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L-leucine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514978/jugular-infused-methionine-lysine-and-branched-chain-amino-acids-does-not-improve-milk-production-in-holstein-cows-experiencing-heat-stress
#1
K R Kassube, J D Kaufman, K G Pohler, J W McFadden, A G Ríus
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14...
May 18, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508902/non-zeolitic-properties-of-the-dipeptide-l-leucyl-l-leucine-as-a-result-of-the-specific-nanostructure-formation
#2
Marat A Ziganshin, Aisylu S Safiullina, Sufia A Ziganshina, Alexander V Gerasimov, Valery V Gorbatchuk
The non-zeolitic behavior of l-leucyl-l-leucine and its self-organization in solid state and from solutions with the formation of different nanostructures are reported. This dipeptide forms porous crystals, but does not exhibit molecular sieve effects typical of classical zeolites and biozeolites. The specific sorption properties of l-leucyl-l-leucine result from a change in its crystal packing from channel-type to layered-type, when binding strong proton acceptors or proton donors of molecular size greater than 18-20 cm(3) mol(-1)...
May 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503045/review-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitory-assay-rapid-method-in-drug-discovery-of-herbal-plants
#3
REVIEW
Islamudin Ahmad, Arry Yanuar, Kamarza Mulia, Abdul Mun'im
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a signaling pathway which responsible in the blood pressure regulation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the key elements responsible for the hypertensive mechanism. It converts angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II. The discovery history of the ACE inhibitory activity assay method has been through a long stage for decades and development continues until today. The ACE inhibitory activity has become an effective screening method in the search for new antihypertensive agents from herbal plants...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494385/l-leucine-dietary-supplementation-modulates-muscle-protein-degradation-and-increases-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-tumour-bearing-rats
#4
Bread Cruz, André Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes
Cancer cachexia is characterised by involuntary weight loss associated with systemic inflammation and metabolic changes. Studies aimed at maintaining lean body mass in cachectic tumour-bearing hosts have made important contributions reducing the number of deaths and improving the quality of life. In recent years, leucine has demonstrated effective action in maintaining lean body mass by decreasing muscle protein degradation. Currently, there is a growing need to understand how leucine stimulates protein synthesis and acts protectively in a cachectic organism...
May 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448887/macro-raman-spectroscopy-for-bulk-composition-and-homogeneity-analysis-of-multi-component-pharmaceutical-powders
#5
Hui Wang, David Barona, Sulayman Oladepo, Lisa Williams, Susan Hoe, David Lechuga-Ballesteros, Reinhard Vehring
A new macro-Raman system equipped with a motorized translational sample stage and low-frequency shift capabilities was developed for bulk composition and homogeneity analysis of multi-component pharmaceutical powders. Different sampling methods including single spot and scanning measurement were compared. It was found that increasing sample volumes significantly improved the precision of quantitative composition analysis, especially for poorly mixed powders. The multi-pass cavity of the macro-Raman system increased effective sample volumes by 20 times from the sample volume defined by the collection optics, i...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422213/revisiting-the-juli%C3%A3-colonna-enantioselective-epoxidation-supramolecular-catalysis-in-water
#6
Christopher Bérubé, Xavier Barbeau, Patrick Lagüe, Normand Voyer
We describe an efficient epoxidation process leading to chiral epoxyketones using the reusable homo-oligopeptide poly-l-leucine (PLL) in pure water, without any organic co-solvent. A range of substituted epoxyketones can be accessed with good conversions and high enantioselectivities. Based on the experimental results and computational studies, we propose a mechanism that demonstrates the importance of both the α-helical structure and the presence of a hydrophobic groove of the homo-oligopeptide catalyst for reactivity and selectivity...
May 4, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410993/development-of-a-novel-recombinant-lhrh-fusion-protein-for-therapy-of-androgen-and-estrogen-dependent-cancers
#7
Jagdish C Gupta, Rohit S Hada, P Sahai, G P Talwar
LHRH based vaccines are promising candidates for therapy of androgen and estrogen dependent cancers. We report in this communication development of a novel recombinant protein vaccine candidate against LHRH. A synthetic gene was designed in which the codon sequence in the LHRH decapeptide was modified by substituting the codon for 6-glycine with that of l-leucine. Further the LHRH(6leu) gene was linked to heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli (LTB) as carrier. This LHRH(6leu)-LTB gene was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector under the control of inducible and strong bacteriophage T7 promoter to over-express LHRH(leu) fused to LTB as recombinant protein in E...
