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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167357/how-fish-eggs-are-preadapted-for-the-evolution-of-matrotrophy
#1
Keenan R Morrison, Vyvian Ngo, Richard A Cardullo, David N Reznick
Teleost fishes evolved livebearing via egg retention 14 times. Matrotrophy has evolved within 12 of those lineages. By contrast, squamate reptiles evolved livebearing over 115 times, but only two to four of those lineages are known to have evolved matrotrophy. Is the discrepancy between these organisms in the probability of this transition caused by differences in their eggs? We show that the eggs of oviparous species in the superorder Atherinomorpha can acquire small organic molecules from their surrounding environment against a concentration gradient via mechanisms of active transport...
November 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162837/l-leucine-and-spns1-coordinately-ameliorate-dysfunction-of-autophagy-in-mouse-and-human-niemann-pick-type-c-disease
#2
Hiroko Yanagisawa, Tomohiro Ishii, Kentaro Endo, Emiko Kawakami, Kazuaki Nagao, Toshiyuki Miyashita, Keiko Akiyama, Kazuhiko Watabe, Masaaki Komatsu, Daisuke Yamamoto, Yoshikatsu Eto
Lysosomal storage disorders are characterized by progressive accumulation of undigested macromolecules within the cell due to lysosomal dysfunction. 573C10 is a Schwann cell line derived from a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease-1, NPC (-/-). Under serum-starved conditions, NPC (-/-) cells manifested impaired autophagy accompanied by an increase in the amount of p62 and lysosome enlargement. Addition of L-leucine to serum-starved NPC (-/-) cells ameliorated the enlargement of lysosomes and the p62 accumulation...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#3
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137790/thermal-and-morphological-properties-of-nanocomposite-materials-based-on-graphene-oxide-and-l-leucine-containing-poly-benzimidazole-amide-prepared-by-ultrasonic-irradiation
#4
Mohammad Dinari, Elahe Salehi, Amir Abdolmaleki
A new poly(benzimidazole-amide) (PBIA) was fabricated by polycondensation of 1,3-bis(5-amino-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)benzene with chiral diacid under green media by using tetra-n-butylammonium bromide as a cheap commercially available molten ionic salt at 120°C. The affection of reaction time on the polymer yield and viscosity was tested and optimized for PBIA. Inherent viscosity value of the prepared PBIA under optimized conditions is 0.31dL/g. Then to acquire a uniformly dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in the PBIA matrix, GO was prepared through strong oxidation procedure...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136406/the-interaction-between-androgen-receptor-and-semenogelin-i-a-synthetic-lxxll-peptide-antagonist-inhibits-the-growth-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#5
Peng Li, Jinbo Chen, Eiji Kashiwagi, Taichi Mizushima, Bin Han, Satoshi Inoue, Hiroki Ide, Koji Izumi, Hiroshi Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that a seminal plasma protein, semenogelin I (SgI), functioned as an androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. Meanwhile, several short sequence motifs in AR coregulators, such as LxxLL (L=leucine), have been shown to mediate specific interactions with AR. METHODS: We investigated the role of the LxxLL motif within SgI in the interactions with AR and cell growth in prostate cancer lines in vitro. RESULTS: A full-length SgI with mutations in the motif (i...
November 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119997/dimeric-camptothecin-loaded-rgd-modified-targeted-cationic-polypeptide-based-micelles-with-high-drug-loading-capacity-and-redox-responsive-drug-release-capability
#6
Zhaopei Guo, Xingzhi Zhou, Mengze Xu, Huayu Tian, Xuesi Chen, Meiwan Chen
Camptothecin (CPT) is a broad spectrum anticancer drug, but its application is limited due to the poor water solubility, lactone ring instability, and low drug loading potential. In this study, biocompatible cationic polypeptide-based micelles were developed to deliver dimeric CPT (DCPT) with the aim of overcoming the above-mentioned obstacles and achieving favorable therapeutic effects. Cationic polypeptide poly-lysine-block-poly-leucine (PLys-b-PLeu) was fabricated via the ring-opening polymerization of N-ε-carbobenzoxy-l-lysine (ε-Lys(Z)) and l-leucine (Leu) and further grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide...
November 9, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111711/formal-total-synthesis-of-c9-deoxyomuralide-from-l-leucine-using-a-double-sacrificial-chirality-transfer-approach
#7
Philip C Bulman Page, Ross L Goodyear, Alexandra E Horton, Yohan Chan, Rehana Karim, Maria A O'Connell, Christopher Hamilton, Alexandra M Z Slawin, Benjamin R Buckley, Steven Mark Allin
Formal stereocontrolled syntheses of (±)- and (+)-C9-deoxyomuralide is reported, constituting one of the shortest routes to the full carbon skeleton reported to date.
