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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528529/the-influence-of-depolarization-block-on-seizure-like-activity-in-networks-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-neurons
#1
Christopher M Kim, Duane Q Nykamp
The inhibitory restraint necessary to suppress aberrant activity can fail when inhibitory neurons cease to generate action potentials as they enter depolarization block. We investigate possible bifurcation structures that arise at the onset of seizure-like activity resulting from depolarization block in inhibitory neurons. Networks of conductance-based excitatory and inhibitory neurons are simulated to characterize different types of transitions to the seizure state, and a mean field model is developed to verify the generality of the observed phenomena of excitatory-inhibitory dynamics...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528527/health-literacy-and-associated-factors-among-hmong-american-immigrants-addressing-the-health-disparities
#2
Belle P Khuu, Hee Y Lee, Anne Q Zhou
Hmong Americans face a disproportionate health burden ranging from the high prevalence of diabetes to depressive disorders. Little research attention has been paid toward exploring contributing factors to this disparity. As such, the present study seeks to fill the gap in the literature by examining the health literacy levels in Hmong Americans and its associated factors. The present study employed Andersen's behavioral model of health service as the theoretical framework. A cross-sectional survey research design was used and information was gathered from 168 Hmong American immigrants...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528329/the-interrater-reliability-of-the-autism-diagnostic-interview-revised-adi-r-in-clinical-settings
#3
Eric Zander, Charlotte Willfors, Steve Berggren, Christina Coco, Anette Holm, Ida Jifält, Renata Kosieradzki, Jenny Linder, Viviann Nordin, Karin Olafsdottir, Sven Bölte
BACKGROUND: The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is considered a first choice assessment tool in autism spectrum disorder. Nevertheless, despite its wide use in psychiatric practice and recommendations by various clinical guidelines, its interrater reliability has predominantly been confirmed in research settings by specially trained, research reliability interviewers. The reliability of ADI-R assessments among clinicians has not yet been established. Therefore, this study examined the spontaneous interrater reliability of the ADI-R in a naturalistic clinical multicenter setting...
May 20, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528324/new-role-for-interleukin-13-receptor-%C3%AE-1-in-myocardial-homeostasis-and-heart-failure
#4
Uri Amit, David Kain, Allon Wagner, Avinash Sahu, Yael Nevo-Caspi, Nir Gonen, Natali Molotski, Tal Konfino, Natalie Landa, Nili Naftali-Shani, Galia Blum, Emmanuelle Merquiol, Danielle Karo-Atar, Yariv Kanfi, Gidi Paret, Ariel Munitz, Haim Y Cohen, Eytan Ruppin, Sridhar Hannenhalli, Jonathan Leor
BACKGROUND: The immune system plays a pivotal role in myocardial homeostasis and response to injury. Interleukins-4 and -13 are anti-inflammatory type-2 cytokines, signaling via the common interleukin-13 receptor α1 chain and the type-2 interleukin-4 receptor. The role of interleukin-13 receptor α1 in the heart is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed myocardial samples from human donors (n=136) and patients with end-stage heart failure (n=177). We found that the interleukin-13 receptor α1 is present in the myocardium and, together with the complementary type-2 interleukin-4 receptor chain Il4ra, is significantly downregulated in the hearts of patients with heart failure...
May 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528218/laboratory-studies-of-ultrasonic-wave-response-of-fractures-with-different-lengths-anisotropy-characteristics-and-coda-analysis
#5
D Wang, S L Qu, Q Zhao, X Y Yin, F Zhou
Ultrasonic wave propagation in a synthetic medium with different scale fractures is investigated through the physics modeling research. The experiment model consisting of two layers, the first layer is divided into four fractured blocks with a constant fracture density but different dimension and a block without fractures as the reference region. The velocity and reflected amplitude of wave derived from the wide azimuth data processing are anisotropic due to the fractured layer. Coda wave characteristics versus offset and azimuth are obviously different for varying fracture scales...
May 13, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528195/repulsive-surfaces-and-lamellar-lubrication-of-synovial-joints
#6
Zenon Pawlak, Kehinde Q Yusuf, Raghuvir Pai, Wieslaw Urbaniak
Surface-active phospholipid (SAPL) secreted in the synovial joint plays an important role in cartilage integrity. In healthy joints, phospholipid multibilayers coat the cartilage surface, providing boundary lamellar-repulsive hydration lubrication. Current mechanism for lubrication of synovial joints, as well as the physical and chemical nature of the cartilage surface is discussed. Friction between phospholipid (PL) bilayers attached to cartilage surfaces is considered including a discussion on the recent observation of an extreme friction reduction as a consequence of a less charged hydrophilic cartilage surface...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528164/mri-derived-myocardial-strain-measures-in-normal-subjects
#7
Ha Q Vo, Thomas H Marwick, Kazuaki Negishi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the normal ranges of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based feature tracking (FT) and to identify sources of variations. Similar analyses were also performed for strain encoding, displacement encoding with stimulated echoes, and myocardial tagging. BACKGROUND: MRI-FT is a novel technique for quantification of myocardial deformation using MRI cine images. However, the reported 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from the 2 largest studies have no overlaps...
