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L-leucine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735041/self-assembled-polypeptide-nanoparticles-for-intracellular-irinotecan-delivery
#1
N N Zashikhina, M V Volokitina, V A Korzhikov-Vlakh, I I Tarasenko, A Lavrentieva, T Scheper, E Rhuel, R V Orlova, T B Tennikova, E G Korzhikova-Vlakh
In this research poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-leucine) (PLys-b-PLeu) polymersomes were developed. It was shown that the size of nanoparticles depended on pH of self-assembly process and varied from 180 to 650nm. The biodegradation of PLys-b-PLeu nanoparticles was evaluated using in vitro polypeptide hydrolysis in two model enzymatic systems, as well as in human blood plasma. The experiments of the visualization of cellular uptake of rhodamine 6g-loaded and fluorescein-labeled nanoparticles were carried out, which approved the possibility of their penetration into the cells...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720537/inhaled-powder-formulation-of-naked-sirna-using-spray-drying-technology-with-l-leucine-as-dispersion-enhancer
#2
Michael Y T Chow, Yingshan Qiu, Fiona F K Lo, Hinson H S Lin, Hak-Kim Chan, Philip C L Kwok, Jenny K W Lam
Pulmonary delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been widely studied in both animal and clinical studies to treat various respiratory diseases by gene silencing through RNA interference. Some of these studies showed that the administration of naked siRNA (without the use of any delivery vectors) could achieve satisfactory gene silencing effect, a unique feature to pulmonary delivery. Liquid aerosols were mostly used with very limited studies on the use of powder aerosols for siRNA. In this study, siRNA was co-spray dried with mannitol and L-leucine, the latter being a dispersion enhancer...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720279/metabolomic-analysis-identifies-altered-metabolic-pathways-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Simone Poddighe, Federica Murgia, Lorena Lorefice, Sonia Liggi, Eleonora Cocco, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Luigi Atzori
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system and is characterized by a complex pathogenesis and difficult management. The identification of new biomarkers would be clinically useful for more accurate diagnoses and disease monitoring. Metabolomics, the identification of small endogenous molecules, offers an instantaneous molecular snapshot of the MS phenotype. Here the metabolomic profiles (utilizing plasma from patients with MS) were characterized with a Gas cromatography-mass spectrometry-based platform followed by a multivariate statistical analysis and comparison with a healthy control (HC) population...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709940/investigation-of-l-leucine-in-reducing-the-moisture-induced-deterioration-of-spray-dried-salbutamol-sulfate-power-for-inhalation
#4
Liang Li, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Thomas Gengenbach, Jiaqi Yu, Ge Fiona Gao, Patricia Tang, Qi Tony Zhou, Hak-Kim Chan
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of L-leucine (LL) in preventing moisture-induced deterioration in the in vitro aerosolization performance of spray-dried (SD) salbutamol sulfate (SS). Increasing mass fraction of LL (5-80%) were co-spray dried with SS, and the physicochemical properties of the powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Furthermore, the surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662040/tuning-the-transcription-and-translation-of-l-amino-acid-deaminase-in-escherichia-coli-improves-%C3%AE-ketoisocaproate-production-from-l-leucine
#5
Yang Song, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Long Liu, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen
α-Ketoisocaproate (KIC) is used widely in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. In previous studies, we achieved a one-step biosynthesis of KIC from l-leucine, using an Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing an l-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) from Proteus vulgaris. Herein, we report the fine-tuning of l-AAD gene expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3) at the transcriptional and translational levels to improve the KIC titer. By optimizing the plasmid origin with different copy numbers, modulating messenger RNA structure downstream of the initiation codon, and designing the sequences at the ribosome binding site, we increased biocatalyst activity to 31...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655072/oral-administration-of-glycine-and-leucine-dipeptides-improves-skin-hydration-and-elasticity-in-uvb-irradiated-hairless-mice
#6
Jong Il Park, Ji Eun Lee, Hyun Jun Shin, Soonran Song, Won Kyung Lee, Jae Sung Hwang
Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not...