November 7, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111706/17o-mas-nmr-correlation-spectroscopy-at-high-magnetic-fields
#8
Eric G Keeler, Vladimir K Michaelis, Michael T Colvin, Ivan Hung, Peter L Gor'kov, Timothy A Cross, Zhehong Gan, Robert G Griffin
The structure of two protected amino acids, FMOC-L-leucine and FMOC-L-valine, and a dipeptide, N-acetyl-L-valyl-L-leucine (N-Ac-VL), were studied via one- and two-dimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Utilizing 17O magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at multiple magnetic fields (17.6-35.2 T/750-1500 MHz for 1H) the 17O quadrupolar and chemical shift parameters were determined for the two oxygen sites of each FMOC-protected amino acids and the three distinct oxygen environments of the dipeptide...
November 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108956/the-mouse-gm853-gene-encodes-a-novel-enzyme-leucine-decarboxylase
#9
Ana Lambertos, Bruno Ramos-Molina, David Cerezo, Andrés J López-Contreras, Rafael Peñafiel
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of polyamines. ODC-antizyme inhibitors (AZINs) are homologous proteins of ODC, devoid of enzymatic activity but acting as regulators of polyamine levels. The last paralogue gene recently incorporated into the ODC/AZINs family is the murine Gm853, which is located in the same chromosome as AZIN2, and whose biochemical function is still unknown. By means of transfection assays of HEK293T cells with a plasmid containing the coding region of Gm853, we show here that unlike ODC, GM853 was a stable protein that was not able to decarboxylate l-ornithine or l-lysine and that did not act as an antizyme inhibitor...
November 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095657/redispersible-spray-dried-lipid-core-nanocapsules-intended-for-oral-delivery-the-influence-of-the-particle-number-on-redispersibility
#10
Diego Fontana de Andrade, Branko Vukosavljevic, Edilson Valmir Benvenutti, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres, Maike Windbergs, Ruy Carlos Ruver Beck
This study proposes a new approach to produce easily redispersible spray-dried lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) intended for oral administration, evaluating the influence of the particle number density of the fed sample. The proposed approach to develop redispersible spray-dried LNC formulations intended for oral route is innovative, evidencing the needing of an optimization of the initial particle number density in the liquid suspension of nanocapsules. A mixture of maltodextrin and L-leucine (90:10 w/w) was used as drying adjuvant...
November 2, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064707/l-carnosine-derived-fmoc-tripeptides-forming-ph-sensitive-and-proteolytically-stable-supramolecular-hydrogels
#11
Rita Das Mahapatra, Joykrishna Dey, Richard G Weiss
A series of β-amino acid containing tripeptides has been designed and synthesized in order to develop oligopeptide-based, thermoreversible, pH-sensitive, and proteolytically stable hydrogels. The Fmoc [N-(fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl)]-protected tripeptides were found to produce hydrogels in both pH 7 and 2 buffers at a very low concentration (<0.2% w/v). It has been shown that the Fmoc group plays an important role in the gelation process. Also a dependence of gelation ability on hydrophobicity of the side chain of the Fmoc-protected α-amino acid was observed...
November 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062971/characterization-of-the-metallo-dependent-amidohydrolases-responsible-for-auxiliary-leucinyl-removal-in-the-biosynthesis-of-2-2-bipyridine-antibiotics
#12
Ming Chen, Bo Pang, Ya-Nan Du, Yi-Peng Zhang, Wen Liu
2,2'-Bipyridine (2,2'-BiPy) is an attractive core structure present in a number of biologically active natural products, including the structurally related antibiotics caerulomycins (CAEs) and collismycins (COLs). Their biosynthetic pathways share a similar key 2,2'-BiPy-l-leucine intermediate, which is desulfurated or sulfurated at C5, arises from a polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrid assembly line. Focusing on the common off-line modification steps, we here report that the removal of the "auxiliary" l-leucine residue relies on the metallo-dependent amidohydrolase activity of CaeD or ColD...
June 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054922/protein-turnover-measurements-in-human-serum-by-serial-immunoaffinity-lc-ms-ms
#13
Vahid Farrokhi, Xiaoying Chen, Hendrik Neubert
BACKGROUND: The half-life of target proteins is frequently an important parameter in mechanistic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of biotherapeutics. Clinical studies for accurate measurement of physiologically relevant protein turnover can reduce the uncertainty in PK/PD model-based predictions, for example, of the therapeutic dose and dosing regimen in first-in-human clinical trials. METHODS: We used a targeted mass spectrometry work flow based on serial immunoaffinity enrichment of multiple human serum proteins from a [5,5,5-(2)H3]-L-leucine tracer pulse-chase study in healthy volunteers...
October 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048879/near-infrared-fluorescent-probe-with-remarkable-large-stokes-shift-and-favorable-water-solubility-for-real-time-tracking-leucine-aminopeptidase-in-living-cells-and-in-vivo
#14
Wenda Zhang, Feiyan Liu, Chao Zhang, Jian-Guang Luo, Jun Luo, Wenying Yu, Lingyi Kong
Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is a kind of proteolytic enzymes and associated closely with pathogenesis of cancer and liver injury. Accurate detection of LAP activity with high sensitivity and selectivity is imperative to detect its distribution and dynamic changes for understanding LAP's function and early diagnosing the disease states. However, fluorescent detection of LAP in living systems is challenging. To date, rarely fluorescent probes have been reported for imaging LAP in vivo. In this study, a novel probe (TMN-Leu) was developed by conjugating a near-infrared dicyanoisophorone derivative fluorophore with LAP activatable l-leucine amide moiety for the first time...
