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Hepato renal syndrome

Janus C Jakobsen, Emil Eik Nielsen, Joshua Feinberg, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Kristina Fobian, Goran Hauser, Goran Poropat, Snezana Djurisic, Karl Heinz Weiss, Milica Bjelakovic, Goran Bjelakovic, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jian Ping Liu, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Ronald L Koretz, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide suffer from hepatitis C, which can lead to severe liver disease, liver cancer, and death. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are relatively new and expensive interventions for chronic hepatitis C, and preliminary results suggest that DAAs may eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the blood (sustained virological response). However, it is still questionable if eradication of hepatitis C virus in the blood eliminates hepatitis C in the body, and improves survival and leads to fewer complications...
June 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
T-S Kim, J M Kim, C H D Kwon, S J Kim, J-W Joh, S-K Lee
BACKGROUND: Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been accepted as feasible treatment for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), although it has generated several debatable issues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic factors predicting fatal outcome after LDLT for FHF. METHODS: From April 1999 to April 2011, 60 patients underwent LT for acute liver failure, including 42 patients for FHF at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Among 42 patients, 30 patients underwent LDLT for FHF, and the database of these patients was analyzed retrospectively to investigate the prognostic factors after LDLT for FHF...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
L Di Lullo, A Bellasi, V Barbera, D Russo, L Russo, B Di Iorio, M Cozzolino, C Ronco
According to the recent definition proposed by the Consensus conference on Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative Group, the term cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) has been used to define different clinical conditions in which heart and kidney dysfunction overlap. Type 1 CRS (acute cardio- renal syndrome) is characterized by acute worsening of cardiac function leading to AKI (5, 6) in the setting of active cardiac disease such as ADHF, while type - 2 CRS occurs in a setting of chronic heart disease. Type 3 CRS is closely link to acute kidney injury (AKI), while type 4 represent cardiovascular involvement in chronic kidney disese (CKD) patients...
March 2017: Indian Heart Journal
Imad Mohammad Dweikat, Issa Shaher Alawneh, Sami Fares Bahar, Mutaz Idrees Sultan
BACKGROUND: Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (FBS, OMIM 227810) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), a member of the facilitative glucose transporter family (Santer et al. J Inherit Metab Dis 21:191-194, 1998). The typical clinical picture is characterized by hepatorenal glycogen accumulation resulting in hepato- and nephromegaly, impaired utilization of glucose and galactose, proximal renal tubular dysfunction, rickets and severe short stature...
August 4, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Manoj Kumar Mohapatra, Ashok Kumar Behera, Purna Chandra Karua, Prafulla Kumar Bariha, Ashutosh Rath, Kailash Chandra Aggrawal, Snigdha Rani Nahak, Santosh Shankar Gudaganatti
BACKGROUND: Severe cholestatic jaundice may complicate with bile cast nephropathy (BCN) causing severe acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we investigate BCN in severe falciparum malaria complicated with jaundice and AKI. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary health care institution with high prevalence of malaria. A cohort of 110 patients with falciparum malaria complicated with cerebral malaria, jaundice and AKI were enrolled. Species diagnosis was made from peripheral blood smear or rapid diagnostic test...
August 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
V Perilli, P Aceto, T Sacco, C Modesti, P Ciocchetti, F Vitale, A Russo, G Fasano, A Dottorelli, L Sollazzi
Graft and patients survival are the main goal of anesthesiological management in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). Even if anesthesiological practice sustained major developments over time, some evidence-based intraoperative strategies have not yet been widely applied. The aim of this review was to summarize intraoperative anesthesiological strategies which could have the potential to improve LT graft and/or recipient survival. Monitoring must be as accurate as possible in order to manage intraoperative hemodynamic changes...
July 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Yu V Dumanskiy, V A Stepko, O V Sinyachenko
Abstract The factors, determining possibility of early postoperative morbidity occurrence in patients, suffering gastro-esophageal zone cancer, were analyzed. After radical operation performance (gastrectomy, gastric and esophageal resection) 5.7% patients died. Insufficience of the anastomosis sutures with peritonitis occurrence, an acute hepato-renal insufficience, an acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism, pneumonia, the brain insult, pancreonecrosis and mesenterial thrombosis constituted the main morbidities...
