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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679847/deep-learning-in-mammography-and-breast-histology-an-overview-and-future-trends
#1
Azam Hamidinekoo, Erika Denton, Andrik Rampun, Kate Honnor, Reyer Zwiggelaar
Recent improvements in biomedical image analysis using deep learning based neural networks could be exploited to enhance the performance of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Considering the importance of breast cancer worldwide and the promising results reported by deep learning based methods in breast imaging, an overview of the recent state-of-the-art deep learning based CAD systems developed for mammography and breast histopathology images is presented. In this study, the relationship between mammography and histopathology phenotypes is described, which takes biological aspects into account...
March 26, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679795/self-controlled-release-of-oxaliplatin-prodrug-from-d-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-polyethylene-glycol-1000-succinate-tpgs-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-cancer-therapy
#2
Chaoyu Liang, Heping Wang, Min Zhang, Wei Cheng, Zihuang Li, Junpeng Nie, Gan Liu, Daizheng Lian, Zhenhua Xie, Laiqiang Huang, Xiaowei Zeng
Oxaliplatin is a promising antitumor drug, but its effectiveness is limited by its side effects in vivo. In this study, we introduced an Oxaliplatin prodrug (Oxa(IV)) self-controlled release strategy, in which Oxa(IV) is encapsulated by TPGS functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and its release is controlled by biological stimuli, such as acidic environments in tumor tissue and high concentrations of reductants in cancer cells. Despite the lack of auxiliary "gatekeepers" to MSNs, this simplified model of Oxa(IV)-MSNs-TPGS could fine-tune the movements of the drug release...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678688/control-in-dormancy-or-eradication-of-cancer-stem-cells-mathematical-modeling-and-stability-issues
#3
Walid Djema, Catherine Bonnet, Frédéric Mazenc, Jean Clairambault, Emilia Fridman, Pierre Hirsch, François Delhommeau
OBJECTIVE: Modeling and analysis of cell population dynamics enhance our understanding of cancer. Here we introduce and explore a new model that may apply to many tissues. ANALYSES: An age-structured model describing coexistence between mutated and ordinary stem cells is developed and explored. The model is transformed into a nonlinear time-delay system governing the dynamics of healthy cells, coupled to a nonlinear differential-difference system describing dynamics of unhealthy cells...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678262/tolfenamic-acid
#4
Sofia Ahmed, Muhammad Ali Sheraz, Iqbal Ahmad
Tolfenamic acid (TA) is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug and belongs to the group of fenamates. It is used as a potent pain reliever in the treatment of acute migraine attacks, and disorders like dysmenorrhea, rheumatoid, and osteoarthritis. TA has shown excellent in vitro antibacterial activity against certain ATCC strains of bacteria when complexed with bismuth(III). It has also been reported to block pathological processes associated with Alzheimer's disease. In the recent past, TA has also been used as a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of various cancers...
2018: Profiles of Drug Substances, Excipients, and related Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676157/high-throughput-assay-for-collagen-secretion-suggests-an-unanticipated-role-for-hsp90-in-collagen-production
#5
Madeline Y Wong, Ngoc Duc Doan, Andrew S DiChiara, Louis J Papa, Jaime H Cheah, Christian K Soule, Nicki Watson, John D Hulleman, Matthew D Shoulders
Collagen overproduction is a feature of fibrosis and cancer, while insufficient deposition of functional collagen molecules and/or the secretion of malformed collagen are common in genetic disorders like osteogenesis imperfecta. Collagen secretion is an appealing therapeutic target in these and other diseases, as secretion directly connects intracellular biosynthesis to collagen deposition and biological function in the extracellular matrix. However, small molecule and biological methods to tune collagen secretion are severely lacking...
