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"Hepatitis C"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245104/who-goes-first-understanding-hepatitis-c-risk-among-injecting-networks-in-the-prison-setting
#1
Lise Lafferty, Jake Rance, Carla Treloar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) is a blood-borne virus that is most commonly transmitted through shared injecting equipment. Due to the criminalisation of injecting drug use, HCV is highly prevalent among those incarcerated. Using a risk environment framework, this qualitative study sought to understand the role of HCV risk within injecting networks in the prison setting. METHODS: Thirty-two adult prisoners (n=24 men; n=8 women) with a history of injecting drug use participated in this qualitative sub-study...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244005/ghost-global-hepatitis-outbreak-and-surveillance-technology
#2
Atkinson G Longmire, Seth Sims, Inna Rytsareva, David S Campo, Pavel Skums, Zoya Dimitrova, Sumathi Ramachandran, Magdalena Medrzycki, Hong Thai, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yulin Lin, Lili T Punkova, Amanda Sue, Massimo Mirabito, Silver Wang, Robin Tracy, Victor Bolet, Thom Sukalac, Chris Lynberg, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244001/transmissibility-of-intra-host-hepatitis-c-virus-variants
#3
David S Campo, June Zhang, Sumathi Ramachandran, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Intra-host hepatitis C virus (HCV) populations are genetically heterogeneous and organized in subpopulations. With the exception of blood transfusions, transmission of HCV occurs via a small number of genetic variants, the effect of which is frequently described as a bottleneck. Stochasticity of transmission associated with the bottleneck is usually used to explain genetic differences among HCV populations identified in the source and recipient cases, which may be further exacerbated by intra-host HCV evolution and differential biological capacity of HCV variants to successfully establish a population in a new host...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244000/identification-of-recent-cases-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-using-physical-chemical-properties-of-hypervariable-region-1-and-a-radial-basis-function-neural-network-classifier
#4
James Lara, Mahder Teka, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Identification of acute or recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is important for detecting outbreaks and devising timely public health interventions for interruption of transmission. Epidemiological investigations and chemistry-based laboratory tests are 2 main approaches that are available for identification of acute HCV infection. However, owing to complexity, both approaches are not efficient. Here, we describe a new sequence alignment-free method to discriminate between recent (R) and chronic (C) HCV infection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data derived from the HCV hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243584/prediction-and-analysis-of-three-dimensional-structure-of-the-p7-transactivated-protein1-of-hepatitis-c-virus
#5
Mahmoud M Elhefnawi, Mohamed E Hasan, Amal Mahmoud, Yehia A Khidr, El-Sayed A El-Absawy, Alaa A Hemeida
BACKGROUND: The p7-transactivated protein of Hepatitis C virus is a small integral membrane protein of 127 amino acids, which is crucial for assembly and release of infectious virions. Ab initio and comparative modelling, is an essential tool to solve the problem of protein structure prediction and to comprehend the physicochemical fundemental of how proteins fold in nature. RESULTS: Only one domain (1-127) of p7 had been predicted using the systematic in silico approach, ThreaDom...
December 15, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243516/gas6-as-a-predictor-of-esophageal-varices-in-patients-affected-by-hepatitis-c-virus-related-chronic-liver-disease
#6
Mattia Bellan, Pier Paolo Sainaghi, Margherita Tran Minh, Rosalba Minisini, Luca Molinari, Marco Baldrighi, Livia Salmi, Matteo Nazzareno Barbaglia, Luigi Mario Castello, Paolo Ravanini, Gian Carlo Avanzi, Mario Pirisi
AIM: Plasma Gas6 was tested as an alternative to Baveno VI criteria (liver stiffness <20 kPa and platelet count >150 × 109/l) in an endoscopy-sparing strategy. METHODS:  A total of 160 patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis underwent, on the same occasion, liver elastography, upper endoscopy, a platelet count and serum Gas6 measurement Results: A total of 74/160 (46%) patients had esophageal varices, that were small (diameter <5 mm) in 57/160 (34%) and large in 17/160 (11%) cases...
