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Rate of force development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036498/british-widows-of-the-south-african-war-and-the-origins-of-war-widows-pensions
#1
Eliza Riedi
The South African War of 1899-1902 cost the lives of 22,000 British and colonial soldiers and created almost 5,000 British war widows. It was in this context that the first state pensions for the widows of rank and file soldiers were introduced in 1901. Triggered by unexpectedly high casualty rates and widespread dissatisfaction with charitable provision, the introduction of state pensions also reflected changing public attitudes towards soldiers and their dependants in the context of an imperial war. Dismissed in the historiography as insignificant because of its low rates and restrictive eligibility clauses, the 1901 scheme in fact delivered pensions to the majority of war widows and made the Edwardian state their most important source of financial support...
September 23, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036170/quantifying-the-effects-of-temperature-on-mosquito-and-parasite-traits-that-determine-the-transmission-potential-of-human-malaria
#2
Lillian L M Shapiro, Shelley A Whitehead, Matthew B Thomas
Malaria transmission is known to be strongly impacted by temperature. The current understanding of how temperature affects mosquito and parasite life history traits derives from a limited number of empirical studies. These studies, some dating back to the early part of last century, are often poorly controlled, have limited replication, explore a narrow range of temperatures, and use a mixture of parasite and mosquito species. Here, we use a single pairing of the Asian mosquito vector, An. stephensi and the human malaria parasite, P...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030438/role-of-wall-shear-stress-on-cryptosporidium-parvum-oocyst-attachment-to-environmental-biofilms
#3
Xia Luo, Sabrina S Jedlicka, Kristen L Jellison
This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic condition on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030372/dose-dependent-effects-of-the-myosin-activator-omecamtiv-mecarbil-on-cross-bridge-behavior-and-force-generation-in-failing-human-myocardium
#4
Ranganath Mamidi, Jiayang Li, Kenneth S Gresham, Sujeet Verma, Chang Yoon Doh, Amy Li, Sean Lal, Cristobal G Dos Remedios, Julian E Stelzer
BACKGROUND: Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) enhances systolic function in vivo by directly binding the myosin cross-bridges (XBs) in the sarcomere. However, the mechanistic details governing OM-induced modulation of XB behavior in failing human myocardium are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of OM on steady state and dynamic XB behavior were measured in chemically skinned myocardial preparations isolated from human donor and heart failure (HF) left ventricle. HF myocardium exhibited impaired contractile function as evidenced by reduced maximal force, magnitude of XB recruitment (Pdf), and a slowed rate of XB detachment (krel) at submaximal Ca(2+) activations...
October 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029735/reduction-of-production-rate-in-y-shaped-microreactors-in-the-presence-of-viscoelasticity
#5
Hamed Helisaz, Mohammad Hassan Saidi, Arman Sadeghi
The viscoelasticity effects on the reaction-diffusion rates in a Y-shaped microreactor are studied utilizing the PTT rheological model. The flow is assumed to be fully developed and considered to be created under a combined action of electroosmotic and pressure forces. In general, finite-volume-based numerical simulations are conducted to handle the problem; however, analytical solutions based on the depthwise averaging approach are also obtained for the case for which there is no reaction between the inlet components...
October 16, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029566/associations-among-quadriceps-strength-and-rate-of-torque-development-6-weeks-post-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-and-future-hop-and-vertical-jump-performance-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Yong-Hao Pua, Benjamin F Mentiplay, Ross A Clark, Jia-Ying Ho
Study Design Prospective cohort. Background Quadriceps strength is associated with hop distance and jump height in persons who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, it is unknown whether the ability to rapidly generate quadriceps torque in the early phase of recovery is associated with future hopping and jumping performance in this population. Objective To evaluate the prospective associations among quadriceps strength and rate of torque development (RTD) and single-leg hop for distance, vertical jump height, vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), and vertical force loading rate during a landing task in persons who have undergone ACLR...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027748/a-microfluidics-approach-to-investigate-the-role-of-dynamic-similitude-in-osteocyte-mechanobiology
#7
Kevin Middleton, Avinash Kondiboyina, Michael Borrett, Yi Cui, Xueting Mei, Lidan You
Fluid flow is an important regulator of cell function and metabolism in many tissues. Fluid shear stresses have been used to level the mechanical stimuli applied in vitro with what occurs in vivo. However, these experiments often lack dynamic similarity, which is necessary to ensure the validity of the model. For interstitial fluid flow, the major requirement for dynamic similarity is the Reynolds number (Re), the ratio of inertial to viscous forces, is the same between the system and model. To study the necessity of dynamic similarity for cell mechanotransduction studies, we investigated the response of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells to different Re flows at the same level of fluid shear stress...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026511/both-seed-germination-and-seedling-mortality-increase-with-experimental-warming-and-fertilization-in-a-subarctic-tundra
#8
Ann Milbau, Nicolas Vandeplas, Fred Kockelbergh, Ivan Nijs
Climate change is expected to force many species in arctic regions to migrate and track their climatic niche. This requires recruitment from seed, which currently shows very low rates in arctic regions, where long-lived and vegetatively reproducing plants dominate. Therefore, we pose the question whether recruitment (germination and seedling establishment) in arctic regions will significantly improve in a warmer world, and thus allow species to follow their climatic niche. We used a full factorial experiment to examine if realistic warmer temperatures (+3 °C; infrared radiation) and increased nitrogen availability (+1...