February 2016: Klinichna Khirurhiia
Christopher Valerio, Eleni Theocharidou, Andrew Davenport, Banwari Agarwal
To provide an overview of the properties of human serum albumin (HSA), and to review the evidence for the use of human albumin solution (HAS) in critical illness, sepsis and cirrhosis. A MEDLINE search was performed using the terms "human albumin", "critical illness", "sepsis" and "cirrhosis". The references of retrieved articles were reviewed manually. Studies published between 1980 and 2014 were selected based on quality criteria. Data extraction was performed by all authors. HSA is the main plasma protein contributing greatly to its oncotic pressure...
March 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Nitya Nand, Parveen Malhotra, Dipesh Kumar Dhoot
INTRODUCTION: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Various studies show contradictory results about the role of amount, type and duration of alcohol exposure in determining the risk to develop ALD with ethnic variations in susceptibility to develop ALD and South Asians are shown to be more prone to develop ALD. This study was carried out to evaluate clinical profile of ALD in Indian population and to find out the correlation of disease severity and outcome with alcohol intake...
June 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Cristina Mussini, Patrizia Lorenzini, Massimo Puoti, Miriam Lichtner, Giuseppe Lapadula, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Andrea Antinori, Giordano Madeddu, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Andrea De Luca
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Fibrosis (FIB)-4 index as a predictor of major liver-related events (LRE) and liver-related death (LRD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Italian HIV care centers participating to the ICONA Foundation cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Treatment-naive patients enrolled in ICONA were selected who: initiated cART, had hepatitis C virus (HCV) serology results, were HBsAg negative, had an available FIB-4 index at cART start and during follow up...
2015: PloS One
Bogdan Malinescu, Eliza Martius, Ana Maria Pelin
Peroxisomal diseases are rare (1:50,000), genetically determined disorders (autosomal recessive), systemic, multiorgan illnesses with prominent involvement of the nervous system, caused either by the failure to form or to maintain the peroxisome, or by a defect in the function of a single or multiple peroxisomal enzymes. Peroxisomes contain approximately 50 enzymes which are responsible for many metabolic reactions, and play an important role in the oxidation of saturated very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA)...
October 2015: Forensic Science International
Martin Kreuzer, Dagmar Gähler, Annette C Rakenius, Jenny Prüfe, Thomas Jack, Eva-Doreen Pfister, Lars Pape
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major complication in children with hepatic failure which leads to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to provide paediatric data on the prevalence of dialysis-dependent AKI (dAKI), the feasibility and efficacy of dialysis methods and outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 367 children listed for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in our centre during the past decade. RESULTS: Data on 30 children (15 boys, 15 girls) were compiled for retrospective analysis, and data on dialysis feasibility and efficacy were available for 26 of these...
December 2015: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Nupur Das, Agnihotri Bhattacharyya, Baishakhi Paria, Sujoy Sarkar
INTRODUCTION: Renal dysfunction is common in chronic liver disease. The cause of this renal dysfunction is either multi-organ involvement in acute conditions or secondary to advanced liver disease. OBJECTIVES: The study was undertaken to assess the renal function in chronic liver diseases and find out the association of alteration of renal function with gradation of liver disease. (assessed by child-pugh criteria) and to find out the association of alteration of renal function among the cases of chronic liver disease of different aetiology...
March 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Antonio Facciorusso, Annabianca Amoruso, Viviana Neve, Matteo Antonino, Valentina Del Prete, Michele Barone
Ascites and hyponatremia are the most common complications in patients with liver cirrhosis and develop as a consequence of a severe impairment of liver function and portal hypertension. Increasing evidences support the central role of renal function alterations in the pathogenesis of hydroelectrolytic imbalances in cirrhotic patients, thus implying a dense cross-talk between liver and kidney in the systemic and splanchnic vascular homeostasis in such subjects. Since Arginin Vasopressin (AVP) hyperincretion occurs at late stage of cirrhosis and plays an important role in the development of refractory ascites, dilutional hyponatremia and finally hepato-renal syndrome, selective antagonists of AVP receptors V2 (vaptans) have been recently introduced in the therapeutic algorithm of advanced cirrhotic patients...