April 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395537/three-new-amino-acid-derivatives-from-edible-mushroom-pleurotus-ostreatus
#8
Xiao-Jie Lu, Bao-Min Feng, Shao-Fei Chen, Dan Zhao, Gang Chen, Hai-Feng Wang, Yue-Hu Pei
Three new amino acid derivatives, oxalamido-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (1), oxalamido-L-leucine methyl ester (2), and lumichrome hydrolyzate (3), together with nine known compounds (4-12), were isolated from the solid culture of edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were established by the chiral synthesis and confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) analysis of their total synthesis products and natural isolates...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393748/gut-microbiota-of-mice-putatively-modifies-amino-acid-metabolism-in-the-host-brain
#9
Takahiro Kawase, Mao Nagasawa, Hiromi Ikeda, Shinobu Yasuo, Yasuhiro Koga, Mitsuhiro Furuse
Recently, it has been found that the gut microbiota influences functions of the host brain by affecting monoamine metabolism. The present study focused on the relationship between the gut microbiota and the brain amino acids. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) mice were used as experimental models. Plasma and brain regions were sampled from mice at 7 and 16 weeks of age, and analysed for free d- and l-amino acids, which are believed to affect many physiological functions. At 7 weeks of age, plasma concentrations of d-aspartic acid (d-Asp), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-glutamine (l-Gln) and taurine were higher in SPF mice than in GF mice, but no differences were found at 16 weeks of age...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387471/arrangement-of-proteinogenic-%C3%AE-amino-acids-on-a-cyclic-peptide-comprising-alternate-biphenyl-cored-%C3%AE-amino-acids
#10
Shohei Tashiro, Masayuki Chiba, Mitsuhiko Shionoya
Aiming at precisely arranging several proteinogenic α-amino acids on a folded scaffold, we have developed a cyclic hexapeptide comprising an alternate sequence of biphenyl-cored ζ-amino acids and proteinogenic α-amino acids such as l-leucine. The amino acids were connected by typical peptide synthesis, and the resultant linear hexapeptide was intramolecularly cyclized to form a target cyclic peptide. Theoretical analyses and NMR spectroscopy suggested that the cyclic peptide was folded into an unsymmetrical conformation, and the structure was likely to be flexible in CHCl3 ...
April 7, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347255/inhibition-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-activity-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-cholangiocarcinoma-treatment
#11
Supak Yothaisong, Hasaya Dokduang, Naohiko Anzai, Keitaro Hayashi, Nisana Namwat, Puangrat Yongvanit, Sakkarn Sangkhamanon, Promsuk Jutabha, Hitoshi Endou, Watcharin Loilome
Unlike normal cells, cancer cells undergo unlimited growth and multiplication, causing them to require massive amounts of amino acid to support their continuous metabolism. Among the amino acid transporters expressed on the plasma membrane, l-type amino acid transporter-1, a Na(+)-independent neutral amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in many types of human cancer including cholangiocarcinoma. Our previous study reported that l-type amino acid transporter-1 and its co-functional protein CD98 were highly expressed and implicated in cholangiocarcinoma progression and carcinogenesis...
March 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341051/whey-protein-derived-exosomes-increase-protein-synthesis-and-hypertrophy-in-c2-c12-myotubes
#12
C Brooks Mobley, Petey W Mumford, John J McCarthy, Michael E Miller, Kaelin C Young, Jeffrey S Martin, Darren T Beck, Christopher M Lockwood, Michael D Roberts
We sought to examine potential amino acid independent mechanisms whereby hydrolyzed whey protein (WP) affects muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and anabolism in vitro. Specifically, we tested (1) whether 3-h and 6-h treatments of WP, essential amino acids, or l-leucine (Leu) affected MPS, and whether 6-h treatments with low-, medium-, or high doses of WP versus Leu affected MPS; (2) whether knockdown of the primary Leu transporter affected WP- and Leu-mediated changes in MPS, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling responses, or both, following 6-h treatments; (3) whether exosomes isolated from WP (WP-EXO) affected MPS, mTOR signaling responses, or both, compared with untreated (control) myotubes, following 6-h, 12-h, and 24-h treatments, and whether they affected myotube diameter following 24-h and 48-h treatments...