April 20, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675330/multispectral-analog-mean-delay-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging-combined-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#6
Hyeong Soo Nam, Woo Jae Kang, Min Woo Lee, Joon Woo Song, Jin Won Kim, Wang-Yuhl Oh, Hongki Yoo
The pathophysiological progression of chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis and cancer, is closely related to compositional changes in biological tissues containing endogenous fluorophores such as collagen, elastin, and NADH, which exhibit strong autofluorescence under ultraviolet excitation. Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) provides robust detection of the compositional changes by measuring fluorescence lifetime, which is an inherent property of a fluorophore. In this paper, we present a dual-modality system combining a multispectral analog-mean-delay (AMD) FLIm and a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to simultaneously visualize the cross-sectional morphology and biochemical compositional information of a biological tissue...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674768/a-case-of-psoriasis-complicated-by-breast-cancer-after-systemic-treatments-including-biologics
#7
Shin Morizane, Saeko Sugimoto, Takayuki Motoki, Norihisa Katayama, Masako Omori, Keiji Iwatsuki
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disorder that is characterized by scaly, erythematous, sharply demarcated plaques. The treatment for psoriasis has dramatically changed over the last 10 years with the introduction of biologics. However, the risk of cancer induced by biologics for psoriasis has not been fully analyzed, since these agents have such a short history of use. Here we report the case of a 74-year-old woman with psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis complicated by breast cancer after systemic treatments including etretinate, cyclosporine, methotrexate, adalimumab, and ustekinumab...
April 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673970/the-role-of-compartmentalized-signaling-pathways-in-the-control-of-mitochondrial-activities-in-cancer-cells
#8
REVIEW
Laura Rinaldi, Rossella Delle Donne, Domenica Borzacchiello, Luigi Insabato, Antonio Feliciello
Mitochondria are the powerhouse organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. They play a fundamental role in cell respiration, survival and metabolism. Stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by dedicated ligands and consequent activation of the cAMP·PKA pathway finely coupleenergy production and metabolism to cell growth and survival. Compartmentalization of PKA signaling at mitochondria by A-Kinase Anchor Proteins (AKAPs) ensures efficient transduction of signals generated at the cell membrane to the organelles, controlling important aspects of mitochondrial biology...
April 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672836/pathogenic-and-targetable-genetic-alterations-in-70-urachal-adenocarcinomas
#9
Henning Reis, Kristan E van der Vos, Christian Niedworok, Thomas Herold, Orsolya Módos, Attila Szendrői, Thomas Hager, Marc Ingenwerth, Daniël J Vis, Mark A Behrendt, Jeroen de Jong, Michiel S van der Heijden, Benoit Peyronnet, Romain Mathieu, Marcel Wiesweg, Jason Ablat, Krzysztof Okon, Yuri Tolkach, David Keresztes, Nikolett Nagy, Felix Bremmer, Nadine T Gaisa, Piotr Chlosta, Joerg Kriegsmann, Ilona Kovalszky, József Timar, Glen Kristiansen, Heinz-Joachim Radzun, Ruth Knüchel, Martin Schuler, Peter Black, Herbert Rübben, Boris Hadaschik, Kurt Werner Schmid, Bas W G van Rhijn, Péter Nyirády, Tibor Szarvas
Urachal cancer (UrC) is a rare but aggressive malignancy often diagnosed in advanced stages requiring systemic treatment. Although cytotoxic chemotherapy is of limited effectiveness, prospective clinical studies can hardly be conducted. Targeted therapeutic treatment approaches and potentially immunotherapy based on a biological rationale may provide an alternative strategy. We therefore subjected 70 urachal adenocarcinomas to targeted next-generation sequencing, conducted in situ and immunohistochemical analyses (including PD-L1 and DNA mismatch repair proteins (MMR)) and evaluated the microsatellite instability (MSI) status...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672723/an-analysis-of-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-8th-edition-t-staging-system-for-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#10
Bryan Tran, David Roshan, Earl Abraham, Laura Wang, Natalia Garibotto, James Wykes, Peter Campbell, Ardalan Ebrahimi
Background: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) removed microscopic extrathyroidal extension (m-ETE) from the 8th edition T staging for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) based on increasing evidence that it is not an independent prognostic factor. Objectives: We aimed to compare the prognostic performance of AJCC 7th (pT7) and 8th (pT8) edition T stage systems, particularly in patient's ≥55 years old without macroscopic ETE or distant metastases, in whom T classification impacts TNM stage...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672523/optimal-dynamic-control-approach-in-a-multi-objective-therapeutic-scenario-application-to-drug-delivery-in-the-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#11
Itziar Irurzun-Arana, Alvaro Janda, Sergio Ardanza-Trevijano, Iñaki F Trocóniz
Numerous problems encountered in computational biology can be formulated as optimization problems. In this context, optimization of drug release characteristics or dosing schedules for anticancer agents has become a prominent area not only for the development of new drugs, but also for established drugs. However, in complex systems, optimization of drug exposure is not a trivial task and cannot be efficiently addressed through trial-error simulation exercises. Finding a solution to those problems is a challenging task which requires more advanced strategies like optimal control theory...