June 27, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626480/development-of-dry-powder-inhaler-containing-tadalafil-loaded-plga-nanoparticles
#7
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Hamed Hamishehkar, Razieh Vatankhah, Shadi Yaghubi
Inhalable dry powders containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the delivery of tadalafil (TAD) for treatment of life-treating pulmonary arterial hypertension. Taguchi design was employed to evaluate the effects of different formulation variables on the physicochemical characteristics of PLGA-NPs prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation method. Inhalable PLGA-NPs of TAD were successfully prepared by co-spray drying the PLGA-NPs with inert carriers. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug were also evaluated...
June 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615380/leucine-differentially-regulates-gene-specific-translation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#8
Micah J Drummond, Paul T Reidy, Lisa M Baird, Brian K Dalley, Michael T Howard
Background: Amino acids, especially leucine, are particularly effective in promoting protein synthesis. Leucine is known to increase the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent, as well as -independent, signaling pathways. However, the overall translation program is poorly defined, and it is unknown how the activation of these pathways differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs.Objective: Ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing were used to precisely define the translational program activated by an acute oral dose of leucine...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613839/visualization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-aminopeptidase-1-under-different-redox-conditions-with-a-two-photon-fluorescent-probe
#9
Shuai Xu, Hong-Wen Liu, Xiao-Xiao Hu, Shuang-Yan Huan, Jing Zhang, Yong-Chao Liu, Lin Yuan, Feng-Li Qu, Xiao-Bing Zhang, Weihong Tan
Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), a metallopeptidase belonging to the M1 peptidase family, plays an important role in antigen processing in vivo. Additionally, many diseases are caused by ERAP1 perturbation. Thus, an efficient method for monitoring its content is extremely important for disease diagnosis and treatment. However, few fluorescent probes have been reported for efficiently monitoring ERAP1 in living cells and tissues. In this work, a two-photon fluorescent probe (SNCL) containing 1,8-naphthalimide (two-photon fluorophore), l-leucine (trigger moiety), and a methyl sulfonamide moiety (endoplasmic reticulum-targeting group) for imaging ERAP1 activity in living cells is reported for the first time...
June 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612342/effect-of-glycine-nitrogen-on-lettuce-growth-under-soilless-culture-a-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-the-main-changes-occurred-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#10
Xiao Yang, Lei Feng, Li Zhao, Xiaosong Liu, Danial Hassani, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic N could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mM nitrate or 9 mM glycine for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609632/enantioselective-one-pot-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-epoxy-ketones-via-aerobic-oxidation-of-cyclopropanols
#11
Gábor Zoltán Elek, Victor Borovkov, Margus Lopp, Dzmitry G Kananovich
An efficient, mild, and environmentally benign method was developed for the asymmetric synthesis of 2-oxyranyl ketones from easily available tertiary cyclopropanols. The one-pot protocol includes the aerobic oxidation of cyclopropanol derivatives catalyzed by Mn(III) complexes followed by the poly-l-leucine-assisted stereoselective elimination of water from the intermediate peroxides with DBU to afford the corresponding epoxy ketones in high yields and good-to-excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97%).
June 13, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606810/tailored-design-of-multifunctional-and-programmable-ph-responsive-self-assembling-polypeptides-as-drug-delivery-nanocarrier-for-cancer-therapy
#12
Tzu-Wei Wang, Chia-Wei Yeh, Chen-Hsiang Kuan, Li-Wen Wang, Liang-Hsin Chen, Hsi-Chin Wu, Jui-Shen Sun
Breast cancer has become the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in female wherein more than 90% of breast cancer-related death results from cancer metastasis to distant organs at advanced stage. The purpose of this study is to develop biodegradable nanoparticles composed of natural polypeptides and calcium phosphate (CaP) with sequential pH-responsivity to tumor microenvironments for active targeted drug delivery. Two different amphiphilic copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)3400-aconityl linkage-poly(l-glutamic acid)15-poly(l-histidine)10-poly(l-leucine)10 and LyP1-poly(ethylene glycol)1100-poly(l-glutamic acid)15-poly(l-histidine)10-poly(l-leucine)10, were exploited to self-assemble into micelles in aqueous phase...