May 11, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527898/triterpenes-and-meroterpenes-from-ganoderma-lucidum-with-inhibitory-activity-against-hmgs-reductase-aldose-reductase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase
#8
Baosong Chen, Jin Tian, Jinjin Zhang, Kai Wang, Li Liu, Bo Yang, Li Bao, Hongwei Liu
Seven new compounds including four lanostane triterpenoids, lucidenic acids Q-S (1-3) and methyl ganoderate P (4), and three triterpene-farnesyl hydroquinone conjugates, ganolucinins A-C (5-7), one new natural product ganomycin J (8), and 73 known compounds (9-81) were isolated from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of the compounds 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic methods. Bioactivities of compounds isolated were assayed against HMG-CoA reductase, aldose reductase, α-glucosidase, and PTP1B...
May 17, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527470/on-the-calculations-of-the-static-electronic-dipole-hyper-polarizability-for-the-free-and-spatially-confined-h
#9
Marta Chołuj, Wojciech Bartkowiak, Paulina Naciążek, Krzysztof Strasburger
The quality of the static electronic dipole (hyper)polarizabilities (α and γ) calculated using the coupled cluster with singles and doubles (CCSD) method and various basis sets for the isolated hydrogen anion (H(-)) was verified against highly accurate results obtained within the variation-perturbation scheme with the optimized explicitly correlated Gaussian functions. Moreover, the influence of spatial confinement on α and γ of H(-) was analyzed. The effect of confinement (orbital compression) was modeled by the spherically symmetric harmonic oscillator potential...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527463/sub-doppler-infrared-spectroscopy-of-ch2oh-radical-in-a-slit-supersonic-jet-vibration-rotation-tunneling-dynamics-in-the-symmetric-ch-stretch-manifold
#10
Michael D Schuder, Fang Wang, Chih-Hsuan Chang, David J Nesbitt
The sub-Doppler CH-symmetric stretch (ν3) infrared absorption spectrum of a hydroxymethyl (CH2OH) radical is observed and analyzed with the radical formed in a slit-jet supersonic discharge expansion (Trot = 18 K) via Cl atom mediated H atom abstraction from methanol. The high sensitivity of the spectrometer and reduced spectral congestion associated with the cooled expansion enable first infrared spectroscopic observation of hydroxymethyl transitions from both ± symmetry tunneling states resulting from large amplitude COH torsional motion...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527439/preferential-binding-effects-on-protein-structure-and-dynamics-revealed-by-coarse-grained-monte-carlo-simulation
#11
R B Pandey, D J Jacobs, B L Farmer
The effect of preferential binding of solute molecules within an aqueous solution on the structure and dynamics of the histone H3.1 protein is examined by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation. The knowledge-based residue-residue and hydropathy-index-based residue-solvent interactions are used as input to analyze a number of local and global physical quantities as a function of the residue-solvent interaction strength (f). Results from simulations that treat the aqueous solution as a homogeneous effective solvent medium are compared to when positional fluctuations of the solute molecules are explicitly considered...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527414/structural-characterization-and-discrimination-of-the-paris-polyphylla-var-yunnanensis-and-paris-vietnamensis-based-on-metabolite-profiling-analysis
#12
Li-Ping Kang, Yuan-Yuan Huang, Zhi-Lai Zhan, Da-Hui Liu, Hua-Sheng Peng, Tie-Gui Nan, Yuan Zhang, Qing-Xiu Hao, Jin-Fu Tang, Shou-Dong Zhu, Guang Yang, Lan-Ping Guo, Min Chen, Lu-Qi Huang
This study aimed to distinguish the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis (Franch) Hand Mazz (PPY) and Paris veitnamensis (Takht.) H. Li (PV) using metabolomics-based ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-fligh mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS). First, the UHPLC/Q-TOF MS approach was optimized for metabolite profiling. Then, the MS data were processed using UNIFI™ combined with an in-house library to automatically characterize the metabolites. Based on the exact mass information, the fragmentation characteristics, and the retention time of compounds, and the fragmentation mechanism and retention behavior of steroidal glycosides in the references, the structures identified by UNIFI were further verified...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527370/atherosclerotic-dyslipidemia-revealed-by-plasma-lipidomics-on-apoe-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Yanyan Chen, Shiyuan Wen, Miaomiao Jiang, Yan Zhu, Liqin Ding, Hong Shi, Pengzhi Dong, Jing Yang, Yue Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The pathological process of atherosclerosis is closely related to lipid accumulation at arterial wall caused by lipoproteins transporting lipids through blood. In this study, we investigate the lipid composition in the plasma of apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet to reveal atherosclerosis-induced dyslipidemia. METHODS: ApoE(-/-) and corresponding wild-type C57BL/6J mice were used as the pathology model and control, respectively, and were fed a high-fat or normal diet...