January 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326005/bioactivity-of-food-peptides-biological-response-of-rats-to-bovine-milk-whey-peptides-following-acute-exercise
#13
Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan
Background: Several physiologically beneficial effects of consuming a whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) have been attributed to the greater availability of bioactive peptides. Aims: The aim was to investigate the effect of four branched-chain amino acid- (BCAA-)containing dipeptides, present in WPH, on immune modulation, stimulation of HSP expression, muscle protein synthesis, glycogen content, satiety signals and the impact of these peptides on the plasma free amino acid profiles. Methods: The animals were divided in groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), L-isoleucyl-L-leucine (lle-Leu), L-leucyl-L-isoleucine (Leu-lle), L-valyl-Lleucine (Val-Leu), L-leucyl-L-valine (Leu-Val) and WPH...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317725/simultaneous-quantification-of-twenty-amadori-products-in-soy-sauce-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#14
Hiroshi Katayama, Yuki Tatemichi, Ayako Nakajima
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method using a pentafluorophenylpropyl-bonded silica column was developed to simultaneously quantify twenty Amadori products (APs), including N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-isoleucine (Fru-Ile) and N-(1-Deoxy-d-fructosyl-1-yl)-l-leucine (Fru-Leu), in soy sauce, without the need for an ion-pairing reagent or sample derivatization. The method was applied to six types of soy sauce, to determine the total AP levels and the levels of individual APs. The level of total APs widely varied between the eight samples, from 358mg/L to 24347mg/L...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291661/evaluation-of-a-novel-system-for-analyzing-hydrophilic-blood-metabolites
#15
Shin Nishiumi, Keisuke Shima, Takeshi Azuma, Masaru Yoshida
Metabolomics has recently been developed, and there have been a considerable number of metabolomics-based biomarker studies in the medical research field. Therefore, as a first step toward the practical use of metabolite biomarkers, a simple and quick sample preparation method involving metabolite extraction, metabolite measurement, and data analysis needs to be developed. In this study, we evaluated whether the use of simpler metabolite extraction methods would facilitate the stable analysis of hydrophilic blood metabolites during liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/QqQMS)-based metabolome analysis...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287429/d-amino-acid-position-influences-the-anticancer-activity-of-galaxamide-analogs-an-apoptotic-mechanism-study
#16
Defa Bai, Siming Yu, Shenghui Zhong, Bingxin Zhao, Shaoling Qiu, Jianwei Chen, Jignesh Lunagariya, Xiaojian Liao, Shihai Xu
Galaxamide, an extract from Galaxaura filamentosa, is a cyclic pentapeptide containing five l-leucines. Due to the particular cyclic structure and the excellent anticancer activity, synthesis of Galaxamide and its analogs and their subsequent bio-applications have attracted great attention. In the present work, we synthesized six Galaxamide analogs by replacing one of the l-leucines with phenylalanine and varying the d-amino acid position. The anticancer effect of the synthesized Galaxamide analogs was tested against four in vitro human cancer cell lines, human hepatocellular cells (HepG₂), human breast cancer cell (MCF-7), human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-435) and a human cervical carcinoma cell line (Hela)...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282259/study-on-the-pulmonary-delivery-system-of-apigenin-loaded-albumin-nanocarriers-with-antioxidant-activity
#17
Zsófia Edit Pápay, Annamária Kósa, Béla Böddi, Zahra Merchant, Imran Y Saleem, Mohammed Gulrez Zariwala, Imre Klebovich, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, István Antal
BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are mainly derived from acute and chronic inflammation of the alveoli and bronchi. The pathophysiological mechanisms of pulmonary inflammation mainly arise from oxidative damage that could ultimately lead to acute lung injury. Apigenin (Api) is a natural polyphenol with prominent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in the lung. Inhalable formulations that consist of nanoparticles (NPs) have several advantages over other administration routes, and therefore, this study investigated the application of apigenin-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-Api-NPs) for pulmonary delivery...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272868/mechanism-based-inhibition-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-branched-chain-aminotransferase-by-d-and-l-cycloserine
#18
Tathyana Mar Amorim Franco, Lorenza Favrot, Olivia Vergnolle, John S Blanchard
The branched-chain aminotransferase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme responsible for the final step in the biosynthesis of all three branched-chain amino acids, l-leucine, l-isoleucine, and l-valine, in bacteria. We have investigated the mechanism of inactivation of the branched-chain aminotransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtIlvE) by d- and l-cycloserine. d-Cycloserine is currently used only in the treatment of multidrug-drug-resistant tuberculosis. Our results show a time- and concentration-dependent inactivation of MtIlvE by both isomers, with l-cycloserine being a 40-fold better inhibitor of the enzyme...
March 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266220/metabolic-mechanism-for-l-leucine-induced-metabolome-to-eliminate-streptococcus-iniae
#19
Chao-Chao Du, Man-Jun Yang, Min-Yi Li, Jun Yang, Bo Peng, Hui Li, Xuan-Xian Peng
Crucial metabolites that modulate hosts' metabolome to eliminate bacterial pathogens have been documented, but the metabolic mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study explores the metabolic mechanism for l-leucine-induced metabolome to eliminate Streptococcus iniae in tilapia. GC-MS-based metabolomics was used to investigate the tilapia liver metabolic profile in the presence of exogenous l-leucine. Thirty-seven metabolites of differential abundance were determined, and 11 metabolic pathways were enriched...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252650/amino-acid-transporters-in-t-cell-activation-and-differentiation
#20
REVIEW
W Ren, G Liu, J Yin, B Tan, G Wu, F W Bazer, Y Peng, Y Yin
T-cell-mediated immune responses aim to protect mammals against cancers and infections, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Cellular uptake and the utilization of nutrients is closely related to the T-cell fate decision and function. Research in this area has yielded surprising findings in the importance of amino-acid transporters for T-cell development, homeostasis, activation, differentiation and memory. In this review, we present current information on amino-acid transporters, such as LAT1 (l-leucine transporter), ASCT2 (l-glutamine transporter) and GAT-1 (γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1), which are critically important for mediating peripheral naive T-cell homeostasis, activation and differentiation, especially for Th1 and Th17 cells, and even memory T cells...
March 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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