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Head lice treatment

Harsha Nagaraja, Thungappa Kugar, Yathish Shivanna, Archita Agrawal, Rohit Shetty
Custard apple seeds have been used in native medicine from time immemorial for the management of head lice and skin exfoliation. We report six consecutive patients who developed toxic keratoconjunctivitis within 6-12 h of ocular exposure to custard apple seeds. The use of topical steroid worsens the toxicity and predisposes to the development of microbial keratitis in such cases. Patients showed a good response to primary treatment with topical fortified antibiotics and lubricants. This case series highlights the need to educate the patients regarding the potential toxic effects of the custard seeds and the treating physicians about possible deleterious effects on using topical steroid...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudan J Paediatr
Ellen Koch, John Marshall Clark, Bernard Cohen, Terri L Meinking, William G Ryan, Audrey Stevenson, Robert Yetman, Kyong Sup Yoon
UNLABELLED: Head lice are a source of scalp irritation, social disruption, and loss of school time. Health care providers need authoritative information to help avoid the costs and risks of ineffective treatment. A review was completed to provide relevant information on infestation treatments available in the United States. Three major biomedical databases were searched from 1985, when current products were first available, to 2014, focusing on U.S. REPORTS: A total of 579 references remained after duplicates were removed...
September 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Vernon M Bowles, Kyong Sup Yoon, Stephen C Barker, Christopher Tran, Christopher Rhodes, Marshall J Clark
Studies were undertaken to determine the ovicidal efficacy of 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (abametapir) against eggs of both human head and body lice. Head lice eggs of different ages (0-2, 3-5, and 6-8-d-old eggs) were exposed to varying concentrations of abametapir in isopropanol and concentration-dependent response relationships established based on egg hatch. One hundred percent of all abametapir-treated eggs failed to hatch at the 0.74 and 0.55% concentrations, whereas 100% of 6-8-d-old head louse eggs failed to hatch only at the 0...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Abdoul Karim Sangaré, Ogobara K Doumbo, Didier Raoult
Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest...
2016: BioMed Research International
Luise Wolf, Frank Eertmans, Doerte Wolf, Bart Rossel, Els Adriaens
BACKGROUND: Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no...
2016: PloS One
Leon H Kircik, James Q Del Rosso, Alison M Layton, Jürgen Schauber
Although the broad-spectrum anti-parasitic effects of the avermectin derivative ivermectin are well documented, its anti-inflammatory activity has only recently been demonstrated. For over 25 years, ivermectin has been used to treat parasitic infections in mammals, with a good safety profile that may be attributed to its high affinity to invertebrate neuronal ion channels and its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier in humans and other mammals. Numerous studies report low rates of adverse events, as an oral treatment for parasitic infections, scabies and head lice...
March 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
I Cüneyt Balcıoğlu, Mehmet Karakuş, Suha K Arserim, M Emin Limoncu, Seray Töz, Serkan Baştemur, Koray Öncel, Yusuf Özbel
OBJECTIVE: Head lice infestation is a public health and social problem for almost all countries worldwide. For its treatment, insecticide and dimeticone-based solutions are currently available in the markets in many countries. We aimed to compare the efficacy of commercially available anti-head lice shampoos containing insecticide and physically effective products with different percentages of dimeticone using an in vitro technique. METHODS: Head lice specimens were collected from primary school children using special plastic and metal combs...
December 2015: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Piers D Mitchell
The archaeological evidence for parasites in the Roman era is presented in order to demonstrate the species present at that time, and highlight the health consequences for people living under Roman rule. Despite their large multi-seat public latrines with washing facilities, sewer systems, sanitation legislation, fountains and piped drinking water from aqueducts, we see the widespread presence of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentery...
January 8, 2016: Parasitology
A Chosidow, D Gendrel
Ivermectin is an antiparasitic drug, a derivate of avermectins, and a product of fermentation of an actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis. Its structure associates two avermectins. Ivermectin acts on the chloride-dependent channels of both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid, interrupting neurotransmission in invertebrates. In humans, several mechanisms of brain protection exist, including P-glycoprotein, present on the apical face of endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier and coded by the MDR1 gene...