September 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026438/mental-health-assessments-in-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-evaluation-of-a-tablet-assisted-screening-software
#9
Naser Morina, Simon M Ewers, Sandra Passardi, Ulrich Schnyder, Christine Knaevelsrud, Julia Müller, Richard A Bryant, Angela Nickerson, Matthis Schick
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems resulting from persecution and forced migration are very common among refugees and asylum seekers and evolve into a major public health challenge in hosting societies. Language barriers often prevent timely access to appropriate health care, leading to chronic trajectories and abortive social integration. Tools for multilingual screening and assessment could be of great benefit for this particularly vulnerable population as well as for policy makers...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024583/endowing-hydrochromism-to-fluorans-via-bio-inspired-alteration-of-molecular-structures-and-microenvironments-and-expanding-their-potential-for-rewritable-paper
#10
Guan Xi, Lan Sheng, Ivan Zhang, Jiahui Du, Ting Zhang, Qiaonan Chen, Guiying Li, Ying Zhang, Yue Song, Jianhua Li, Yu-Mo Zhang, Sean Xiao-An Zhang
Interests and efforts on new materials for rewritable paper have been increased dramatically due to the glamorous advantages for sustainable development and better nature life cycle. Inspired from how nature works within life system, herein, we have taken fluorans as a concept verification on endowing original acidochromic, basochromic or photochromic molecules with broader properties, such as switchable with solvent, water, heat, electricity, stress or other force, etc. via simplified ways (i.e., via variation of sub-molecular structure and/or microenvironments)...
October 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023327/sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-delays-neuromuscular-fatigue-without-changes-in-performance-outcomes-during-a-basketball-match-simulation-protocol
#11
Paul Ansdell, Jeanne Dekerle
PURPOSE: To investigate the development of neuromuscular fatigue during a basketball game simulation and ascertain whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation attenuates any neuromuscular fatigue that persists. METHODS: Ten participants ingested 0.2 g.kg of NaHCO3 (or an equimolar placebo dosage of sodium chloride [NaCl]) 90 and 60 minutes prior to commencing a basketball game simulation (ALK-T vs PLA-T). Isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors (MVIC) and potentiated high (100 Hz) and low (10 Hz) frequency doublet twitches were recorded before and after each match quarter for both trials...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021159/suction-effects-in-cratered-surfaces
#12
Shutao Qiao, Liu Wang, Hyoyoung Jeong, Gregory J Rodin, Nanshu Lu
It has been shown experimentally that cratered surfaces may have better adhesion properties than flat ones. However, the suction effect produced by the craters, which may be chiefly responsible for the improved adhesion, has not been properly modelled. This paper combines experimental, numerical simulation and analytical approaches towards developing a framework for quantifying the suction effect produced by isolated craters and cratered surfaces. The modelling approach emphasizes the essential role of large elastic deformation, while the airflow dynamics, microscopic mechanisms, like surface tension and air permeation, and rate-dependence are neglected...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017410/effects-of-knee-position-on-the-reliability-and-production-of-maximal-and-rapid-strength-characteristics-during-an-isometric-squat-test
#13
Ty B Palmer, Jose G Pineda, Rachel M Durham
This study aimed to examine the effects of knee position on the reliability and production of peak force (PF) and rate of force (RFD) development characteristics during an isometric squat. Fourteen resistance-trained females performed isometric squats at 90, 120, and 150° knee angles (corresponding to parallel, half, and quarter squat positions, respectively) on two different occasions, from which PF, peak RFD, and early (RFD30,RFD50,RFD100) and late (RFD200) phase RFD variables were extracted. PF and RFD200 were highly consistent across trials for all three squat positions, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging between 0...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017022/isometric-parameters-in-the-monitoring-of-maximal-strength-power-and-hypertrophic-resistance-training
#14
Heikki Peltonen, Simon Walker, Anuliisa Lähitie, Keijo Häkkinen, Janne Avela
This study monitored strength-training adaptations via isometric parameters throughout 2×10 weeks of hypertrophic (HYP I+II) or 10 weeks maximum strength (MS) followed by 10 weeks power (P) training with untrained controls. Previously untrained men performed bilateral isometric leg press tests analyzed for peak force (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) every 3.5-week. These parameters were compared to dynamic performance, voluntary and electrically-induced isometric contractions, muscle activity and cross-sectional area (CSA) in the laboratory before and after 10 and 20 weeks...
