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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910069/lkb1-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-uterine-cancer-mouse-models-and-translational-studies
#1
Christopher G Peña, Diego H Castrillón
The LKB1 tumor suppressor was identified in 1998 as the gene mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), a hereditary cancer predisposition characterized by gastrointestinal polyposis and a high incidence of cancers, particularly carcinomas, at a variety of anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and female reproductive tract. Women with PJS have a high incidence of carcinomas of the uterine corpus (endometrium) and cervix. The LKB1 gene is also somatically mutated in human cancers arising at these sites...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909910/biological-mechanisms-for-the-effect-of-obesity-on-cancer-risk-experimental-evidence
#2
Mauricio Berriel Diaz, Stephan Herzig, Tobias Schafmeier
Multiple epidemiological studies demonstrated that overweight and obesity significantly increase the risk of several types of cancer. As the prevalence of obesity is dramatically rising, it is expected that it will represent one of the major lifestyle-associated risk factors for cancer development in the near future. Numerous recent studies expanded knowledge about key players and pathways, which are deregulated in the obese state and potentially promote cancer initiation, progression and aggressiveness via remote and local effects...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909780/interrogating-the-variation-of-element-masses-and-distribution-patterns-in-single-cells-using-icp-ms-with-a-high-efficiency-cell-introduction-system
#3
Hailong Wang, Meng Wang, Bing Wang, Lingna Zheng, Hanqing Chen, Zhifang Chai, Weiyue Feng
Cellular heterogeneity is an inherent condition of cell populations, which results from stochastic expression of genes, proteins, and metabolites. The heterogeneity of individual cells can dramatically influence cellular decision-making and cell fate. So far, our knowledge about how the variation of endogenous metals and non-metals in individual eukaryotic cells is limited. In this study, ICP-MS equipped with a high efficiency cell introduction system (HECIS) was developed as a method of single-cell ICP-MS (SC-ICP-MS)...
December 1, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909692/origin-of-cancer-an-information-energy-and-matter-disease
#4
Rainer G Hanselmann, Cornelius Welter
Cells are open, highly ordered systems that are far away from equilibrium. For this reason, the first function of any cell is to prevent the permanent threat of disintegration that is described by thermodynamic laws and to preserve highly ordered cell characteristics such as structures, the cell cycle, or metabolism. In this context, three basic categories play a central role: energy, information, and matter. Each of these three categories is equally important to the cell and they are reciprocally dependent...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908111/nuclear-quantum-effects-in-a-hiv-cancer-inhibitor-the-case-of-ellipticine
#5
Subrahmanyam Sappati, Ali Hassanali, Ralph Gebauer, Prasenjit Ghosh
Ellipticine is a natural product that is currently being actively investigated for its inhibitory cancer and HIV properties. Here we use path-integral molecular dynamics coupled with excited state calculations to characterize the role of nuclear quantum effects on the structural and electronic properties of ellipticine in water, a common biological solvent. Quantum effects collectively enhance the fluctuations of both light and heavy nuclei of the covalent and hydrogen bonds in ellipticine. In particular, for the ellipticine-water system, where the proton donor and acceptor have different proton affinities, we find that nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) strengthen both the strong and the weak H bonds...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907910/a-mononucleotide-repeat-in-prrt2-is-an-important-frequent-target-of-mismatch-repair-deficiency-in-cancer
#6
Inês Teles Alves, David Cano, René Böttcher, Hetty van der Korput, Winand Dinjens, Guido Jenster, Jan Trapman
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects DNA replication mismatches thereby contributing to the maintenance of genomic stability. MMR deficiency has been observed in prostate cancer but its impact on the genomic landscape of these tumours is not known. In order to identify MMR associated mutations in prostate cancer we have performed whole genome sequencing of the MMR deficient PC346C prostate cancer cell line. We detected a total of 1196 mutations in PC346C which was 1.5-fold higher compared to a MMR proficient prostate cancer sample (G089)...
November 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906042/what-is-the-impact-of-biologic-therapies-on-common-co-morbidities-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
REVIEW
Jenny Humphreys, Kimme Hyrich, Deborah Symmons
Biologic therapies have revolutionised disease control in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Theoretically, they have the potential to influence co-morbid disease associated with RA through better control of systemic inflammation. Conversely, co-morbidity may occur as an adverse effect of the drugs. The latest evidence from observational data shows an increased risk of infection in the first 6 months of treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapies and potentially other biologic therapies...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905893/computational-prediction-of-multidisciplinary-team-decision-making-for-adjuvant-breast-cancer-drug-therapies-a-machine-learning-approach
#8
Frank P Y Lin, Adrian Pokorny, Christina Teng, Rachel Dear, Richard J Epstein
BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings are used to optimise expert decision-making about treatment options, but such expertise is not digitally transferable between centres. To help standardise medical decision-making, we developed a machine learning model designed to predict MDT decisions about adjuvant breast cancer treatments. METHODS: We analysed MDT decisions regarding adjuvant systemic therapy for 1065 breast cancer cases over eight years. Machine learning classifiers with and without bootstrap aggregation were correlated with MDT decisions (recommended, not recommended, or discussable) regarding adjuvant cytotoxic, endocrine and biologic/targeted therapies, then tested for predictability using stratified ten-fold cross-validations...