December 15, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242761/insights-in-public-health-reframing-hepatitis-c-lessons-in-successful-public-health-collaboration
#7
Thaddeus Pham, Glenn M Wasserman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242710/retreatment-options-following-hcv-direct-acting-antiviral-failure
#8
Autumn Zuckerman, Cody A Chastain, Susanna Naggie
Despite the excellent efficacy of direct acting antivirals (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), treatment failures do occur. Until recently, retreatment decisions after DAA failure were influenced by the number of available agents, concerns about HCV drug resistance, and lack of data regarding retreatment. Recommended treatment approaches previously depended on limited clinical trials and expert opinion. In this article, we review the current state of the evidence for HCV retreatment after DAA failure. Based on recent clinical trial data, most patients who fail HCV treatment with DAA agents now have excellent retreatment options...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242186/biased-igh-vdj-gene-repertoire-and-clonal-expansions-in-b-cells-of-chronically-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-individuals
#9
Felicia A Tucci, Simo Kitanovski, Patricia Johansson, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Alisan Kahraman, Jan Dürig, Daniel Hoffmann, Ralf Küppers
Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently develop mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), a monoclonal expansion of IgM+ autoreactive B cells, and also have an increased B cell lymphoma risk. Whether HCV infection also impacts the B cell compartment and the B cell receptor repertoire in patients not affected by MC or lymphomas is poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood B cells of 30 MC-negative HCV-infected patients and 15 healthy controls revealed that frequencies of class-switched memory B cells were increased in the patients, whereas frequencies of transitional and naive B cells were decreased...
December 14, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242141/molecular-and-epidemiological-evidence-of-patient-to-patient-hepatitis-c-virus-transmission-in-a-scottish-emergency-department
#10
I Johannessen, J Danial, D B Smith, J Richards, L Imrie, A Rankin, L J Willocks, C Evans, C Leen, P Gibson, P Simmonds, D Goldberg, A McCallum, K Roy
BACKGROUND: Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the health care setting is rare. Routine infection prevention and control (IPC) measures mean this should be a preventable never event. This paper investigates the diagnosis of acute healthcare associated HCV infection. METHODS: Epidemiological and molecular investigation of a case of acute HCV infection associated with nosocomial exposure. RESULTS: Detailed investigation of the treatment history of a patient with acute HCV infection identified transmission from a co-attending patient in an Emergency Department as the likely source; this possibility was confirmed by virus sequence analysis...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241883/the-role-of-noncomparative-evidence-in-health-technology-assessment-decisions
#11
Elizabeth A Griffiths, Richard Macaulay, Nirma K Vadlamudi, Jasim Uddin, Ebony R Samuels
BACKGROUND: Many health technology assessment (HTA) agencies express a preference for randomized controlled trial evidence when appraising health technologies; nevertheless, it is not always feasible or ethical to conduct such comparative trials. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of noncomparative evidence in HTA decision making. METHODS: The Web sites of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom, the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) in Canada, and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen [IQWiG]) in Germany were searched for single HTA reports (published between January 2010 and December 2015)...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240798/the-cost-of-comorbidities-in-treatment-for-hiv-aids-in-california
#12
David S Zingmond, Kodi B Arfer, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy has increased longevity for people living with HIV (PLWH). As a result, PLWH increasingly experience the common diseases of aging and the resources needed to manage these comorbidities are increasing. This paper characterizes the number and types of comorbidities diagnosed among PLWH covered by Medicare and examines how non-HIV comorbidities relate to outpatient, inpatient, and pharmaceutical expenditures. METHODS: The study examined Medicare expenditures for 9767 HIV-positive Californians enrolled in Medicare in 2010 (7208 persons dually covered by Medicare and Medicaid and 2559 with Medicare only)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240743/potential-for-public-health-success-in-tackling-the-hepatitis-c-virus-epidemic
#13
Ian Sheerin
New Zealand and Australia both now have the potential for a major public health success in controlling the hepatitis C virus epidemic. The burden of advanced liver disease and drug-related harm is increasing. However, a new range of anti-viral therapies have become available which offer a potential cure for most people with few side-effects. The epidemic is potentially preventable and hepatitis C is now curable. Although public health strategies for blood-borne viruses have been updated, they fall short of what is needed and should be upgraded with more emphasis on prevention, in order to achieve control of this epidemic...
December 15, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240565/platelets-to-lymphocyte-ratio-is-a-good-predictor-of-liver-fibrosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-hepatitis-c-virus-related-liver-disease
#14
Ayman Alsebaey, Mostafa Elhelbawy, Imam Waked
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem that is complicated by liver fibrosis and insulin resistance (IR). AIM: The aim of this study was to validate neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio (NLR) and platelets-to-lymphocytes ratio (PLR) as indirect biomarkers of liver fibrosis and IR in HCV patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients were enrolled. Physical examination, BMI, liver function tests, serum creatinine, complete blood count, serum HCV RNA count by PCR, and abdominal ultrasonography were performed...
