes, in this population. To monitor tobacco product use among veterans, CDC analyzed self-reported current (i.e., past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars [big cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars], roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco [chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or snus]) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324177/tobacco-use-among-adults-by-sexual-orientation-findings-from-the-population-assessment-of-tobacco-and-health-study
#12
Christopher W Wheldon, Annette R Kaufman, Karin A Kasza, Richard P Moser
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize lifetime tobacco use across two measures of sexual orientation and six types of tobacco products. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (Wave 1, 2013-2014, USA) to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, pipes, hookah, and smokeless) stratified by gender (men/women), age (< 25/≥ 25 years old), and sexual orientation...
January 2018: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323610/the-debate-about-electronic-cigarettes-harm-minimization-or-the-precautionary-principle
#13
Lawrence W Green, Jonathan E Fielding, Ross C Brownson
Two contrasting reviews (authored by Abrams et al. and Glanz & Bareham) in this volume have reached opposing conclusions on the effects of electronic cigarettes in a debate that is dividing the scientific and professional communities that have devoted careers to controlling the manufacture, advertising, sale, and use of combustible cigarettes. The research on the types, degree, and extent of harm from e-cigarettes is far from complete and, together with trends in teenage smoking and vaping, has raised new questions and prospects about the potential benefits that the new electronic products offer smokers of combustible cigarettes in quitting or at least cutting back on the known risks associated with the traditional forms of smoking...
January 11, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323609/e-cigarettes-use-effects-on-smoking-risks-and-policy-implications
#14
Stanton A Glantz, David W Bareham
Since e-cigarettes appeared in the mid-2000s, some practitioners, researchers, and policy makers have embraced them as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes and an effective way to stop smoking. While e-cigarettes deliver lower levels of carcinogens than do conventional cigarettes, they still expose users to high levels of ultrafine particles and other toxins that may substantially increase cardiovascular and noncancer lung disease risks, which account for more than half of all smoking-caused deaths, at rates similar to conventional cigarettes...
January 11, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323232/comparison-of-bladder-carcinogens-in-the-urine-of-e-cigarette-users-versus-non-e-cigarette-using-controls
#15
Thomas W Fuller, Abhinav P Acharya, Thiagarajan Meyyappan, Michelle Yu, Godugu Bhaskar, Steven R Little, Tatum V Tarin
Electronic cigarette (EC) use is gaining popularity as a substitute for conventional smoking due to the perception and evidence it represents a safer alternative. In contrast to the common perception amongst users that ECs represent no risk initial studies have revealed a complex composition of e-cigarette liquids. Conventional cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for developing bladder cancer and prior reports raise concern some of those causative compounds may exist in EC liquids or vapor. Urine samples were collected from 13 e-cigarette using subjects and 10 non e-cigarette using controls...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321926/lung-injury-associated-with-electronic-cigarettes-inhalation-diagnosed-by-transbronchial-lung-biopsy
#16
Masayuki Itoh, Kazutetsu Aoshiba, Yoriko Herai, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Tamiko Takemura
A 46-year-old healthy man developed respiratory distress, night sweats, fever, and weight loss after using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) for approximately 1 month. He presented to the hospital when the symptoms worsened 2 months after onset. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination and the following transbronchial lung biopsy examination led to the diagnosis of acute alveolitis: intra-alveolar fibrosis accompanied with exudate containing abundant lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and neutrophils...
January 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321237/differences-in-risk-factors-for-3-types-of-stroke-uk-prospective-study-and-meta-analyses
#17
Alison J Price, F Lucy Wright, Jane Green, Angela Balkwill, Sau Wan Kan, TienYu Owen Yang, Sarah Floud, Mary E Kroll, Rachel Simpson, Cathie L M Sudlow, Valerie Beral, Gillian K Reeves
OBJECTIVE: To compare associations of behavioral and related factors for incident subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 712,433 Million Women Study participants without prior stroke, heart disease, or cancer reported behavioral and related factors at baseline (1999-2007) and were followed up by record linkage to national hospital admission and death databases. Cox regression yielded adjusted relative risks (RRs) by type of stroke...
January 10, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321148/many-smokers-overestimate-e-cigarette-risks-mps-hear
#18
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320670/diagnosing-copd-and-supporting-smoking-cessation-in-general-practice-evidence-practice-gaps
#19
Jenifer Liang, Michael J Abramson, Nicholas A Zwar, Grant M Russell, Anne E Holland, Billie Bonevski, Ajay Mahal, Kirsten Phillips, Paula Eustace, Eldho Paul, Sally Wilson, Johnson George
OBJECTIVES: To review the accuracy of diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care in Australia, and to describe smokers' experiences with and preferences for smoking cessation. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients were invited to participate if they were at least 40 years old and had visited participating general practice clinics in Melbourne at least twice during the previous 12 months, reported being current or ex-smokers with a smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, or were being managed for COPD...
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320661/regulating-e-cigarettes-in-australia-implications-for-tobacco-use-by-young-people
#20
Luke Wolfenden, Emily Stockings, Sze Lin Yoong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
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