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Ana Rita Lima, Ana Margarida Araújo, Joana Pinto, Carmen Jerónimo, Rui Henrique, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Márcia Carvalho, Paula Guedes de Pinho
Prostate cancer (PCa) is an important health problem worldwide. Diagnosis and management of PCa is very complex because the detection of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) has several drawbacks. Metabolomics brings promise for cancer biomarker discovery and for better understanding PCa biochemistry. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomic profiling of PCa cell lines was performed. The cell lines include 22RV1 and LNCaP from PCa with androgen receptor (AR) expression, DU145 and PC3 (which lack AR expression), and one normal prostate cell line (PNT2)...
March 19, 2018: Metabolites
Nathan A Bowden, Johan P M Sanders, Marieke E Bruins
The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water-ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine in water and ethanol mixtures and the solubility of l-alanine, l-proline, l-arginine, l-cysteine, l-lysine, l-asparagine, l-glutamine, l-histidine, and l-leucine in pure ethanol systems were measured and are published here for the first time...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data
Mehdi Yoosefian, Nazanin Etminan
We have designed a novel nanobiosensor for in silico detecting proteins based on leucine/Pd-loaded single-walled carbon nanotube matrix. Density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level of theory was realized to analyze the geometrical and electronic structure of the proposed nanobiosensor. The solvent effects were investigated using the Tomasi's polarized continuum model. Atoms-in-molecules theory was used to study the nature of interactions by calculating the electron density ρ(r) and Laplacian at the bond critical points...
March 14, 2018: Amino Acids
Basanth Babu Eedara, Bhamini Rangnekar, Colin Doyle, Alex Cavallaro, Shyamal C Das
Pharmacotherapy of tuberculosis is potentially more efficient when delivered by the inhaled route than by the current oral and/or parenteral routes due to the higher concentration of drug reaching the primary region of infection in the lungs. This study investigated the influence of the amino acid L-leucine alone and in combination with the phospholipid, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), on the aerosolization behaviour of the anti-TB drugs, pyrazinamide and moxifloxacin HCl. Spray dried powders of pyrazinamide (P), moxifloxacin (M) alone and in combination with 10% L-leucine (PL and ML) and 10% DPPC (PLD and MLD) were produced...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
E Yu Bezsudnova, K M Boyko, V O Popov
Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases (BCATs) catalyze reversible stereoselective transamination of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine. BCATs are the key enzymes of BCAA metabolism in all organisms. The catalysis proceeds through the ping-pong mechanism with the assistance of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). BCATs differ from other (S)-selective transaminases (TAs) in 3D-structure and organization of the PLP-binding domain. Unlike other (S)-selective TAs, BCATs belong to the PLP fold type IV and are characterized by the proton transfer on the re-face of PLP, in contrast to the si-specificity of proton transfer in fold type I (S)-selective TAs...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Minlu Han, Mengyu Xie, Jun Han, Daoyi Yuan, Tian Yang, Ying Xie
A validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of D- and L-amino acids in human serum. Under the optimum conditions, except for DL-proline, L-glutamine, and D-lysine, the enantioseparation of the other 19 enantiomeric pairs of proteinogenic amino acids and nonchiral glycine was achieved with a CROWNPAK CR-I(+) chiral column within 13 min. The lower limits of quantitation for L-amino acids (including glycine) and D-amino acids were 5-56.25 μM and 0...
March 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Koji Noge, Shigeru Tamogami
Herbivore-induced plant volatiles play important roles in plant-insect and plant-plant interactions. The common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis, is often infested by the flea beetle, Altica oleracea, on which the predatory blue shield bug, Zicrona caerulea, is usually found. This observation suggests that the predatory bug can discriminate infested plants from intact ones to locate its prey. In this study, l-leucine-derived nitrogen-containing compounds [isovaleronitrile (3-methylbutanenitrile), (E/Z)-isovaleraldoxime and 3-methyl-1-nitrobutane] and some terpenes were identified as a characteristic volatile blend from herbivore-infested O...
