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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915534/revealing-anti-inflammation-mechanism-of-water-extract-and-oil-of-forsythiae-fructus-on-carrageenan-induced-edema-rats-by-serum-metabolomics
#1
An Yuan, Lihong Gong, Lin Luo, Jue Dang, Xiaohong Gong, Mengjie Zhao, Yan Li, Yunxia Li, Cheng Peng
Forsythiae Fructus is an important Chinese medicine which shows a significant effect against inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the preventive anti-inflammation mechanism of Forsythiae Fructus by serum metabolomics strategy and compare the difference of the metabolism pathways between Forsythia extract and Forsythia oil in rat. Four groups (control group, model group, Forsythia extract group and Forsythia oil group) were orally administered 10mL/kg 0.5% Tween 80 solution, 10mL/kg 0.5% Tween 80 solution, 5g/kg Forsythia extract and 0...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905695/description-of-anaerotignum-aminivorans-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-strictly-anaerobic-amino-acid-decomposing-bacterium-isolated-from-a-methanogenic-reactor-and-reclassification-of-clostridium-propionicum-clostridium-neopropionicum-and-clostridium-lactatifermentans-as
#2
Atsuko Ueki, Kazushi Goto, Yoshimi Ohtaki, Nobuo Kaku, Katsuji Ueki
A strictly anaerobic bacterial strain (SH021T) was isolated from a methanogenic reactor. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, motile, straight or slightly curved rods. The optimum temperature for growth was 35 °C, and the optimum pH was 6.1-7.7. The strain was asaccharolytic and utilized amino acids as growth substrates. The strain produced acetate and propionate from l-alanine and l-serine, and propionate and butyrate from l-threonine. Branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine, l-leucine and l-valine) were utilized weakly, and isovalerate or isobutyrate was produced...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900168/identification-of-key-metabolic-changes-during-liver-fibrosis-progression-in-rats-using-a-urine-and-serum-metabolomics-approach
#3
Hong Chang, Hong-Yu Meng, Shu-Min Liu, Yu Wang, Xiao-Xu Yang, Fang Lu, Hong-Yu Wang
Reversibility of hepatic fibrosis is an intrinsic response to chronic injury, and with on-going damage, fibrosis can progress to its end-stage consequence, cirrhosis. Non-invasive and reliable biomarkers for early detection of liver fibrosis are needed. Based on the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis rat model, urinary and serum metabolic profiling performed by LC-QTOF-MS associated with histological progression were utilized to identify liver fibrosis-specific potential biomarkers for early prediction and to reveal significant fibrotic pathways and their dynamic changes in different stages of liver fibrosis...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894024/the-synergistic-antimicrobial-effects-of-novel-bombinin-and-bombinin-h-peptides-from-the-skin-secretion-of%C3%A2-bombina-orientalis
#4
Jie Xiang, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw, Lei Wang
Bombinin and bombinin H are two antimicrobial peptide (AMP) families initially discovered from the skin secretion of Bombina that share the same biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs, but have different structures and physicochemical properties. Insight into their possible existing relationship lead us to perform the combination investigations into their anti-infectious activities. In this work, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterisation of two novel AMPs belonging to bombinin and bombinin H families from secretions of Bombina orientalis Their mature peptides (BHL-bombinin and bombinin HL), coded by single open-reading frame (ORF), were chemically synthesised along with an analogue peptide that replaced L-leucine with D-leucine from the 2nd position of the N-terminus (bombinin HD)...
September 11, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869573/effects-of-whey-soy-or-leucine-supplementation-with-12-weeks-of-resistance-training-on-strength-body-composition-and-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue-histological-attributes-in-college-aged-males
#5
C Brooks Mobley, Cody T Haun, Paul A Roberson, Petey W Mumford, Matthew A Romero, Wesley C Kephart, Richard G Anderson, Christopher G Vann, Shelby C Osburn, Coree D Pledge, Jeffrey S Martin, Kaelin C Young, Michael D Goodlett, David D Pascoe, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU) or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving) on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE); age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg) were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 15), LEU (n = 14), whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 17), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, n = 14), or soy protein concentrate (SPC, n = 15) group...
September 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847019/metabolomic-guided-isolation-of-bioactive-natural-products-from-curvularia-sp-an-endophytic-fungus-of-terminalia-laxiflora
#6
Ahmed F Tawfike, Grainne Abbott, Louise Young, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel
Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are a potential source of novel chemistry and biology. Metabolomic tools were successfully employed to compare the metabolite fingerprints of solid and liquid culture extracts of endophyte Curvularia sp. isolated from the leaves of Terminalia laxiflora. Natural product databases were used to dereplicate metabolites in order to determine known compounds and the presence of new natural products. Multivariate analysis highlighted the putative metabolites responsible for the bioactivity of the fungal extract and its fractions on NF-κB and the myelogenous leukemia cell line K562...