December 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240322/osteosclerosis-associated-with-hepatitis-c
#15
Helena E Miettinen, Timo Sane, Antti Lamminen, Matti J Välimäki
We describe the first Finnish case of hepatitis C associated osteosclerosis. In which the patient's bone symptoms and bone density were resolved with hepatitis C treatment. Suspecting the possibility of osteosclerosis underlying bone pains in a hepatitis C patient is well-founded, although osteoporotic fractures are a more common problem.
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239887/incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-before-and-after-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-a-cohort-study
#16
Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Zoë R Greenwald, Helen Trottier, Martha Cadieux, Alexandre Goyette, Mariève Beauchemin, Louise Charest, Danièle Longpré, Stéphane Lavoie, Hermione Gbego Tossa, Réjean Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV raises concerns about sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence due to decreased condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study examines whether PrEP is associated with STIs in the 12-months following PrEP prescription relative to the 12-months prior to PrEP and if STI rates are higher among PrEP users relative to individuals receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including PrEP users with >12 months of follow-up before PrEP prescription and individuals receiving PEP from 2010-2015 at Clinique l'Actuel (Montréal, Canada)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239718/new-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-subtype-naturally-harbouring-resistance-associated-mutations-to-ns5a-inhibitors
#17
Laura Ordeig, Damir Garcia-Cehic, Josep Gregori, Maria Eugenia Soria, Leonardo Nieto-Aponte, Celia Perales, Meritxell Llorens, Qian Chen, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Maria Buti, Rafael Esteban, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Francisco Rodriguez-Frias, Josep Quer
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a highly divergent virus currently classified into seven major genotypes and 86 subtypes (ICTV, June 2017), which can have differing responses to therapy. Accurate genotyping/subtyping using high-resolution HCV subtyping enables confident subtype identification, identifies mixed infections and allows detection of new subtypes. During routine genotyping/subtyping, one sample from an Equatorial Guinea patient could not be classified into any of the subtypes. The complete genomic sequence was compared to reference sequences by phylogenetic and sliding window analysis...
December 14, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239130/establishing-the-cascade-of-care-for-hepatitis-c-in-england-benchmarking-to-monitor-impact-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#18
Ruth Simmons, Georgina Ireland, Will Irving, Matthew Hickman, Caroline Sabin, Samreen Ijaz, Mary Ramsay, Sam Lattimore, Sema Mandal
Little is known about engagement and retention in care of people diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in England. Establishing a cascade of care informs targeted interventions for improving case-finding, referral, treatment uptake and retention in care. Using data from the Sentinel Surveillance of Blood Borne Virus testing (SSBBV) between 2005-2014 we investigate the continuum of care of those tested for HCV in England. Persons ≥1 years old, with an anti-HCV test and subsequent RNA tests between 2005-2014 reported to SSBBV were collated...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239080/hcv-positive-lymphoma-after-sustained-virological-response-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-the-game-is-not-over-after-hcv-eradication
#19
E Rodríguez de Santiago, K Velázquez Kennedy, M García González, F Gea Rodríguez, L Téllez Villajos, E Tavío Hernández, A Albillos Martínez
We read with interest the study published by Schiavinato A. et al. entitled: " Polyclonal and monoclonal B lymphocytes response in HCV-infected patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents"[1]. There is extensive data supporting the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-cell NHL), especially with marginal zone and diffuse large B-cell NHL subtypes. Antiviral treatment with Interferon-based regimens has been shown to improve prognosis and can be curative in some cases of indolent lymphoma...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239069/the-antiviral-role-of-zinc-and-metallothioneins-in-hepatitis-c-infection
#20
Scott A Read, Grant Parnell, David Booth, Mark W Douglas, Jacob George, Golo Ahlenstiel
Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine rich proteins characterized by a high affinity for monovalent and divalent cations, such as copper and zinc. Of the four known metallothionein isoforms, only members of the metallothionein 1 and 2 subfamilies are widely expressed, acting as metal chaperones whose primary role is to mediate intracellular zinc homeostasis. Metallothioneins are potently induced by heavy metals and other sources of oxidative stress where they facilitate metal binding and detoxification as well as free radical scavenging...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
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