June 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583333/dry-powder-formulation-of-kanamycin-with-enhanced-aerosolization-efficiency-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#13
Mohammad A M Momin, Shubhra Sinha, Ian G Tucker, Colin Doyle, Shyamal C Das
BACKGROUND: Kanamycin, an injectable agent, is currently used to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Parenteral kanamycin causes high systemic toxicity which could be avoided by direct delivery to the lungs. This study focused on producing a highly aerosolizable dry-powder of hygroscopic kanamycin by spray-drying with l-leucine. METHODS: Kanamycin powders were prepared with different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w) of l-leucine using the Buchi B-290 Mini Spray-Dryer...
June 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552878/medium-chain-triglycerides-in-combination-with-leucine-and-vitamin-d-benefit-cognition-in-frail-elderly-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Sakiko Abe, Osamu Ezaki, Motohisa Suzuki
The combined supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), L-leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) increase muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. However, their effects on cognition are unknown. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (mean age±SD, 86.6±4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups: the first group received a L-leucine (1.2 g)- and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g of MCT (LD+MCT); the second group received the same supplement with 6 g of long-chain triglycerides (LD+LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551425/effects-of-coating-materials-and-processing-conditions-on-flow-enhancement-of-cohesive-acetaminophen-powders-by-high-shear-processing-with-pharmaceutical-lubricants
#15
Guoguang Wei, Sharad Mangal, John Denman, Thomas Gengenbach, Kevin Lee Bonar, Rubayat Islam Khan, Li Qu, Tonglei Li, Qi Tony Zhou
This study has investigated the surface coating efficiency and powder flow improvement of a model cohesive acetaminophen powder by high shear processing with pharmaceutical lubricants via two common equipment, conical comil and high shear mixer. Effects of formulation and processing parameters on powder flow and surface coating coverage were evaluated. Both Carr's index and shear cell data indicated that processing with the lubricants using comil or high shear mixer substantially improved the flow of the cohesive acetaminophen powder...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536139/effects-of-leucine-supplementation-and-resistance-training-on-myopathy-of-diabetic-rats
#16
Carlos Eduardo C Martins, Vanessa B de S Lima, Brad J Schoenfeld, Julio Tirapegui
Leucine supplementation and resistance training positively influence the protein translation process and the cell signaling mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway that regulates muscle protein balance and muscle remodeling, and thus may be therapeutic to diabetic myopathy. However, the effect of a combined intervention has not been well studied. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, control (C), diabetic control (D), diabetic + trained (DT), diabetic + L-leucine (DL), diabetic + L-leucine + trained (DLT)...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#17
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508902/non-zeolitic-properties-of-the-dipeptide-l-leucyl-l-leucine-as-a-result-of-the-specific-nanostructure-formation
#18
Marat A Ziganshin, Aisylu S Safiullina, Sufia A Ziganshina, Alexander V Gerasimov, Valery V Gorbatchuk
The non-zeolitic behavior of l-leucyl-l-leucine and its self-organization in solid state and from solutions with the formation of different nanostructures are reported. This dipeptide forms porous crystals, but does not exhibit molecular sieve effects typical of classical zeolites and biozeolites. The specific sorption properties of l-leucyl-l-leucine result from a change in its crystal packing from channel-type to layered-type, when binding strong proton acceptors or proton donors of molecular size greater than 18-20 cm(3) mol(-1)...
May 31, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503045/review-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-assay-rapid-method-in-drug-discovery-of-herbal-plants
#19
REVIEW
Islamudin Ahmad, Arry Yanuar, Kamarza Mulia, Abdul Mun'im
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a signaling pathway which responsible in the blood pressure regulation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the key elements responsible for the hypertensive mechanism. It converts angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II. The discovery history of the ACE inhibitory activity assay method has been through a long stage for decades and development continues until today. The ACE inhibitory activity has become an effective screening method in the search for new antihypertensive agents from herbal plants...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494385/l-leucine-dietary-supplementation-modulates-muscle-protein-degradation-and-increases-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-tumour-bearing-rats
#20
Bread Cruz, André Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
Cancer cachexia is characterised by involuntary weight loss associated with systemic inflammation and metabolic changes. Studies aimed at maintaining lean body mass in cachectic tumour-bearing hosts have made important contributions reducing the number of deaths and improving the quality of life. In recent years, leucine has demonstrated effective action in maintaining lean body mass by decreasing muscle protein degradation. Currently, there is a growing need to understand how leucine stimulates protein synthesis and acts protectively in a cachectic organism...
May 8, 2017: Cytokine
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