October 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026998/acetolactate-synthase-alss-in-bacillus-licheniformis-wx-02-enzymatic-properties-and-efficient-functions-for-acetoin-butanediol-and-l-valine-biosynthesis
#15
Yanli Huo, Yangyang Zhan, Qin Wang, Shunyi Li, Shihui Yang, Christopher T Nomura, Changjun Wang, Shouwen Chen
Acetolactate synthase catalyzes two molecules of pyruvates to form α-acetolactate, which is further converted to acetoin and 2,3-butanediol. In this study, by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, the enzymatic properties of acetolactate synthase (AlsS) from Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 were characterized. Its K m and k cat for pyruvate were 3.96 mM and 514/s, respectively. It has the optimal activity at pH 6.5, 37 °C and was feedback inhibited by L-valine, L-leucine and L-isoleucine. Furthermore, the alsS-deficient strain could not produce acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and L-valine, while the complementary strain was able to restore these capacities...
October 11, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017444/quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-different-polar-metabolites-in-perennial-ryegrass-providing-scope-for-breeding-towards-increasing-certain-polar-metabolites
#16
Alexandre Foito, Christine Anne Hackett, Derek Stewart, Janaki Velmurugan, Dan Milbourne, Stephen L Byrne, Susanne Barth
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the mapping of biochemical traits have been reported in Lolium perenne. Although the mapped traits, including individual sugars and fatty acids, contribute greatly towards ruminant productivity, organic acids and amino acids have been largely understudied despite their influence on the ruminal microbiome. RESULTS: In this study, we used a targeted gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach to profile the levels of 25 polar metabolites from different classes (sugars, amino acids, phenolic acids, organic acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds) present in a L...
October 10, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977745/bacterial-branched-chain-amino-acid-biosynthesis-structures-mechanisms-and-drugability
#17
Tathyana M Amorim Franco, John S Blanchard
The eight enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the three branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-leucine, and l-valine) were identified decades ago using classical genetic approaches based on amino acid auxotrophy. This review will highlight the recent progress in the determination of the three-dimensional structures of these enzymes, their chemical mechanisms, and insights into their suitability as targets for the development of antibacterial agents. Given the enormous rise in bacterial drug resistance to every major class of antibacterial compound, there is a clear and present need for the identification of new antibacterial compounds with nonoverlapping targets to currently used antibacterials that target cell wall, protein, mRNA, and DNA synthesis...
November 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965047/physicochemical-stability-and-aerosolization-performance-of-dry-powder-inhalation-system-containing-ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride
#18
Keyhaneh Karimi, Gábor Katona, Ildikó Csóka, Rita Ambrus
Antibiotic delivery in form of dry powder inhalation has been studied for possible clinical treatment of respiratory tract infection in the recent years. Dry powder inhalation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) assures local antibacterial activity and comfort of easy application. The aim of this work was to test the stability of co-spray-dried CIP in carrier free system. Since the microparticles in the dry powder system are amorphous and do not contain any stabilizer, the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the physicochemical properties and aerosolization behavior are very important...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945534/rhabdanaerobium-thermarum-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-anaerobic-bacterium-isolated-from-a-hot-spring
#19
Lan Liu, Jian-Yu Jiao, Nimaichand Salam, En-Min Zhou, Bao-Zhu Fang, Wen-Dong Xian, Meng-Meng Li, Yi-Ping Ding, Wen-Jun Li
A novel Gram-stain-positive, obligately anaerobic and thermophilic bacterium, strain SYSU GA15001T, was isolated from a sample collected from a hot spring located in Tengchong, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain SYSU GA15001T belonged to the family Eubacteriaceae, and was closely related to 'Irregularibacter muris' 2PG-426-CC4.2T (93.6 % similarity), Garciella nitratireducens DSM 15102T (93.2 %) and Alkalibacter saccharofermentans Z-78920T (89.7 %). Cells were rods and motile by means of a subpolar flagellum...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915534/revealing-anti-inflammation-mechanism-of-water-extract-and-oil-of-forsythiae-fructus-on-carrageenan-induced-edema-rats-by-serum-metabolomics
#20
An Yuan, Lihong Gong, Lin Luo, Jue Dang, Xiaohong Gong, Mengjie Zhao, Yan Li, Yunxia Li, Cheng Peng
Forsythiae Fructus is an important Chinese medicine which shows a significant effect against inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the preventive anti-inflammation mechanism of Forsythiae Fructus by serum metabolomics strategy and compare the difference of the metabolism pathways between Forsythia extract and Forsythia oil in rat. Four groups (control group, model group, Forsythia extract group and Forsythia oil group) were orally administered 10mL/kg 0.5% Tween 80 solution, 10mL/kg 0.5% Tween 80 solution, 5g/kg Forsythia extract and 0...
November 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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