May 11, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526963/incorporation-of-the-time-varying-postprandial-increase-in-splanchnic-blood-flow-into-a-pbpk-model-to-predict-the-effect-of-food-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-orally-administered-high-extraction-drugs
#14
Rachel H Rose, David B Turner, Sibylle Neuhoff, Masoud Jamei
Following a meal, a transient increase in splanchnic blood flow occurs that can result in increased exposure to orally administered high-extraction drugs. Typically, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have incorporated this increase in blood flow as a time-invariant fed/fasted ratio, but this approach is unable to explain the extent of increased drug exposure. A model for the time-varying increase in splanchnic blood flow following a moderate- to high-calorie meal (TV-Q Splanch) was developed to describe the observed data for healthy individuals...
May 19, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526909/retraction-note-to-the-interaction-effects-of-temperature-and-humidity-on-emergency-room-visits-for-respiratory-diseases-in-beijing-china
#15
Q Su, H Liu, X Yuan, X Zhang, W Dang, J Zhang, Y Qin, B Men, X Zhao, Y Xiao, R Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 20, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526744/combining-properties-of-different-classes-of-pi3k%C3%AE-inhibitors-to-understand-molecular-features-that-confer-selectivity
#16
Grace Q Gong, Jackie D Kendall, James Mj Dickson, Gordon W Rewcastle, Christina M Buchanan, William A Denny, Peter R Shepherd, Jack U Flanagan
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are major regulators of many cellular functions, and hyperactivation of PI3K cell signalling pathways is a major target for anticancer drug discovery. PI3Kα is the isoform most implicated in cancer, and our aim is to selectively inhibit this isoform, which may be more beneficial than concurrent inhibition of all Class I PI3Ks. We have used structure-guided design to merge high selectivity and high affinity characteristics found in existing compounds. Molecular docking including the prediction of water-mediated interactions, was used to model interactions between the ligands and the PI3Kα affinity pocket...
May 19, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526610/11-12-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-11-12-eet-reduces-excitability-and-excitatory-transmission-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Nandkishor K Mule, Anette C Orjuela Leon, John R Falck, Michael Arand, Anne Marowsky
Recent studies suggest a role for the arachidonic acid-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in attenuating epileptic seizures. However, their effect on neurotransmission has never been investigated in detail. Here, we studied how 11,12- and 14,15 EET affect excitability and excitatory neurotransmission in mouse hippocampus. 11,12 EET (2 μM), but not 14,15 EET (2 μM), induced the opening of a hyperpolarizing K(+) conductance in CA1 pyramidal cells. This action could be blocked by BaCl2, the G protein blocker GDPβ-S and the GIRK1/4 blocker tertiapin Q and the channel was thus identified as a GIRK channel...
May 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526295/large-scale-exploratory-genetic-analysis-of-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Ignacio F Mata, Catherine O Johnson, James B Leverenz, Daniel Weintraub, John Q Trojanowski, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Beate Ritz, Rebecca Rausch, Stewart A Factor, Cathy Wood-Siverio, Joseph F Quinn, Kathryn A Chung, Amie L Peterson-Hiller, Alberto J Espay, Fredy J Revilla, Johnna Devoto, Dora Yearout, Shu-Ching Hu, Brenna A Cholerton, Thomas J Montine, Karen L Edwards, Cyrus P Zabetian
Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling problem in Parkinson's disease (PD). Identification of genetic variants that influence the presence or severity of cognitive deficits in PD might provide a clearer understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this important nonmotor feature. We genotyped 1105 PD patients from the PD Cognitive Genetics Consortium for 249,336 variants using the NeuroX array. Participants underwent assessments of learning and memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [HVLT-R]), working memory/executive function (Letter-Number Sequencing and Trail Making Test [TMT] A and B), language processing (semantic and phonemic verbal fluency), visuospatial abilities (Benton Judgment of Line Orientation [JoLO]), and global cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment)...
April 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525938/logistic-regression-model-for-detecting-radon-prone-areas-in-ireland
#19
J Elío, Q Crowley, R Scanlon, J Hodgson, S Long
A new high spatial resolution radon risk map of Ireland has been developed, based on a combination of indoor radon measurements (n=31,910) and relevant geological information (i.e. Bedrock Geology, Quaternary Geology, soil permeability and aquifer type). Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of having an indoor radon concentration above the national reference level of 200Bqm(-3) in Ireland. The four geological datasets evaluated were found to be statistically significant, and, based on combinations of these four variables, the predicted probabilities ranged from 0...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525459/the-impact-of-a-bayesian-penalized-likelihood-reconstruction-algorithm-on-the-evaluation-of-indeterminate-pulmonary-nodules-by-dual-time-point-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#20
Tiago Sampaio Vieira, Diogo Borges Faria, Fernando Azevedo Silva, Francisco Pimentel, José Pereira de Oliveira
We present the case of a patient with history of colon cancer, referred for the evaluation of indeterminate pulmonary nodules by F-FDG PET/CT. A dual-time point protocol was performed, and images were reconstructed using VUE Point HD and a Bayesian-penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm (Q.Clear). Visually, the quality of the images was considered better when Q.Clear was used with β value of 200, uptake in the smallest nodule (7 mm) was clearly visible only with Q.Clear reconstruction, and uptake in the smaller nodules was best defined in the delayed time point acquisition...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
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