March 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Georgios K Eleftheriadis, Melpomeni Akrivou, Nikolaos Bouropoulos, John Tsibouklis, Ioannis S Vizirianakis, Dimitrios G Fatouros
Towards engineering approaches that are designed to optimize the particle size, morphology and mucoadhesion behavior of the particulate component of inhaler formulations, this paper presents the preparation, physicochemical characterization and preliminary in vitro evaluation of multicomponent polymer-lipid systems that are based on "spray-drying engineered" α-lactose monohydrate microparticles. The formulations combine an active (budesonide) with a lung surfactant (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) and with materials that are known for their desirable effects on morphology (polyvinyl-alcohol), aerosolization (L-leucine) and mucoadhesion (chitosan)...
February 27, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Hailing Zhang, Yanyan Li, Chenhui Wang, Xiaoyuan Wang
Toward the elucidation of the advanced mechanism of L-valine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum, a highly developed industrial strain VWB-1 was analyzed, employing the combination of transcriptomics and proteomics methods. The transcriptional level of 1155 genes and expression abundance of 96 proteins were changed significantly by the transcriptome and proteome comparison of VWB-1 and ATCC 13869. It was indicated that the key genes involved in the biosynthesis of L-valine, ilvBN, ilvC, ilvD, ilvE were up-regulated in VWB-1, which together made prominent contributions in improving the carbon flow towards L-valine...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Allyson M Morton, Manja Koch, Carlos O Mendivil, Jeremy D Furtado, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Liyun Wang, Majken K Jensen, Frank M Sacks
BACKGROUND: Subspecies of HDL contain apolipoprotein E (apoE) and/or apoCIII. Both proteins have properties that could affect HDL metabolism. The relation between HDL metabolism and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is not well understood. METHODS: Eighteen participants were given a bolus infusion of [D3]L-leucine to label endogenous proteins on HDL. HDL was separated into subspecies containing apoE and/or apoCIII and then into 4 sizes. Metabolic rates for apoA-I in HDL subspecies and sizes were determined by interactive modeling...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Ju Li, Nan Che, Lingxiao Xu, Qian Zhang, Qi Wang, Wenfeng Tan, Miaojia Zhang
Metabolomics has been applied to explore altered metabolite profiles in disease and identify unique metabolic signatures in recent years. We aim to characterize the metabolic profile of rheumatoid arthritis patients and explore its underlying pathological processes using metabolomics approach. Serum samples from 30 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 30 primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) patients, and 32 healthy controls (HC) were collected. The sample was analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS)...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Nicholas Heeley, Peter Kirwan, Tamana Darwish, Marion Arnaud, Mark L Evans, Florian T Merkle, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Clemence Blouet
OBJECTIVE: Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. METHODS: We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Hasene Keskin Çavdar, Derya Koçak Yanık, Fahrettin Göğüş, Sibel Fadıloğlu
The objective of this research was to synthesize and characterize a novel modified lipid which is composed of mainly oleic acid at sn-2 position and a hydrophobic essential amino acid derivative (N-acetyl-l-leucine) at sn-1(3) or sn-1, 3 positions. LC-MS-MS analysis indicated that the target modified lipid structure was obtained at the end of the developed reaction. Response surface methodology was applied to enhance a reliable empirical model for prediction and to optimize reaction conditions: reaction time (8 to 24 hr), reaction temperature (40 to 55 °C), and enzyme load (15 to 30 wt%)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Marco A Ramírez, Jorge Morales, Marcelo Cornejo, Elias H Blanco, Edgardo Mancilla-Sierpe, Fernando Toledo, Ana R Beltrán, Luis Sobrevia
l-Arginine is taken up via the cationic amino acid transporters (system y+/CATs) and system y+L in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). l-Arginine is the substrate for endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) which is activated by intracellular alkalization, but nothing is known regarding modulation of system y+/CATs and system y+L activity, and eNOS activity by the pHi in HUVECs. We studied whether an acidic pHi modulates l-arginine transport and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Cells loaded with a pH-sensitive probe were subjected to 0...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tengfei Guo, Qian Zhang, Chao Ai, Guoqing Liang, Ping He, Wei Zhou