October 10, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016477/shod-versus-barefoot-effects-on-force-and-power-development-during-a-conventional-deadlift
#15
Mark E Hammer, Rudi A Meir, John W Whitting, Zachary J Crowley-McHattan
The kinetics of a conventional deadlift in shod (S) versus unshod (US) footwear conditions in 10 male participants (mean ± SD, age = 27.0 ± 5.8 years; weight = 78.7 ± 11.5 kg; height = 175.8 ± 8.2 cm; 1RM deadlift = 155.8 ± 25.8 kg) was assessed in two testing sessions. A counterbalanced, crossover experimental design was used with different loads (60% and 80% 1RM). Four sets of four repetitions were prescribed per session with two sets per shoe and with each shoe condition involving one set per load. Peak vertical force (PF), rate of force development (RFD), time to peak force (TPF), anterior-posterior (COP-AP) and medio-lateral (COP-ML) center of pressure excursion, and barbell peak power (PP) data were recorded during all repetitions...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994667/relative-contribution-of-different-altered-motor-unit-control-to-muscle-weakness-in-stroke-a-simulation-study
#16
Henry Shin, Nina Suresh, William Zev Rymer, Xiaogang Hu
Chronic muscle weakness impacts the majority of individuals after a stroke. The origins of this hemiparesis is multifaceted, and an altered spinal control of the motor unit (MU) pool can lead to muscle weakness. However, the relative contribution of different MU recruitment and discharge organization is not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine these different effects by utilizing a MU simulation with variations set to mimic the changes of MU control in stroke. Approach: Using a well-established model of the MU pool, this study quantified the changes in force output caused by changes in MU recruitment range and recruitment order, as well as MU firing rate organization at the population level...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994021/radial-head-prosthesis-surgical-tips-and-tricks
#17
A Marinelli, E Guerra, A Ritali, M Cavallo, R Rotini
Radial head prostheses (RHP) have been developed to decrease the complications rate following a radial head resection surgery. The aim of the RHP is to replicate the physiological radiocapitellar tracking, reproducing the mechanical function of the native radial head: to stabilize the elbow and to shear the forces passing through the elbow along with the other stabilizers. The currently used RHP models try to achieve this target with three different prosthesis' strategies: (a) loose fit stem, (b) bipolar radial head or (c) anatomical radial head...
October 9, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993970/factors-affecting-palatability-of-four-submerged-macrophytes-for-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#18
Jian Sun, Long Wang, Lin Ma, Fenli Min, Tao Huang, Yi Zhang, Zhenbin Wu, Feng He
Grass carp can weaken the growth and reproductive capacity of submerged macrophytes by consuming valuable tissues, but factors affecting palatability of submerged macrophytes for grass carp rarely are considered. In this study, relative consumption rate of grass carp with regard to submerged macrophytes was in the following order: Hydrilla verticillata > Vallisneria natans > Ceratophyllum demersum > Myriophyllum spicatum. Firmness of macrophytes was in the following order: M. spicatum > C. demersum > H...
October 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988861/centrifugal-displacement-of-nuclei-reveals-multiple-linc-complex-mechanisms-for-homeostatic-nuclear-positioning
#19
Ruijun Zhu, Susumu Antoku, Gregg G Gundersen
Nuclear movement is critical for developmental events, cell polarity, and migration and is usually mediated by linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes connecting the nucleus to cytoskeletal elements. Compared to active nuclear movement, relatively little is known about homeostatic positioning of nuclei, including whether it is an active process. To explore homeostatic nuclear positioning, we developed a method to displace nuclei in adherent cells using centrifugal force. Nuclei displaced by centrifugation rapidly recentered by mechanisms that depended on cell context...
October 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984246/the-role-of-eeg-in-the-diagnosis-and-classification-of-the-epilepsy-syndromes-a-tool-for-clinical-practice-by-the-ilae-neurophysiology-task-force-part-1
#20
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Roberto Caraballo, Sushma Goyal, Anna Kaminska, Pramote Laoprasert, Hirokazu Oguni, Guido Rubboli, William Tatum, Pierre Thomas, Eugen Trinka, Luca Vignatelli, Solomon L Moshé
The concept of epilepsy syndromes, introduced in 1989, was defined as "clusters of signs and symptoms customarily occurring together". Definition of epilepsy syndromes based on electro-clinical features facilitated clinical practice and, whenever possible, clinical research in homogeneous groups of patients with epilepsies. Progress in the fields of neuroimaging and genetics made it rapidly clear that, although crucial, the electro-clinical description of epilepsy syndromes was not sufficient to allow much needed development of targeted therapies and a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of seizures...
October 6, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
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