December 1, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905872/knockdown-of-ggct-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-induces-late-apoptosis-in-human-gastric-cancer
#9
Wenjie Zhang, Lei Chen, Honggang Xiang, Chunhua Hu, Weibin Shi, Ping Dong, Wenjie Lv
BACKGROUND: Gamma glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) has been proved to be involved in various cancers, but the biological function of GGCT in gastric cancer is still largely unknown. METHODS: The expression level of GGCT was evaluated by informatics analyses based on the Oncomine database. GGCT gene was then effectively knocked down via lentivirus mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system. Then a series of functional assays, including MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry analysis were conducted on gastric cancer cells following GGCT knockdown...
December 1, 2016: BMC Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905327/potential-therapeutic-effect-of-epigenetic-therapy-on-treatment-induced-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer
#10
Xiang Xu, Yu-Hua Huang, Yan-Jing Li, Alexa Cohen, Zhen Li, Jill Squires, Wei Zhang, Xu-Feng Chen, Min Zhang, Jiao-Ti Huang
Although adenocarcinomas of the prostate are relatively indolent, some patients with advanced adenocarcinomas show recurrence of treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer, which is highly aggressive and lethal. Detailed biological features of treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer have not been characterized owing to limited biopsies/resections and the lack of a cellular model. In this study, we used a unique cellular model (LNCaP/NE1.8) to investigate the potential role of cancer stem cells in treatment-induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer with acquired resistance to hormonal therapy and chemotherapy...
November 29, 2016: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905019/multi-disciplinary-concurrent-management-of-recurrent-hepatocellular-therapy-is-superior-to-sequential-therapy
#11
Tyler D Fields, Prejesh Philips, Charles R Scoggins, Cliff Tatum, Lawrence Kelly, Kelly M McMasters, Robert C G Martin
BACKGROUND: Recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after a patient's initial therapy, whether it is transplantation, resection, or ablation, remains a challenging clinical problem. Since recurrence occurs in 70% of all initially treated disease within 5 years, optimal management to treat this recurrence is needed. Currently, a bias exists toward mono-therapy (i.e., ablation alone, hepatic arterial therapy alone, or sorafenib therapy alone) instead of concurrent sequential therapy-as is common in other primary and metastatic disease to the liver...
November 30, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903675/a-pam50-based-chemo-endocrine-score-for-hormone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-with-an-intermediate-risk-of-relapse
#12
Aleix Prat, Ana Lluch, Arran K Turnbull, Anita K Dunbier, Lourdes Calvo, Joan Albanell, Juan de la Haba-Rodríguez, Angels Arcusa, Ignacio Chacón, Pedro Sánchez-Rovira, Arrate Plazaola, Montse Muñoz, Laia Paré, Joel S Parker, Nuria Ribelles, Begona Jimenez, Abdul Aziz Bin Aiderus, Rosalía Caballero, Barbara Adamo, Mitch Dowsett, Eva M Carrasco, Miguel Martín, J Michael Dixon, Charles M Perou, Emilio Alba
PURPOSE: Hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer is clinically and biologically heterogeneous and subgroups with different prognostic and treatment sensitivities need to be identified. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Research-based PAM50 subtyping and expression of additional genes was performed on 63 patients with HR+/HER2- disease randomized to neoadjuvant multi-agent chemotherapy versus endocrine therapy in a phase II trial. The biology associated with treatment response was used to derive a PAM50-based Chemo-Endocrine Score (CES)...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903453/repair-of-8-oxo-7-8-dihydroguanine-in-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-cells-properties-and-biological-roles-of-the-fpg-and-ogg1-dna-n-glycosylases
#13
Serge Boiteux, Franck Coste, Bertrand Castaing
Oxidatively damaged DNA results from the attack of sugar and base moieties by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed as byproducts of normal cell metabolism and during exposure to endogenous or exogenous chemical or physical agents. Guanine, having the lowest redox potential, is the DNA base the most susceptible to oxidation, yielding products such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2-6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG). In DNA, 8-oxoG was shown to be mutagenic yielding GC to TA transversions upon incorporation of dAMP opposite this lesion by replicative DNA polymerases...