November 27, 2014: World Journal of Hepatology
Antoine G Schneider, Anthony Schelleman, Mark D Goodwin, Michael Bailey, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Terlipressin improves renal function in some patients with type-1 hepato-renal syndrome (HRS). Renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), a novel imaging modality, may help to predict terlipressin responsiveness. OBJECTIVES: We used CEUS to estimate the effect of terlipressin on the renal cortical microcirculation in type-1 HRS. METHODS: We performed renal CEUS scans with destruction-replenishment sequences using Sonovue(®) (Bracco, Milano Italy) as a contrast agent at baseline and after the intravenous administration of 1 mg of terlipressin, in four patients with type-1 HRS...
February 2015: Renal Failure
Laurence Weinberg, Irene Kearsey, Clarissa Tjoakarfa, George Matalanis, Sean Galvin, Scott Carson, Rinaldo Bellomo, Larry McNicol, Peter McCall
Redo-sternotomy and aortic valve replacement in patients with advanced liver disease is rare and associated with a prohibitive morbidity and mortality. Refractory coagulopathy is common and a consequence of intense activation of the coagulation system that can be triggered by contact of blood with the cardiopulmonary bypass circuitry, bypass-induced fibrinolysis, platelet activation and dysfunction, haemodilution, surgical trauma, hepatic decompensation and hypothermia. Management can be further complicated by right heart dysfunction, porto-pulmonary hypertension, poor myocardial protection, and hepato-renal syndrome...
October 16, 2014: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Mayoor V Prabhu, B Sukanya, B H Santosh Pai, Sreedhar Reddy
The Hepato Renal Syndrome (HRS) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum. Controversies persist in the definition, understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapy of renal dysfunction complicating End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD).While ESLD is complicated by dysfunction in multiple organs, renal disease holds particular bearing on long term outcomes. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ESLD-and co existing renal dysfunction makes it more difficult and challenging. Given that a bare minimum of patients with ESLD will ultimately receive a liver transplant, especially in the developing world, renal dysfunction may ultimately portend untimely death in a many of these patients...
May 2014: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Massimo Bolognesi, Marco Di Pascoli, Alberto Verardo, Angelo Gatta
Portal hypertension is a clinical syndrome which leads to several clinical complications, such as the formation and rupture of esophageal and/or gastric varices, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and hepato-renal syndrome. In cirrhosis, the primary cause of the increase in portal pressure is the enhanced resistance to portal outflow. However, also an increase in splanchnic blood flow worsens and maintains portal hypertension. The vasodilatation of arterial splanchnic vessels and the opening of collateral circulation are the determinants of the increased splanchnic blood flow...
March 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Jeremy P Dwyer, Chatura Jayasekera, Amanda Nicoll
The choice of analgesic agent in cirrhotic patients is problematic and must be individualized taking into account several factors including severity of liver disease, history of opioid dependence, and potential drug interactions. With a cautious approach including slow dose up-titration and careful monitoring, effective analgesia can be achieved in most cirrhotic patients without significant side effects or decompensation of their liver disease. Paracetamol is safe in patients with chronic liver disease but reduced doses of 2-3 grams daily is recommended for long-term use...
2014: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Kyota Fukazawa, H Thomas Lee
Hepato-renal syndrome (HRS) is one of the most detrimental conditions in patients with end stage liver failure. Historically, HRS was considered a terminal disease associated with cirrhosis and was termed "liver-death syndrome". Furthermore, despite the improved understanding of pathophysiology and the reversibility of renal dysfunction in HRS, mortality remains extremely high especially for type 1 HRS. This review summarizes the recent advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of HRS and also provides an evolving area of research in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of HRS, which may open the door for new therapeutic approaches...
September 27, 2013: Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research
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