Litter bag method was conducted to investigate the decomposition characteristics of rice straw (6000 kg ha-1) and its associated microbial community under different nitrogen (N) addition rates (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N ha-1) under double-rice rotation. Generally, straw mass reduction and nutrient release of rice straw were faster in early stage of decomposition (0-14 days after decomposition), when easily-utilized carbohydrates and amines were the preferential substrates for involved decomposers. Straw-associated N-acetyl-glucosamidase and L-leucine aminopeptidase activities, which were higher under 180 and 270 kg N ha-1 addition, showed more activities in the early stage of decomposition...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sharad Mangal, Haichen Nie, Rongkun Xu, Rui Guo, Alex Cavallaro, Dmitry Zemlyanov, Qi Tony Zhou
PURPOSE: Inhalation therapy is popular to treat lower respiratory tract infections. Azithromycin is effective against some bacteria that cause respiratory tract infections; but it has poor water solubility that may limit its efficacy when administrated as inhalation therapy. In this study, dry powder inhaler formulations were developed by co-spray drying azithromycin with L-leucine with a purpose to improve dissolution. METHODS: The produced powder formulations were characterized regarding particle size, morphology, surface composition and in-vitro aerosolization performance...
January 8, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Tasson C Rodrigues, Maria Leonor S Oliveira, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Stefanni L Chavez-Rico, Douglas B Figueiredo, Viviane M Gonçalves, Daniela M Ferreira, Nitesh K Kunda, Imran Y Saleem, Eliane N Miyaji
Burden of pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae remains high despite the availability of conjugate vaccines. Mucosal immunization targeting the lungs is an attractive alternative for the induction of local immune responses to improve protection against pneumonia. Our group had previously described the development of poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone) (PGA-co-PDL) polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) adsorbed with Pneumococcal surface protein A from clade 4 (PspA4Pro) within L-leucine microcarriers (nanocomposite microparticles-NCMPs) for mucosal delivery targeting the lungs (NP/NCMP PspA4Pro)...
2018: PloS One
Robin A Reddeman, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Adél Vértesi, Erzsébet Béres, Ilona Pasics Szakonyiné
A battery of toxicological studies was conducted to investigate the genotoxicity and repeated-dose oral toxicity of creatyl-l-leucine, a synthetic compound, in rats in accordance with internationally accepted guidelines. There was no evidence of mutagenicity in a bacterial reverse mutation test and in an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test. There was no genotoxic activity observed in an in vivo mammalian micronucleus test at concentrations up to the limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg bw/d. Creatyl-l-leucine did not cause mortality or toxic effects in Hsd...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Yunjing Zhang, Bin Yang, Jinping Zhao, Xiaoli Li, Long Zhang, Zhenhua Zhai
BACKGROUND Carbobenzoxy-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal (MG132), a peptide aldehyde proteasome inhibitor, can inhibit tumor progression by inactivating nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling. Paclitaxel (PTX) is part of a routine regimen for the treatment of breast cancer. However, activation of the NF-κB pathway after treatment with PTX confers insensitivity to this drug. This study investigated the potential effect of MG132 as a co-treatment with PTX against breast cancer, and clarifies the underlying molecular mechanisms...
January 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Wenwen Yu, Yi Zheng, Zhujun Yang, Hongbo Fei, Yang Wang, Xu Hou, Xinhua Sun, Yuqin Shen
Rare therapeutic genes or agents are reported to control orthodontic bone remodeling. MicroRNAs have recently been associated with bone metabolism. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo effects of miR-34a on osteogenic differentiation under orthodontic force using an N-acetyl-L-leucine-modified polyethylenimine (N-Ac-l-Leu-PEI) carrier. N-Ac-l-Leu-PEI exhibited low cytotoxicity and high miR-34a transfection efficiency in rat bone mineral stem cells and local alveolar bone tissue. After transfection, miR-34a enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of Runx2 and ColI, Runx2 and ColI protein levels, and early osteogenesis function under orthodontic strain in vitro...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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