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Rate of force development

Carrie D Patnode, Michelle L Henninger, Caitlyn A Senger, Leslie A Perdue, Evelyn P Whitlock
Importance: Although 80% of infants in the United States start breastfeeding, only 22% are exclusively breastfed up to around 6 months as recommended by a number of professional organizations. Objective: To systematically review the evidence on the benefits and harms of breastfeeding interventions to support the US Preventive Services Task Force in updating its 2008 recommendation. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO for studies published in the English language between January 1, 2008, and September 25, 2015...
October 25, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Ghareb M Soliman, Gihan Fetih, Ahmed M Abbas
OBJECTIVE: To develop and characterize in situ thermosensitive gels for the vaginal administration of sildenafil as a potential treatment of endometrial thinning occurring as a result of using clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with type II eugonadotrophic anovulation. While sildenafil has shown promising results in the treatment of infertility in women, the lack of vaginal pharmaceutical preparation and the side effects associated with oral sildenafil limit its clinical effectiveness...
October 26, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Ruben Posada-Gómez, Roberto A Montaño-Murillo, Albino Martínez-Sibaja, Giner Alor-Hernández, Alberto A Aguilar-Lasserre, Miriam C Reyes-Fernández
PURPOSE: One of the most important aspects in neuromotor rehabilitation is the need of feedback for patients. The rehabilitation system's efficiency relies on the therapist's judgment, who tells the patient whether he/she is performing the exercises correctly. This process may be quite subjective, because it depends on the therapist's personal opinion. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that vibrotactile biofeedback can improve the effectiveness of interaction as it is a very helpful tool in the physiological process of neuromotor rehabilitation...
October 24, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
J Chee, B W S R Robinson, R A Holt, J Creaney
Harnessing the immune system to fight cancer is an exciting advancement in lung cancer therapy. Anti-tumor immunity can be augmented by checkpoint blockade therapy, which removes the inhibition/brakes imposed on the immune system by the tumor. Checkpoint blockade therapy with anti-PD1/anti-PDL1 antibodies causes tumor regression in around 25% of lung cancer patients. In another approach, the immune system is forced or accelerated to attack the tumour, via augmentation of the anti-tumour response against mutations carried by each lung tumour...
October 18, 2016: Chest
Gina Lee, Brenda Auffinger, Donna Guo, Tanwir Hasan, Marc Deheeger, Alex L Tobias, Jeong Yeon Kim, Fatemeh Atashi, Lingjiao Zhang, Maciej S Lesniak, James C David, Atique U Ahmed
Increasing evidence exposes a subpopulation of cancer cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), to be critical for the progression of several human malignancies, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). CSCs are highly tumorigenic, capable of self-renewal, and resistant to conventional therapies, and thus considered to be one of the key contributors to disease recurrence. In order to elucidate the poorly understood evolutionary path of tumor recurrence and the role of CSCs in this process, we developed patient-derived xenograft GBM recurrent models induced by anti-glioma chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ)...
October 7, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Luca Fusi, Valentina Percario, Elisabetta Brunello, Marco Caremani, Pasquale Bianco, Joseph D Powers, Massimo Reconditi, Vincenzo Lombardi, Gabriella Piazzesi
KEY POINTS: Myosin filament mechanosensing determines the efficiency of the contraction by adapting the number of switched ON motors to the load. Accordingly, the unloaded shortening velocity (V0 ) is already set at the end of the latency relaxation (LR), ∼10 ms after the start of stimulation, when the myosin filament is still in the OFF state. Here the number of actin-attached motors per half-myosin filament (n) during V0 shortening imposed either at the end of LR or at the plateau of the isometric contraction is estimated from the relation between half-sarcomere compliance and force during the force redevelopment after the shortening...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Jungmin Seo, Jee Hye Wee, Jeong Hoan Park, Pona Park, Jeong-Whun Kim, Sung June Kim
OBJECTIVE: A novel nerve cuff electrode with embedded magnets was fabricated and developed. In this study, a pair of magnets was fully embedded and encapsulated in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate to utilize magnetic force in order to replace the conventional installing techniques of cuff electrodes. In vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the magnet-embedded nerve cuff electrode (MENCE). Lastly, several issues pertaining to the MENCE such as the cuff-to-nerve diameter ratio, the force of the magnets, and possible concerns were discussed in the discussion section...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
V A Doss, Dharaniyambigai Kuberapandian
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to develop a new animal model based on signaling pathways to understand the pathophysiology, therapy of depression, and to investigate the antidepressant activity of Enicostemma littorale which is not yet established. METHODS: Animal models of depression were raised by physical methods and administration of methyl isobutyl ketone (100 mg/kg b.w., i.p.,) and a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (30 mg/kg b...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Yunzhu Meng, Wansoo Pak, Berkan Guleyupoglu, Bharath Koya, F Scott Gayzik, Costin D Untaroiu
Child pedestrian protection deserves more attention in vehicle safety design since they are the most vulnerable road users who face the highest mortality rate. Pediatric Finite Element (FE) models could be used to simulate and understand the pedestrian injury mechanisms during crashes in order to mitigate them. Thus, the objective of the study was to develop a computationally efficient (simplified) six-year-old (6YO-PS) pedestrian FE model and validate it based on the latest published pediatric data. The 6YO-PS FE model was developed by morphing the existing GHBMC adult pedestrian model...
