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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454093/silencing-circular-rna-hsa_circ_0000977-suppresses-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-progression-by-stimulating-mir-874-3p-and-inhibiting-plk1-expression
#1
Wen-Jie Huang, Yun-Chao Wang, Song-Song Liu, Jia-Li Yang, Shi-Xiang Guo, Li-Jiang Wang, Huai-Zhi Wang, Ying-Fang Fan
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are a novel type of endogenous noncoding RNAs that regulate target gene expression by interacting with microRNA (miRNA). Emerging evidence shows that dysregulation of circRNAs plays important roles in biological and pathological processes, including cancer development and progression. The functional role of circRNA in PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma) remains to be investigated. In this study, high throughput microarray assay revealed that hsa_circ_0000977 was aberrantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues; this was also validated by qRT-PCR...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450412/clinically-approved-liposomal-nanomedicines-lessons-learned-from-the-biomolecular-corona
#2
Giulio Caracciolo
Nowadays, liposomes are the most successful drug delivery systems with a dozen drug products available in the clinic. Grafting poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) onto the liposome surface prevents protein binding thus prolonging blood circulation, while synthetic modification of the terminal PEG molecule with ligands (e.g. monoclonal antibodies and peptides) should promote selective accumulation in the tumor region with respect to healthy tissues. However, despite big efforts, advances have not outgrown the development stage and just a few targeted liposomal drugs are commercially available...
February 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450405/building-with-intent-technologies-and-principles-for-engineering-mammalian-cell-based-therapies-to-sense-and-respond
#3
Joseph J Muldoon, Patrick S Donahue, Taylor B Dolberg, Joshua N Leonard
The engineering of cells as programmable devices has enabled therapeutic strategies that could not otherwise be achieved. Such strategies include recapitulating and enhancing native cellular functions and composing novel functions. These novel functions may be composed using both natural and engineered biological components, with the latter exemplified by the development of synthetic receptor and signal transduction systems. Recent advances in implementing these approaches include the treatment of cancer, where the most clinical progress has been made to date, and the treatment of diabetes...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448630/dynamic-and-depth-dependent-nanomechanical-properties-of-dorsal-ruffles-in-live-cells-and-biopolymeric-hydrogels
#4
Varun Vyas, Melani Solomon, Gerard G M D'Souza, Bryan D Huey
The nanomechanical properties of various biological and cellular surfaces are increasingly investigated with Scanning Probe Microscopy. Surface stiffness measurements are currently being used to define metastatic properties of various cancerous cell lines and other related biological tissues. Here we present a unique methodology to understand depth dependent nanomechanical variations in stiffness in biopolymers and live cells. In this study we have used A2780 and NIH3T3 cell lines and 0.5% and 1% Agarose to investigate depth dependent stiffness and porosity on nanomechanical properties in different biological systems...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448225/a-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-acting-as-the-electrical-reading-box-of-an-immunosensor-application-to-cea-determination
#5
Liliana A A N A Truta, Felismina T C Moreira, M Goreti F Sales
Monitoring cancer biomarkers in biological fluids has become a key tool for disease diagnosis, which should be of easy access anywhere in the world. The possibility of reducing basic requirements in the field of electrochemical biosensing may open doors in this direction. This work proposes for this purpose an innovative electrochemical immunosensing system using a photovoltaic cell as an electrical reading box. Immunosensing ensures accuracy, the electrochemical-ground of the device ensures sensitivity and detectability, and the photovoltaic cell drives the system towards electrical autonomy...
February 7, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447961/a-physiologically-relevant-3d-collagen-based-scaffold-neuroblastoma-cell-system-exhibits-chemosensitivity-similar-to-orthotopic-xenograft-models
#6
C Curtin, J C Nolan, R Conlon, L Deneweth, C Gallagher, Y J Tan, B L Cavanagh, A Z Asraf, H Harvey, S Miller-Delaney, J Shohet, I Bray, F J O'Brien, R L Stallings, O Piskareva
3D scaffold-based in vitro cell culturing is a recent technological advancement in cancer research bridging the gap between conventional 2D culture and in vivo tumours. The main challenge in treating neuroblastoma, a paediatric cancer of the sympathetic nervous system, is to combat tumour metastasis and resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to establish a physiologically relevant 3D neuroblastoma tissue-engineered system and explore its therapeutic relevance. Two neuroblastoma cell lines, chemotherapeutic sensitive Kelly and chemotherapeutic resistant KellyCis83 were cultured in a 3D in vitro model on two collagen-based scaffolds containing either glycosaminoglycan (Coll-GAG) or nanohydroxyapatite (Coll-nHA) and compared to 2D cell culture and an orthotopic murine model...