August 28, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820260/thermally-induced-self-assembly-and-cyclization-of-l-leucyl-l-leucine-in-solid-state
#7
Marat A Ziganshin, Aisylu S Safiullina, Alexander V Gerasimov, Sufia A Ziganshina, Alexander E Klimovitskii, Khasan R Khayarov, Valery V Gorbatchuk
Thermal treatment of oligopeptides is one of the methods for synthesis of organic nanostructures. However, heating may lead not only to self-assembly of the initial molecules, but also to chemical reactions resulting in the formation of new unexpected nanostructures or change in the properties of the existing ones. In the present work, the reaction of cyclization of dipeptide l-leucyl-l-leucine in solid state under heating was studied. The change in morphology of dipeptide thin film and formation of nanostructures after heating was visualized using atomic force microscopy...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812766/modulatory-effects-of-arginine-glutamine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-on-heat-shock-proteins-immunity-and-antioxidant-response-in-exercised-rats
#8
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are endogenous proteins whose function is to maintain the cell's tolerance to insult, and glutamine supplementation is known to increase HSP expression during intense exercise. Since few studies have addressed the possibility that supplementation with other amino acids could have similar effects to that of glutamine, our objective was to evaluate the effects of leucine, valine, isoleucine and arginine as potential stimulators of HSPs 25, 60, 70 and 90 in rats subjected to acute exercise as a stressing factor...
September 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754686/llome-does-not-release-cysteine-cathepsins-to-the-cytosol-but-inactivates-them-in-transiently-permeabilized-lysosomes
#9
Urska Repnik, Marita Borg Distefano, Martin Tobias Speth, Matthew Yoke Wui Ng, Cinzia Progida, Bernard Hoflack, Jean Gruenberg, Gareth Griffiths
L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe) induces apoptosis, which is thought to be mediated by release of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins from permeabilized lysosomes into the cytosol. Here, we demonstrated in HeLa cells that at apoptotic as well as sub-apoptotic concentrations LLOMe caused rapid and complete lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), evidenced by loss of the proton gradient and release into the cytosol of internalized lysosomal markers below 10K molecular weight. However, there was no evidence for the release of cysteine cathepsins B and L into the cytosol; rather they remained within lysosomes, where they were rapidly inactivated and degraded...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749683/control-of-surface-localized-enzyme-assisted-self-assembly-of-peptides-through-catalyzed-oligomerization
#10
Cécile Vigier-Carrière, Déborah Wagner, Alain Chaumont, Baptiste Durr, Paolo Lupattelli, Christophe Lambour, Marc Schmutz, Joseph Hemmerlé, Bernard Senger, Pierre Schaaf, Fouzia Boulmedais, Loïc Jierry
Localized self-assembly allowing both spatial and temporal control over the assembly process is essential in many biological systems. This can be achieved through localized enzyme-assisted self-assembly (LEASA), also called enzyme-instructed self-assembly, where enzymes present on a substrate catalyze a reaction that transforms noninteracting species into self-assembling ones. Very few LEASA systems have been reported so far, and the control of the self-assembly process through the surface properties represents one essential step toward their use, for example, in artificial cell mimicry...
August 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735041/self-assembled-polypeptide-nanoparticles-for-intracellular-irinotecan-delivery
#11
N N Zashikhina, M V Volokitina, V A Korzhikov-Vlakh, I I Tarasenko, A Lavrentieva, T Scheper, E Rühl, R V Orlova, T B Tennikova, E G Korzhikova-Vlakh
In this research poly(l-lysine)-b-poly(l-leucine) (PLys-b-PLeu) polymersomes were developed. It was shown that the size of nanoparticles depended on pH of self-assembly process and varied from 180 to 650nm. The biodegradation of PLys-b-PLeu nanoparticles was evaluated using in vitro polypeptide hydrolysis in two model enzymatic systems, as well as in human blood plasma. The experiments on the visualization of cellular uptake of rhodamine 6g-loaded and fluorescein-labeled nanoparticles were carried out and the possibility of their penetration into the cells was approved...
July 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720537/inhaled-powder-formulation-of-naked-sirna-using-spray-drying-technology-with-l-leucine-as-dispersion-enhancer
#12
Michael Y T Chow, Yingshan Qiu, Fiona F K Lo, Hinson H S Lin, Hak-Kim Chan, Philip C L Kwok, Jenny K W Lam
Pulmonary delivery of short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been widely studied in both animal and clinical studies to treat various respiratory diseases by gene silencing through RNA interference. Some of these studies showed that the administration of naked siRNA (without the use of any delivery vectors) could achieve satisfactory gene silencing effect, a unique feature to pulmonary delivery. Liquid aerosols were mostly used with very limited studies on the use of powder aerosols for siRNA. In this study, siRNA was co-spray dried with mannitol and l-leucine, the latter being a dispersion enhancer...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720279/metabolomic-analysis-identifies-altered-metabolic-pathways-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Simone Poddighe, Federica Murgia, Lorena Lorefice, Sonia Liggi, Eleonora Cocco, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Luigi Atzori
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, demyelinating disease that affects the central nervous system and is characterized by a complex pathogenesis and difficult management. The identification of new biomarkers would be clinically useful for more accurate diagnoses and disease monitoring. Metabolomics, the identification of small endogenous molecules, offers an instantaneous molecular snapshot of the MS phenotype. Here the metabolomic profiles (utilizing plasma from patients with MS) were characterized with a Gas cromatography-mass spectrometry-based platform followed by a multivariate statistical analysis and comparison with a healthy control (HC) population...