October 16, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Suguru Kimoto, Yasuhiko Kawai, Atsuko Gunji, Hisatomo Kondo, Taro Nomura, Tomohiko Murakami, Akito Tsuboi, Guang Hong, Shunsuke Minakuchi, Yusuke Sato, Gaku Ohwada, Tetsuya Suzuki, Katsuhiko Kimoto, Noriyuki Hoshi, Makiko Saita, Yoshikazu Yoneyama, Yohei Sato, Masakazu Morokuma, Joji Okazaki, Takeshi Maeda, Kenichiro Nakai, Tetsuo Ichikawa, Kan Nagao, Keiko Fujimoto, Hiroshi Murata, Tadafumi Kurogi, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Masahiro Nishimura, Yasuhiro Nishi, Mamoru Murakami, Toshio Hosoi, Taizo Hamada
BACKGROUND: Denture adhesives, characterized as medical products in 1935 by the American Dental Association, have been considered useful adjuncts for improving denture retention and stability. However, many dentists in Japan are hesitant to acknowledge denture adhesives in daily practice because of the stereotype that dentures should be inherently stable, without the aid of adhesives. The aim of this study is to verify the efficacy of denture adhesives to establish guidelines for Japanese users...
October 18, 2016: Trials
Yongsan Li, Yingwei Zhang, Feng Shi, Lei Tao, Yen Wei, Xing Wang
Cell therapy has attracted wide attention among researchers in biomaterial and medical areas. As a carrier, hydrogels that could keep high viability of the embedded cells have been developed. However, few researches were conducted on 3D cell proliferation, a key factor for cell therapy, especially after injection. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the proliferation regulation of the 3D-embedded L929 cells in a modulus-tunable and injectable self-healing hydrogel before and after injection without adding specific growth factor...
October 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Kesavan Balakumaran, Mosesbabu Janagili, Nagaraju Rajana, Sureshbabu Papureddy, Jayashree Anireddy
Alpha glucoside inhibitors used to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to be safe and effective. These agents are most effective for postprandial hyperglycemia. Miglitol is a type of drug used to treat type-2 DM. A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for a related substance of miglitol and its identification, and characterization was done by different mass spectrometry techniques. The gradient method at a flow rate of 1...
October 14, 2016: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Tatiana Ripp, Victor Mordobin, Evgeny Ripp, Galina Semke, Alla Falkovskaya, Ludmila Fedorova, Sergey Popov
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to develop the new technology and to classify changes of arterial reactivity (AR) after metabolic stress tests in patients with hypertension. DESIGN AND METHOD: All participants of research have given the informed agreement. We used new special portative apparatus with metering rate during hypercapnia (inhalation 2 min 4% mixture of carbonic gas with air (gipercapnia) or hyperoxia - 100% oxygen (giperoxia) and in periods of recovery (rec) (air-inhalation 2 min) of 264 patients (age 52...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mathias Klein, Martina Carrillo, Joeline Xiberras, Zia-Ul Islam, Steve Swinnen, Elke Nevoigt
One advantage of using glycerol as a carbon source for industrial bioprocesses is its higher degree of reduction compared to glucose. In order to exploit this reducing power for the production of reduced compounds thereby significantly increasing maximum theoretical yields, the electrons derived from glycerol oxidation must first be saved in the form of cytosolic NAD(P)H. However, the industrial platform organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae naturally uses a FAD-dependent pathway for glycerol catabolism transferring the electrons to the respiratory chain...
October 14, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Yasemin Saygili, Magnus Söderberg, Norman Pellet, Fabrizio Giordano, Yiming Cao, Ana B Munoz-Garcia, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Nick Vlachopoulos, Michele Pavone, Gerrit Boschloo, Ladislav Kavan, Jacques-E Moser, Michael Grätzel, Anders Hagfeldt, Marina Freitag
Redox mediators play a major role determining the photocurrent and the photovoltage in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). To maintain the photocurrent, the reduction of oxidized dye by the redox mediator should be significantly faster than the back electron transfer between TiO2 and the oxidized dye. The driving force for dye regeneration with the redox mediator should be sufficiently low to provide high photovoltages. With our introduction of new copper complexes as promising redox mediators in DSCs both criteria are satisfied to enhance power conversion efficiencies...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xinglei Zhao, Shan Wang, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
Fabrication of air filtration materials (AFM) that allow air to easily flow through while retaining particles is a significant and urgent need due to the harmful airborne particulate matter pollution; however, this is still a challenging research area. Herein, we report novel slip-effect functional nanofibrous membranes with decreased air resistance (reduction rate of 40%) due to the slip flow of air molecules on the periphery of nanofibers. This was achieved through careful control over the diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile fibers and aperture size of fiber assembly...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sarah DeGue, Katherine A Fowler, Cynthia Calkins
INTRODUCTION: Several high-profile cases in the U.S. have drawn public attention to the use of lethal force by law enforcement (LE), yet research on such fatalities is limited. Using data from a public health surveillance system, this study examined the characteristics and circumstances of these violent deaths to inform prevention. METHODS: All fatalities (N=812) resulting from use of lethal force by on-duty LE from 2009 to 2012 in 17 U.S. states were examined using National Violent Death Reporting System data...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Gerald T Mangine, Jay R Hoffman, Ran Wang, Adam M Gonzalez, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam J Wells, Adam R Jajtner, Kyle S Beyer, Carleigh H Boone, Amelia A Miramonti, Michael B LaMonica, David H Fukuda, Nicholas A Ratamess, Jeffrey R Stout
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing. METHODS: Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3-5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10-12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alessandro Brunelli, Michele Salati, Gaetano Rocco, Gonzalo Varela, Dirk Van Raemdonck, Herbert Decaluwe, Pierre Emmanuel Falcoz
OBJECTIVES: To develop models of 30-day mortality and cardiopulmonary morbidity from data on anatomic lung resections deposited in the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) database. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 47 960 anatomic lung resections from the ESTS database (July 2007-August 2015) (36 376 lobectomies, 2296 bilobectomies, 5040 pneumonectomies and 4248 segmentectomies). Logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between baseline and surgical variables and morbidity or mortality...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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