April 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671878/targeting-autophagy-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Angelique V Onorati, Matheus Dyczynski, Rani Ojha, Ravi K Amaravadi
Autophagy is a conserved, self-degradation system that is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis during stress conditions. Dysregulated autophagy has implications in health and disease. Specifically, in cancer, autophagy plays a dichotomous role by inhibiting tumor initiation but supporting tumor progression. Early results from clinical trials that repurposed hydroxychloroquine for cancer have suggested that autophagy inhibition may be a promising approach for advanced cancers. In this review of the literature, the authors present fundamental advances in the biology of autophagy, approaches to targeting autophagy, the preclinical rationale and clinical experience with hydroxychloroquine in cancer clinical trials, the potential role of autophagy in tumor immunity, and recent developments in next-generation autophagy inhibitors that have clinical potential...
April 19, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671337/non-histone-targets-of-kat2a-and-kat2b-implicated-in-cancer-biology
#13
Emma Bondy-Chorney, Alix Denoncourt, Yuka Sai, Michael Downey
Lysine acetylation is a critical post-translation modification that can impact a protein's localization, stability and function. Originally thought to only occur on histones, we now know thousands of non-histone proteins are also acetylated. In conjunction with many other proteins, lysine acetyltransferases (KATs) are incorporated into large protein complexes that carry out these modifications. In this review we focus on the contribution of two KATs, KAT2A and KAT2B, and their potential roles in the development and progression of cancer...
April 19, 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671264/high-throughput-screening-of-a-luciferase-reporter-of-gene-silencing-on-the-inactive-x-chromosome
#14
Alissa Keegan, Kathrin Plath, Robert Damoiseaux
Assays of luciferase gene activity are a sensitive and quantitative reporter system suited to high-throughput screening. We adapted a luciferase assay to a screening strategy for identifying factors that reactivate epigenetically silenced genes. This epigenetic luciferase reporter is subject to endogenous gene silencing mechanisms on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in primary mouse cells and thus captures the multilayered nature of chromatin silencing in development. Here, we describe the optimization of an Xi-linked luciferase reactivation assay in 384-well format and adaptation of the assay for high-throughput siRNA and chemical screening...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670625/immunology-of-cryptococcal-infections-developing-a-rational-approach-to-patient-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Waleed Elsegeiny, Kieren A Marr, Peter R Williamson
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is responsible for upwards of 15% of HIV-related deaths worldwide and is currently the most common cause of non-viral meningitis in the US, affecting both previously healthy and people with immune suppression caused by cancer chemotherapy, transplantation, and biologic therapies. Despite a continued 30-50% attributable mortality, recommended therapeutic strategies have remained largely unchanged since the 1950s. Recent murine models and human studies examining the role of the immune system in both susceptibility to the infection as well as host damage have begun to influence patient care decisions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670288/structural-basis-of-ligand-binding-modes-at-the-neuropeptide-y-y-1-receptor
#16