February 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Monika Tasani, Steven Y C Tong, Ross M Andrews, Deborah C Holt, Bart J Currie, Jonathan R Carapetis, Asha C Bowen
BACKGROUND: Skin infections account for a high disease burden in indigenous children living in northern Australia. Although the relationship between impetigo and scabies is recognized, the prevalence of scabies in children with impetigo is not well reported. We report the prevalence, demographics and treatment success outcomes of impetigo and scabies coinfection in indigenous children who were participants in a randomized controlled trial of impetigo treatment conducted in remote communities of the Northern Territory, Australia...
April 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ian F Burgess, Elizabeth R Brunton, Christine M Brown
Context. During the late 1990s, insecticide resistance had rendered a number of treatment products ineffective; some companies saw this as an opportunity to develop alternative types of treatment. We investigated the possibility that a surfactant-based lotion containing 10% cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA) was effective to eliminate head louse infestation. Settings and Design. Initial in vitro testing of the lotion formulation versus laboratory reared body/clothing lice, followed by two randomised, controlled, community-based, assessor blinded, clinical studies...
2015: PeerJ
F Lacarrubba, A E Verzì, F Dinotta, S Scavo, G Micali
Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows a rapid and magnified in vivo observation of the skin surface. By definition, it is performed with handheld devices (dermatoscopes) allowing X10 magnification. More expensive, computer-assisted digital systems (videodermatoscopes) may be equipped with lenses that ensure magnifications up to X1000; in this case the term videodermatoscopy is generally used. Dermatoscopy is mainly utilized for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions, and has increasing applications in dermatology...
October 2015: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Tami Borneman
CASE STUDY  Mr. G., an 82-year-old retired European man, was diagnosed with stage 4 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and recently enrolled on a phase II clinical trial. He is married and has two adult children, who are very supportive. He and his wife described themselves as nonpracticing Catholics. He had never smoked, and there was no personal or family history of cancer. Fatigue was the main side effect from the clinical trial drugs, necessitating frequent periods of rest throughout the day and ultimately requiring dose reduction...
November 2014: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
Prashant Verma, Chaitanya Namdeo
An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of.
May 2015: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Erin Speiser Ihde, Jeffrey R Boscamp, Ji Meng Loh, Lawrence Rosen
BACKGROUND: Head lice most commonly affect children, ages 3 to 11. Concerns exist about the safety and efficacy of pesticide-based treatments. Published studies suggest dimethicone is a potentially safe and effective non-toxic treatment, but have not evaluated 100% dimethicone in a pediatric population. The objectives were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 100% dimethicone for the treatment of head lice in children, monitored by school nurses. METHODS: This was a multi-site, open-label study of a 100% dimethicone gel for the treatment of head lice in a pediatric population...
2015: BMC Pediatrics
Özlem Özkan, Onur Hamzaoğlu, Melike Yavuz
This study aimed to examine scientific articles performed in Turkey on the prevalence and management of PK (diagnosis, contagion, prevention, treatment) from a critical perspective. The population of the systematic review consisted of total 63 published and unpublished theses or dissertations and peer-reviewed articles published in Turkish or English in national or foreign scientific journals from studies performed in Turkey between 1982 and 2012 years. It reached 578,938 people in 63 studies. Seventy-eight percent of the studies were related to the prevalence of PK and/or associated factors...
June 2015: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
Deborah J Pontius
The treatment of Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is fraught with misinformation, myths, and mismanagement. Common myths include the need to exclude children from school, the need to remove all visible nits ("no-nit" policies), the need for massive environmental cleaning, that head lice live for long periods of time, and that schools are a common location for lice transmission. Head lice are a common childhood nuisance, causing embarrassment and emotional trauma in both children and families. This article explores and challenges the commonly held beliefs about the identification, management, and treatment of Pediculosis by presenting current recommended evidence-based practice...
September 2014: Pediatric Nursing
Cynthia D Devore, Gordon E Schutze
Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting.
May 2015: Pediatrics
Lisa Wadowski, Lily Balasuriya, Harper N Price, Judith O'Haver
An estimated 6 to 12 million children are affected by lice annually in the United States.(1) Knowledge of the various treatment options for this diagnosis is essential. This paper aims to provide an overview of the myriad therapeutic options available for lice infestations in children. U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, off-label drug therapies, over-the counter-products, and herbal remedies are all discussed in detail. Clinicians may use this information to teach patients and families about the latest available care for the eradication of head lice in pediatric patients...
May 2015: Clinics in Dermatology
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