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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241721/screening-for-alcohol-misuse-practices-among-u-s-primary-care-providers-docstyles-2016
#1
Cheryl H Tan, Daniel W Hungerford, Clark H Denny, Lela R McKnight-Eily
INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol use is associated with car crashes, violence, and multiple disease conditions, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that primary care providers screen all adults and conduct brief counseling interventions with those who misuse alcohol. The USPSTF prefers use of three screening tools that measure alcohol consumption (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Single Question) because these tools detect the full spectrum of alcohol misuse in adults...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241104/the-relationship-between-self-compassion-and-the-risk-for-substance-use-disorder
#2
Cynthia L Phelps, Samantha M Paniagua, Irmgard U Willcockson, Jennifer S Potter
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relationship between substance use disorder risk and self-compassion and posits a model for how the two are related through the mitigation of suffering. METHOD: Study participants were recruited using social media to complete an online survey that included a basic socio-demographic survey and two validated instruments, the Self-Compassion Survey and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), which screens for substance use disorder (SUD) risk...
December 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240551/time-varying-effects-of-parental-alcoholism-on-depression
#3
Sunita Thapa, Arielle S Selya, Yvonne Jonk
INTRODUCTION: Children of alcoholic parents are at increased risk for lifetime depression. However, little is known about how this risk may change in magnitude across age, especially in mid-adulthood and beyond. METHODS: We used a nationally representative sample (N = 36,057) of US adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, wave III. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, we examined the relationship between parental alcoholism and outcomes of 1) major depressive disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (DSM-5) and 2) DSM-5 persistent depressive disorder...
December 14, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240304/weight-status-diet-quality-perceived-stress-and-functional-health-of-caregivers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Xiaoyin Sara Li, Jennifer A Pinto-Martin, Aleda Thompson, Jesse Chittams, Tanja V E Kral
PURPOSE: Caring for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be highly demanding and can put significant strain on caregivers. To date, little is known about the extent to which caregivers of children with ASD experience increased levels of stress which may adversely affect health outcomes. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to compare caregivers of children with ASD and caregivers of typically developing children (TDC) in weight status, diet quality, perceived stress related to the parenting role, and functional health and well-being...
December 14, 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239114/engineering-thermal-stability-and-solvent-tolerance-of-the-soluble-quinoprotein-pede-from-pseudomonas-putida-kt2440-with-a-heterologous-whole-cell-screening-approach
#5
Matthias Wehrmann, Janosch Klebensberger
Due to their ability for direct electron transfer to electrodes, the utilization of rare earth metals as cofactor, and their periplasmic localization, pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (PQQ-ADHs) represent an interesting class of biocatalysts for various biotechnological applications. For most biocatalysts protein stability is crucial, either to increase the performance of the protein under a given process condition or to maximize robustness of the protein towards mutational manipulations, which are often needed to enhance or introduce a functionality of interest...
December 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238510/epidemiology-transmission-diagnosis-and-outcome-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Seyed Hamid Moosavy, Parivash Davoodian, Mirza Ali Nazarnezhad, Abdolazim Nejatizaheh, Ebrahim Eftekhar, Hamidreza Mahboobi
Hepatitis C infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disorders worldwide. Nearly three percent (3%) of the world population has an HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was higher in some groups such as injected drug users (IDUs) and HIV positive populations. Acute hepatitis has proven asymptomatic in most cases, and delay of diagnosis might lead to late onset of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Some host characteristics such as age, gender, body mass index, and viral properties are associated with HCV outcome hepatitis...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238268/the-mental-health-and-substance-misuse-needs-of-male-ex-armed-forces-personnel-in-prison
#7
Verity Wainwright, Charlotte Lennox, Sharon McDonnell, Jenny Shaw, Jane Senior
Ex-armed forces personnel constitute the largest known occupational group in prison but there is little evidence regarding their mental health, or substance misuse, needs. A total of 105 participants were interviewed and measures assessing symptoms of common mental health (CMH) problems and substance misuse were completed along with a review of their health care records. Forty (38%) participants screened for current CMH problems (CCMH) and high levels of dual symptomology and alcohol misuse were assessed. Thirty-nine (37%) had a mental health diagnosis recorded, most commonly for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and personality disorder...