February 12, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447929/a-complex-systems-approach-to-cancer-prevention
#7
P W Jupp
Cancer incidence continues to be a major health problem possibly because cancer is a complex system comprising many agents that interact in a non-linear manner resulting in many possible outcomes. The degree of complexity of a cancer system could be vast involving multiple endogenous and exogenous agents interacting with the over 10 trillion cells comprising the body. It is hypothesized that the practical management of this complexity may be a key to cancer prevention and possibly treatment. But the management and resolution of such an immensely complex system is difficult and may require a multidisciplinary approach including physics, biology, biochemistry and medical science...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447108/introducing-a-simple-model-system-for-binding-studies-of-known-and-novel-inhibitors-of-ampk-a-therapeutic-target-for-prostate-cancer
#8
Rakesh Kumar, Ranjana Maurya, Shweta Saran
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading cancers in men, raising a serious health issue worldwide. Due to lack of suitable biomarker, their inhibitors and the platform for testing those inhibitors result in poor prognosis of PC. AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a highly conserved protein kinase found in eukaryotes that is involved in growth and development, and also acts as a therapeutic target for PC. The aim of the present study is to identify novel potent inhibitors of AMPK and propose a simple cellular model system for understanding its biology...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447015/optogenetics-in-cancer-drug-discovery
#9
Michał Kiełbus, Jakub Czapiński, Adrian Odrzywolski, Grażyna Stasiak, Kamila Szymańska, Joanna Kałafut, Michał Kos, Krzysztof Giannopoulos, Andrzej Stepulak, Adolfo Rivero-Müller
The discovery and domestication of biomolecules that respond to light has taken a light of its own, providing new molecular tools with incredible spatio-temporal resolution to manipulate cellular behavior. Areas covered: The authors herein analyze the current optogenetic tools in light of their current, and potential, uses in cancer drug discovery, biosafety and cancer biology. Expert opinion: The pipeline from drug discovery to the clinic is plagued with drawbacks, where most drugs fail in either efficacy or safety...
February 15, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446857/infectious-risk-of-biological-drugs-versus-traditional-systemic-treatments-in-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-a-cohort-analysis-in-the-french-insurance-database
#10
Sylvain Couderc, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre, Robert Bourrel, Paul Carle, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Agnès Sommet
The aim of this study was to compare the infectious risk between a group of psoriasis patients treated by Biological Drugs (BD) and a group treated by Traditional Systemic Treatments (TST). We built a retrospective observational cohort study from the French health insurance database in the Midi-Pyrénées area (2.9 million inhabitants, South West of France) using data from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2013. We compared the infectious risk between 'exposed' patients treated with BD (adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab or ustekinumab) and 'unexposed' patients treated by TST (phototherapy, acitretin, methotrexate or cyclosporine)...
February 15, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446615/leveraging-engineering-of-cells-for-drug-delivery
#11
Zhaowei Chen, Quanyin Hu, Zhen Gu
Cell therapy has become a momentum-gathering treatment strategy for a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, hemophilia, and cardiomyopathy. However, clinical applications of conventional cell therapies have often been compromised by rapid decline in viability and function of the transplanted cells due to host recognition and subsequent foreign body rejection. Along this line, cell engineering technologies such as cell encapsulation within microcapsules and immobilization in porous scaffolds have been implemented to address the immunosuppression concerns...
February 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444668/gigantol-inhibits-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-exhibits-anticancer-activity-in-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Shubin Yu, Zhongyuan Wang, Zijie Su, Jiaxing Song, Liang Zhou, Qi Sun, Shanshan Liu, Shiyue Li, Ying Li, Meina Wang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Xue Zhang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Desheng Lu
BACKGROUND: Gigantol is a bibenzyl compound derived from several medicinal orchids. This biologically active compound has been shown to have promising therapeutic potential against cancer cells, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of gigantol on Wnt/β-catenin signaling was evaluated with the SuperTOPFlash reporter system. The levels of phosphorylated low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 (LRP6), total LRP6 and cytosolic β-catenin were determined by Western blot analysis...
