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Rate of force development

M Kaci, A Belhaffef, S Meziane, G Dostert, P Menu, É Velot, S Desobry, E Arab-Tehrany
Emulsion-based delivery systems have been developed to increase the topical bioavailability of lipophilic active compounds within skin membrane. The aim was to develop nanoemulsion from natural sources (rapeseed oil) with the same sources of pure phospholipids (lecithin) rich on mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids for encapsulation of hydrophobic antioxidant (Coenzyme Q10 ) giving nanoemulsion with double functionality. Nanoemulsions were used for cream preparation using xanthan gum and carboxylmethylcellulose as texturizing agents...
April 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Oluwole K Oyebamiji, Darren J Wilkinson, Pahala Gedara Jayathilake, Steve P Rushton, Ben Bridgens, Bowen Li, Paolo Zuliani
We investigate the feasibility of using a surrogate-based method to emulate the deformation and detachment behaviour of a biofilm in response to hydrodynamic shear stress. The influence of shear force, growth rate and viscoelastic parameters on the patterns of growth, structure and resulting shape of microbial biofilms was examined. We develop a statistical modelling approach to this problem, using combination of Bayesian Poisson regression and dynamic linear models for the emulation. We observe that the hydrodynamic shear force affects biofilm deformation in line with some literature...
2018: PloS One
Matthew Fitz, Jeffrey La Rochelle, Valerie Lang, Deborah DeWaay, William Adams, Farah Nasraty
Phenomenon: Fourth-year medical students obtain Department of Medicine (DOM) letters ("Chair" letters) to support their residency applications. Writing and interpreting DOM letters are challenging. There is heterogeneity in the letters that makes it difficult to both write and read these letters. APPROACH: The purpose of this study is to determine the value of new guidelines developed by a task force of clerkship directors and program directors in internal medicine and assess the implementation of these guidelines...
April 12, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Sosuke Inui, Charles A Stafford, Justin P Bergfield
The microscopic origins of Fourier's venerable law of thermal transport in quantum electron systems has remained somewhat of a mystery, given that previous derivations were forced to invoke intrinsic scattering rates far exceeding those occurring in real systems. We propose an alternative hypothesis, namely, that Fourier's law emerges naturally if many quantum states participate in the transport of heat across the system. We test this hypothesis systematically in a graphene flake junction, and show that the temperature distribution becomes nearly classical when the broadening of the individual quantum states of the flake exceeds their energetic separation...
April 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Dariusz Łaski, Stanisław Hać, Iwona Marek, Jarosław Kobiela, Justyna Kostro, Krystian Adrych, Zbigniew Śledziński
Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an important problem for modern medicine, the healthcare system (Poland - NFZ) and the national insurance system (Poland - ZUS). The chronic nature of the disease, the lack of targeted treatment and the low mortality rate lead to an accumulation of patients who demand expensive treatment, both conservative and invasive. Rising costs in health care are forcing the need for a more cost-effective method of treatment. Aim: The primary aim of this study was to perform a retrospective calculation of costs in both surgical and endoscopic treatment, hospital stay, healthcare, and public insurance of patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis...
March 2018: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
Stewart T Chang, Violet N Chihota, Katherine L Fielding, Alison D Grant, Rein M Houben, Richard G White, Gavin J Churchyard, Philip A Eckhoff, Bradley G Wagner
BACKGROUND: Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. METHODS: We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based model that accounts for longer-term trends. Both models account for four populations - mine workers, peri-mining residents, labor-sending residents, and other residents of South Africa - including the size and prevalence of latent TB infection, active TB, and HIV of each population and mixing between populations...
April 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
Sallie G De Golia, Consuelo C Cagande, Mary S Ahn, Lisa M Cullins, Art Walaszek, Deborah S Cowley
OBJECTIVE: A Faculty Development Task Force surveyed the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training membership to assess faculty development for graduate medical education faculty in psychiatry departments and barriers to seeking graduate medical education careers. METHODS: An anonymous Survey Monkey survey was emailed to 722 American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training members. The survey included questions about demographics, the current state of faculty development offerings within the respondent's psychiatry department and institution, and potential American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training faculty development programming...