July 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709940/investigation-of-l-leucine-in-reducing-the-moisture-induced-deterioration-of-spray-dried-salbutamol-sulfate-power-for-inhalation
#14
Liang Li, Sharon Shui Yee Leung, Thomas Gengenbach, Jiaqi Yu, Ge Fiona Gao, Patricia Tang, Qi Tony Zhou, Hak-Kim Chan
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of L-leucine (LL) in preventing moisture-induced deterioration in the in vitro aerosolization performance of spray-dried (SD) salbutamol sulfate (SS). Increasing mass fraction of LL (5-80%) were co-spray dried with SS, and the physicochemical properties of the powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Furthermore, the surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662040/tuning-the-transcription-and-translation-of-l-amino-acid-deaminase-in-escherichia-coli-improves-%C3%AE-ketoisocaproate-production-from-l-leucine
#15
Yang Song, Jianghua Li, Hyun-Dong Shin, Long Liu, Guocheng Du, Jian Chen
α-Ketoisocaproate (KIC) is used widely in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. In previous studies, we achieved a one-step biosynthesis of KIC from l-leucine, using an Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst expressing an l-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) from Proteus vulgaris. Herein, we report the fine-tuning of l-AAD gene expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3) at the transcriptional and translational levels to improve the KIC titer. By optimizing the plasmid origin with different copy numbers, modulating messenger RNA structure downstream of the initiation codon, and designing the sequences at the ribosome binding site, we increased biocatalyst activity to 31...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655072/oral-administration-of-glycine-and-leucine-dipeptides-improves-skin-hydration-and-elasticity-in-uvb-irradiated-hairless-mice
#16
Jong Il Park, Ji Eun Lee, Hyun Jun Shin, Soonran Song, Won Kyung Lee, Jae Sung Hwang
Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not...
September 1, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626480/development-of-dry-powder-inhaler-containing-tadalafil-loaded-plga-nanoparticles
#17
Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Hamed Hamishehkar, Razieh Vatankhah, Shadi Yaghubi
Inhalable dry powders containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the delivery of tadalafil (TAD) for treatment of life-treating pulmonary arterial hypertension. Taguchi design was employed to evaluate the effects of different formulation variables on the physicochemical characteristics of PLGA-NPs prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation method. Inhalable PLGA-NPs of TAD were successfully prepared by co-spray drying the PLGA-NPs with inert carriers. Physicochemical characteristics and in vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug were also evaluated...
June 2017: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615380/leucine-differentially-regulates-gene-specific-translation-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#18
Micah J Drummond, Paul T Reidy, Lisa M Baird, Brian K Dalley, Michael T Howard
Background: Amino acids, especially leucine, are particularly effective in promoting protein synthesis. Leucine is known to increase the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent, as well as -independent, signaling pathways. However, the overall translation program is poorly defined, and it is unknown how the activation of these pathways differentially controls the translation of specific mRNAs.Objective: Ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing were used to precisely define the translational program activated by an acute oral dose of leucine...
September 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613839/visualization-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-aminopeptidase-1-under-different-redox-conditions-with-a-two-photon-fluorescent-probe
#19
Shuai Xu, Hong-Wen Liu, Xiao-Xiao Hu, Shuang-Yan Huan, Jing Zhang, Yong-Chao Liu, Lin Yuan, Feng-Li Qu, Xiao-Bing Zhang, Weihong Tan
Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1), a metallopeptidase belonging to the M1 peptidase family, plays an important role in antigen processing in vivo. Additionally, many diseases are caused by ERAP1 perturbation. Thus, an efficient method for monitoring its content is extremely important for disease diagnosis and treatment. However, few fluorescent probes have been reported for efficiently monitoring ERAP1 in living cells and tissues. In this work, a two-photon fluorescent probe (SNCL) containing 1,8-naphthalimide (two-photon fluorophore), l-leucine (trigger moiety), and a methyl sulfonamide moiety (endoplasmic reticulum-targeting group) for imaging ERAP1 activity in living cells is reported for the first time...
June 28, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612342/effect-of-glycine-nitrogen-on-lettuce-growth-under-soilless-culture-a-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-the-main-changes-occurred-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#20
Xiao Yang, Lei Feng, Li Zhao, Xiaosong Liu, Danial Hassani, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic N could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mM nitrate or 9 mM glycine for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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