February 14, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443051/detecting-anastasis-in-vivo-by-caspasetracker-biosensor
#13
Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, Ho Lam Tang
Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life") is a recently discovered cell recovery phenomenon whereby dying cells can reverse late-stage cell death processes that are generally assumed to be intrinsically irreversible. Promoting anastasis could in principle rescue or preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace such as cardiomyocytes or neurons, thereby facilitating tissue recovery. Conversely, suppressing anastasis in cancer cells, undergoing apoptosis after anti-cancer therapies, may ensure cancer cell death and reduce the chances of recurrence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442905/a-miniature-cell-pattern-formation-of-ovarian-cancer-cell-lines-on-self-assembling-peptide-nanofiber-coated-coverslip-and-in-vitro-chemosensitivity-assay
#14
Zehong Yang, Hua Zhuang, Hong Song, Ji Liu, Xiaojun Zhao, Wei Lin
BACKGROUND: Despite of intensive efforts, the tumor progression of ovarian cancer has not yet been fully understood. Various studies suggest that an effective experimental model system In Vitro to mimic microenvironment in vivo and the fabrication of cell pattern formation In Vitro are of great importance for the ovarian cancer research. METHODS: This study cultivates SKOV3, A2780 and A2780/DDP ovarian cancer cell lines in RADA16-I peptide hydrogel to obtain 3D-precultured cancer cells and fabricate a type of miniature cell pattern formation In Vitro on RADA16-I peptide nanofibercoated coverslip by in situ AFM analysis and chemosensitivity assay in vitro...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442721/crosstalk-between-co-cultured-3t3-l1-and-c2c12-cells-after-the-exposure-of-nano-titanium-dioxide
#15
Vinay Kumar Tripathi, Allur Subramaniyan Sivakumar, Anupam Dhasmana, Inho Hwang
Nanotechnology is a promptly growing field in this century, and it have been extensively used in several solicitations. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is one of the important mechanism of action of nanoparticles. The excess ROS generation can induce oxidative stress, so the cells are unable to sustain the normal biological redox-regulated tasks. The high oxidative stress and ROS formation condition, damage the biological macromolecules, cell signaling pathways and finally leads to cell death or cancer initiation...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440898/nanosilver-new-ageless-and-versatile-biomedical-therapeutic-scaffold
#16
REVIEW
Shahid Ullah Khan, Tawfik A Saleh, Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Hafeez Ullah Khan, Dilfaraz Khan, Wasim Ullah Khan, Abdur Rahim, Sajid Kamal, Farman Ullah Khan, Shah Fahad
Silver nanotechnology has received tremendous attention in recent years, owing to its wide range of applications in various fields and its intrinsic therapeutic properties. In this review, an attempt is made to critically evaluate the chemical, physical, and biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as their efficacy in the field of theranostics including microbiology and parasitology. Moreover, an outlook is also provided regarding the performance of AgNPs against different biological systems such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites (leishmanial and malarial parasites) in curing certain fatal human diseases, with a special focus on cancer...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440233/comprehensive-characterisation-of-compartment-specific-long-non-coding-rnas-associated-with-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Luis Arnes, Zhaoqi Liu, Jiguang Wang, Hans Carlo Maurer, Irina Sagalovskiy, Marta Sanchez-Martin, Nikhil Bommakanti, Diana C Garofalo, Dina A Balderes, Lori Sussel, Kenneth P Olive, Raul Rabadan
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a highly metastatic disease with limited therapeutic options. Genome and transcriptome analyses have identified signalling pathways and cancer driver genes with implications in patient stratification and targeted therapy. However, these analyses were performed in bulk samples and focused on coding genes, which represent a small fraction of the genome. DESIGN: We developed a computational framework to reconstruct the non-coding transcriptome from cross-sectional RNA-Seq, integrating somatic copy number alterations (SCNA), common germline variants associated to PDA risk and clinical outcome...
February 10, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440172/a-distinct-oncogenerative-multinucleated-cancer-cell-serves-as-a-source-of-stemness-and-tumor-heterogeneity
#18
David Diaz-Carballo, Sahitya Saka, Jacqueline Klein, Tobias Rennkamp, Ali Haydar Acikelli, Sascha Malak, Holger Jastrow, Gunther Wennemuth, Clemens B Tempfer, Inge Schmitz, Andrea Tannapfel, Dirk Strumberg
The effects of anticancer treatments on cell heterogeneity and their proliferative potential play an important role in tumor persistence and metastasis. However, little is known about de-polyploidization, cell fate, and physiological stemness of the resulting cell populations. Here we describe a distinctive cell type termed "pregnant" P1 cells found within chemotherapy refractory ovarian tumors, which generate and gestate daughter generation Gn-cells intracytoplasmically. Release of Gn-cells occurred by ejection through crevices in P1 cell membrane by body contractions or using a funiculus-like structure...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437854/bet-proteins-exhibit-transcriptional-and-functional-opposition-in-the-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#19
Guillaume P Andrieu, Gerald V Denis
Transcriptional programs in embryogenesis and cancer, such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ensure cellular plasticity, an essential feature of carcinoma progression. As effectors of signal transduction, the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins are well suited to support plasticity because they function as co-activators or co-repressors of mammalian transcriptomes. Here, using both hormone-sensitive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) model systems, we systematically altered EMT transcriptional profiles by manipulating individual BET proteins and found that BRD2 positively regulates EMT, whereas BRD3 and BRD4 repress this program...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437784/role-of-iodide-metabolism-in-physiology-and-cancer
#20
Antonio De la Vieja, Pilar Santisteban
Iodide (I-) metabolism is crucial for the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid and the subsequent action of these hormones in the organism. I- is principally transported by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and by the anion exchanger PENDRIN, and recent studies have demonstrated the direct participation of new transporters including anoctamin 1 (ANO1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and sodium multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Several of these transporters have been found expressed in various tissues, implicating them in I- recycling...
February 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
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