Zhenlin Yang, Shuo Han, Max Keller, Anette Kaiser, Brian J Bender, Mathias Bosse, Kerstin Burkert, Lisa M Kögler, David Wifling, Guenther Bernhardt, Nicole Plank, Timo Littmann, Peter Schmidt, Cuiying Yi, Beibei Li, Sheng Ye, Rongguang Zhang, Bo Xu, Dan Larhammar, Raymond C Stevens, Daniel Huster, Jens Meiler, Qiang Zhao, Annette G Beck-Sickinger, Armin Buschauer, Beili Wu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and have important roles in food intake, anxiety and cancer biology 1,2 . The NPY-Y receptor system has emerged as one of the most complex networks with three peptide ligands (NPY, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide) binding to four receptors in most mammals, namely the Y1 , Y2 , Y4 and Y5 receptors, with different affinity and selectivity 3 . NPY is the most powerful stimulant of food intake and this effect is primarily mediated by the Y1 receptor (Y1 R) 4 ...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670137/a-systems-biology-approach-to-predict-and-characterize-human-gut-microbial-metabolites-in-colorectal-cancer
#17
QuanQiu Wang, Li Li, Rong Xu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. It is estimated that about half the cases of CRC occurring today are preventable. Recent studies showed that human gut microbiota and their collective metabolic outputs play important roles in CRC. However, the mechanisms by which human gut microbial metabolites interact with host genetics in contributing CRC remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that computational approaches that integrate and analyze vast amounts of publicly available biomedical data have great potential in better understanding how human gut microbial metabolites are mechanistically involved in CRC...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670009/pursuing-intracellular-pathogens-with-hyaluronan-from-a-pro-infection-polymer-to-a-biomaterial-for-trojan-horse-systems
#18
REVIEW
Elita Montanari, Chiara Di Meo, Angela Oates, Tommasina Coviello, Pietro Matricardi
Hyaluronan (HA) is among the most important bioactive polymers in mammals, playing a key role in a number of biological functions. In the last decades, it has been increasingly studied as a biomaterial for drug delivery systems, thanks to its physico-chemical features and ability to target and enter certain cells. The most important receptor of HA is ‘Cluster of Differentiation 44’ (CD44), a cell surface glycoprotein over-expressed by a number of cancers and heavily involved in HA endocytosis...
April 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669854/synthetic-biology-based-cellular-biomedical-tattoo-for-detection-of-hypercalcemia-associated-with-cancer
#19
Aizhan Tastanova, Marc Folcher, Marius Müller, Gieri Camenisch, Aaron Ponti, Thomas Horn, Maria S Tikhomirova, Martin Fussenegger
Diagnosis marks the beginning of any successful therapy. Because many medical conditions progress asymptomatically over extended periods of time, their timely diagnosis remains difficult, and this adversely affects patient prognosis. Focusing on hypercalcemia associated with cancer, we aimed to develop a synthetic biology-inspired biomedical tattoo using engineered cells that would (i) monitor long-term blood calcium concentration, (ii) detect onset of mild hypercalcemia, and (iii) respond via subcutaneous accumulation of the black pigment melanin to form a visible tattoo...
April 18, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669808/lactoferrin-is-a-natural-inhibitor-of-plasminogen-activation
#20
Alexander Zwirzitz, Michael Reiter, Rostislav Skrabana, Anna Ohradanova-Repic, Otto Majdic, Marianna Gutekova, Ondrej Cehlar, Eva Petrovčíková, Eva Kutejova, Gerold Stanek, Hannes Stockinger, Vladimir Leksa
The plasminogen system is essential for dissolution of fibrin clots, and in addition, it is involved in a wide variety of other physiological processes, including proteolytic activation of growth factors, cell migration, and removal of protein aggregates. On the other hand, uncontrolled plasminogen activation contributes to many pathological processes, e.g. tumor cells' invasion in cancer progression. Moreover, some virulent bacterial species, e.g. Streptococci or Borrelia, bind human plasminogen and hijack the host's plasminogen system to penetrate tissue barriers...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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