April 6, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Gabriel Bedubourg, H Wiik, B Queyriaux, P Lausund, J-B Meynard
INTRODUCTION: There is a requirement for adequate medical expertise to be available throughout the range of potential future operations involving members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The aim of this study was to assess the collection and sharing of medical intelligence and medical information (M2I) by NATO Nations, Partner Nations and NATO Command Structure and NATO Force Structure Headquarters (NCS/NFS HQs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A transversal survey was conducted between December 2014 and March 2015 using a survey form on M2I sent to NATO Nations and Partnership for Peace (PfP) Nations as well as NCS/NFS HQs...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Maria Daniela Artigas Ramirez, Jessica Danila Silva, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Tadashi Yokoyama
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major problem affecting soil fertility, microbial diversity, and nutrients uptake of plants. Rhizobia response and legume-interaction under Al conditions are still unknown and it is important to understand how to develop and improve legume cultivation under Al-stress. In this study, rhizobia-response was recorded under different Al-concentrations. Al-effect on rhizobial cells was characterized by combination with different two pH conditions. Symbiosis process was compared between α- and β-rhizobia inoculated onto soybean varieties...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Aamir Abbasi, Dorian Goueytes, Daniel E Shulz, Valerie Ego-Stengel, Luc Estebanez
OBJECTIVE: The development of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) brings a new perspective to patients with a loss of autonomy. By combining online recordings of brain activity with a decoding algorithm, patients can learn to control a robotic arm in order to perform simple actions. However, in contrast to the vast amounts of somatosensory information channeled by limbs to the brain, current BMIs are devoid of touch and force sensors. Patients must therefore rely solely on vision and audition, which are maladapted to the control of a prosthesis...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Hikaru Fujita, Satoshi Kakuyama, Shuichi Fukuyoshi, Naoko Hayakawa, Akifumi Oda, Munetaka Kunishima
A new triazine-based cationic leaving group has been developed for the acid-catalyzed alkylation of O- and C-nucleophiles. There are two synergistic driving forces, namely, stable C=O bond formation and charge-charge repulsive effects, involved in the rapid generation of the carbocation species in the presence of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (~200 mol%). Considerable rate acceleration of benzylation, allylation, and p-nitrobenzylation was observed as compared to the reactions with less than 100 mol% of the acid catalyst...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Cristina Esquinas, Sonia Serreri, Miriam Barrecheguren, Esther Rodriguez, Alexa Nuñez, Francisco Casas-Maldonado, Ignacio Blanco, Pietro Pirina, Beatriz Lara, Marc Miravitlles
Background: The clinical course of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is very heterogeneous. It is estimated that 60% of individuals with severe AATD (Pi*ZZ) develop emphysema. The main objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of long-term lung function in individuals with AATD-associated emphysema after at least 8 years of follow-up. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal follow-up data of AATD PiZZ patients from the Spanish registry (AATD Spanish Registry [REDAAT])...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
S Lebek, A Plößl, M Baier, J Mustroph, D Tarnowski, C M Lücht, S Schopka, B Floerchinger, C Schmid, Y Zausig, N Pagratis, B Marchand, D O Koltun, W K Hung, S Ahmadyar, L Belardinelli, L S Maier, S Wagner
RATIONALE: Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was shown to increase diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca leak, which can result in delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered arrhythmias. Since increased CaMKII expression and activity has been mechanistically linked to arrhythmias in human heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF), specific strategies aimed at CaMKII inhibition may have therapeutic potential. OBJECTIVE: We tested the antiarrhythmic and inotropic effects of a novel selective and ATP-competitive CaMKII inhibitor (GS-680)...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Y Guo, C Wassgren, W Ketterhagen, B Hancock, J Curtis
A discrete element method (DEM) model is developed to simulate the dynamics of wet, flexible fibers. The angles of repose of dry and wet fibers are simulated, and the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results, validating the wet, flexible fiber model. To study wet fiber flow behavior, the model is used to simulate shear flows of wet fibers in a periodic domain under Lees-Edwards boundary conditions. Significant agglomeration is observed in dilute shear flows of wet fibers. The size of the largest agglomerate in the flow is found to depend on a Bond number, which is proportional to liquid surface tension and inversely proportional to the square of the shear strain rate...
April 3, 2018: Soft Matter
Susan F Dukes, Genny M Maupin, Marilyn E Thomas, Darcy L Mortimer
BACKGROUND: The US Air Force transports critically ill patients from all over the world, with transport times commonly ranging from 6 to 11 hours. Few outcome measures have been tracked for these patients. Traditional methods to prevent pressure injuries in civilian hospitals are often not feasible in the military transport environment. OBJECTIVES: The incidence rate and risk factors are described of en route-related pressure injuries for patients overseen by the Critical Care Air Transport Team...
April 2018: Critical Care Nurse
Emil Chibowski, Aleksandra Szcześ
Understanding of magnetic field (MF) effects observed during and after its action on water and aqueous solutions is still a controversial issue although the effects have been reported for at least half of century. The purpose of this paper was a brief review of the literature which deals with the magnetic force treatment effects. However, it is especially focused on the latest approaches, published mostly in the last decade which have developed our understanding of the mechanisms accompanying the field action...
March 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Wenkai Huang, Shi Huan, Junfeng He, Jichang Jiang
In a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiment, the pasting quality of strain gauges will directly affect the accuracy of the measurement results. The traditional method of pasting the strain gauges is done manually by the experimenter. In the process of pasting, it is easy to shift or twist the strain gauge, and the experimental results are greatly affected by human factors. In this paper, a novel type automatic pasting device for strain gauges is designed and developed, which can be used to accurately and rapidly paste the strain gauges...
March 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Lubna Maryam, Ashima Sharma, Mohd W Azam, Shahper N Khan, Asad U Khan
The infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria are widely treated with carabapenem antibiotics as a drug of choice, and human serum albumin (HSA) plays a vital role in binding with drugs and affecting its rate of delivery and efficacy. So, we have initiated this study to characterize the mechanism of doripenem binding and to locate its site of binding on HSA by using spectroscopic and docking approaches. The binding of doripenem leads to alteration of the environment surrounding Trp-214 residue of HSA as observed by UV spectroscopic study...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Dana A Telem, Alia Qureshi, Michael Edwards, Daniel B Jones
BACKGROUND: While SAGES prides itself on diversity and inclusivity, we also recognize that as an organization we are not impervious to blind spots impacting equity within the membership. To address this, the We R Sages task force was formed to identify the barriers and facilitators to creating a diverse organization and develop a strategic plan for the implementation of programing and opportunities that promote diversity and inclusivity within our membership. As the first step in the process, a survey was administered to gauge the current organizational climate...
March 30, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Aimee Riley, Jonathan E Isaacs, Ilvy Cotterell, Jeffrey Stromberg, Satya Mallu, Gaurangkumar Patel
PURPOSE: To develop a rat model of extra-synovial tendon adhesions that will enable accurate testing of scar barriers and adhesion inhibiting treatments to facilitate future research. METHODS: Thirty-six 6-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of the 3 groups of 12. In Group A, the middle one-third portion of the left Achilles tendon was excised. In Group B, the tendon and soft tissue bed was abraded with steel wool. In Group C, a silk suture was sewn along the tendon...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
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