November 26, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903179/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-from-pulmonary-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-a-japanese-multi-institutional-cooperative-study-jlgk1401
#14
Takuya Kawabe, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yasunori Sato, Shoji Yomo, Takeshi Kondoh, Osamu Nagano, Toru Serizawa, Takahiko Tsugawa, Hisayo Okamoto, Atsuya Akabane, Kazuyasu Aita, Manabu Sato, Hidefumi Jokura, Jun Kawagishi, Takashi Shuto, Hideya Kawai, Akihito Moriki, Hiroyuki Kenai, Yoshiyasu Iwai, Masazumi Gondo, Toshinori Hasegawa, Soichiro Yasuda, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Yasushi Nagatomo, Shinya Watanabe, Naoya Hashimoto
OBJECTIVE In 1999, the World Health Organization categorized large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the lung as a variant of large cell carcinoma, and LCNEC now accounts for 3% of all lung cancers. Although LCNEC is categorized among the non-small cell lung cancers, its biological behavior has recently been suggested to be very similar to that of a small cell pulmonary malignancy. The clinical outcome for patients with LCNEC is generally poor, and the optimal treatment for this malignancy has not yet been established...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903152/obesity-and-cancer-mechanisms-cancer-metabolism
#15
Benjamin D Hopkins, Marcus D Goncalves, Lewis C Cantley
Obesity is a risk factor for cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple tumor types. The positive energy balance linked with obesity induces a variety of systemic changes including altered levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, leptin, adiponectin, steroid hormones, and cytokines. Each of these factors alters the nutritional milieu and has the potential to create an environment that favors tumor initiation and progression. Although the complete ramifications of obesity as it relates to cancer are still unclear, there is convincing evidence that reducing the magnitude of the systemic hormonal and inflammatory changes has significant clinical benefits...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903146/association-of-obesity-related-metabolic-disruptions-with-cancer-risk-and-outcome
#16
Ana Elisa Lohmann, Pamela J Goodwin, Rowan T Chlebowski, Kathy Pan, Vuk Stambolic, Ryan J O Dowling
Over the past 40 years, the prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically worldwide, which raises significant concerns regarding public health and the associated economic burden. Obesity is a major risk factor for several conditions including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and recent evidence suggests that obesity negatively affects cancer risk and outcome. The relationship between obesity and cancer is complex and involves multiple factors both at the systemic and cellular level. Indeed, disruptions in insulin metabolism, adipokines, inflammation, and sex hormones all contribute to the adverse effects of obesity in cancer development and progression...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899774/-a-review-multigene-assays-for-clinical-utility-in-breast-cancer
#17
Kazuhiro Araki, Yoshinori Ito
Multigene assays that simultaneously measure the expression of various breast cancer genes have been developed to guide the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer. The efficacy of adjuvant therapies depends on the recurrence risk for an individual patient. As a result, accurate prediction of the recurrence risk is vital for precise adjuvant chemotherapy in individual breast cancer patients. The recurrence risk as typically assessed by conventional examination of histological data of immuno-histological biomarkers(ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67)is not sufficient to select subsets of patients...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897454/considerations-for-standardizing-predictive-molecular-pathology-for-cancer-prognosis
#18
Michelangelo Fiorentino, Marina Scarpelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Rodolfo Montironi
Molecular tests that were once ancillary to the core business of cyto-histopathology are becoming the third most relevant workload in pathology departments after histopathology/cytopathology and before autopsies. This has resulted from innovations in molecular biology techniques, which have developed at an incredibly fast pace. Areas covered: Most of the current widely used techniques in molecular pathology such as FISH, direct sequencing, pyrosequencing, and allele-specific PCR will be replaced by massive parallel sequencing that will not be considered next generation, but rather, will be considered to be current generation sequencing...
November 29, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896739/integrating-heterogeneous-datasets-for-cancer-module-identification
#19
A K M Azad
The availability of multiple heterogeneous high-throughput datasets provides an enabling resource for cancer systems biology. Types of data include: Gene expression (GE), copy number aberration (CNA), miRNA expression, methylation, and protein-protein Interactions (PPI). One important problem that can potentially be solved using such data is to determine which of the possible pair-wise interactions among genes contributes to a range of cancer-related events, from tumorigenesis to metastasis. It has been shown by various studies that applying integrated knowledge from multi-omics datasets elucidates such complex phenomena with higher statistical significance than using a single type of dataset individually...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895047/innovative-approaches-to-establish-and-characterize-primary-cultures-an-ex-vivo-3d-system-and-the-zebrafish-model
#20
Chiara Liverani, Federico La Manna, Arwin Groenewoud, Laura Mercatali, Gabri Van Der Pluijm, Federica Pieri, Davide Cavaliere, Alessandro De Vita, Chiara Spadazzi, Giacomo Miserocchi, Alberto Bongiovanni, Federica Recine, Nada Riva, Dino Amadori, Ennio Tasciotti, Ewa Snaar-Jagalska, Toni Ibrahim
Patient-derived specimens are an invaluable resource to investigate tumor biology. However, in vivo studies on primary cultures are often limited by the small amount of material available, while conventional in vitro systems might alter the features and behavior that characterize cancer cells. We present our data obtained on primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells cultured in a 3D scaffold-based system and injected into a zebrafish model. Primary cells were characterized in vitro for their morphological features, sensitivity to drugs and biomarker expression, and in vivo for their engraftment and invasiveness abilities...
November 28, 2016: Biology Open
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