2018: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237342/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-late-stage-colorectal-cancer-among-hispanics-and-non-hispanic-whites-of-new-mexico
#8
Melissa Gonzales, Fares Qeadan, Shiraz I Mishra, Ashwani Rajput, Richard M Hoffman
INTRODUCTION: Hispanics in New Mexico are diagnosed with more later-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Our study evaluated the interaction of race/ethnicity and risk factors for later-stage III and IV CRC among patients in New Mexico. METHOD: CRC patients ages 30 to 75 years ( n = 163, 46% Hispanic) completed a survey on key explanatory clinical, lifestyle, preventive health, and demographic variables for CRC risk. Adjusted logistic regression models examined whether these variables differentially contributed to later-stage CRC among NHW versus Hispanics...
December 2017: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234443/psychotropic-effects-of-an-alcoholic-extract-from-the-leaves-of-albizia-zygia-leguminosae-mimosoideae
#9
Patrick Amoateng, Dorcas Osei-Safo, Kennedy Kwami Edem Kukuia, Samuel Adjei, Obed Awintuma Akure, Constance Agbemelo-Tsomafo, Shirley Nyarko Adu-Poku, Kenneth Yaw Agyeman-Badu
Background: Albizia zygia is used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the management of mental disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that an extract of the leaves of Albizia zygia (AZE) may possess antipsychotic and antidepressant properties. Method: The novelty- and apomorphine-induced locomotor and rearing behaviours of AZE in mice were explored in an open-field observational test system. The effects of AZE in apomorphine-induced cage climbing test, extract-induced catalepsy, and haloperidol-induced catalepsy on mice were also investigated...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234195/simple-anthropometric-indices-are-useful-for-predicting-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-asian-indians
#10
Ayaskanta Singh, Sasmita Parida, Jimmy Narayan, Preetam Nath, Pradeep K Padhi, Girish K Pati, Prasanta K Parida, Chudamani Meher, Omprakash Agrawal, Shivaram P Singh
Background and aims: With the rising prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disorder in both developed and developing nations. Several studies on NAFLD have described waist circumference, a surrogate marker of visceral fat accumulation and waist height ratio as a better screening tool for NAFLD and metabolic syndrome than body mass index (BMI). We conducted this study to assess simple abdominal obesity indices as a predictor of NAFLD and determine the appropriate cut-off levels with reference to NAFLD...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233651/identification-of-bicyclic-hexafluoroisopropyl-alcohol-sulfonamides-as-retinoic-acid-receptor-related-orphan-receptor-gamma-ror%C3%AE-rorc-inverse-agonists-employing-structure-based-drug-design-to-improve-pregnane-x-receptor-pxr-selectivity
#11
Hua Gong, David S Weinstein, Zhonghui Lu, James J-W Duan, Sylwia Stachura, Lauren Haque, Ananta Karmakar, Hemalatha Hemagiri, Dhanya Kumar Raut, Arun Kumar Gupta, Javed Khan, Dan Camac, John S Sack, Andrew Pudzianowski, Dauh-Rurng Wu, Melissa Yarde, Ding-Ren Shen, Virna Borowski, Jenny H Xie, Huadong Sun, Celia D'Arienzo, Marta Dabros, Michael A Galella, Faye Wang, Carolyn A Weigelt, Qihong Zhao, William Foster, John E Somerville, Luisa M Salter-Cid, Joel C Barrish, Percy H Carter, T G Murali Dhar
We disclose the optimization of a high throughput screening hit to yield benzothiazine and tetrahydroquinoline sulfonamides as potent RORγt inverse agonists. However, a majority of these compounds showed potent activity against pregnane X receptor (PXR) and modest activity against liver X receptor α (LXRα). Structure-based drug design (SBDD) led to the identification of benzothiazine and tetrahydroquinoline sulfonamide analogs which completely dialed out LXRα activity and were less potent at PXR. Pharmacodynamic (PD) data for compound 35 in an IL-23 induced IL-17 mouse model is discussed along with the implications of a high Ymax in the PXR assay for long term preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies...
December 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229660/rationale-and-design-of-geneius-a-prospective-observational-study-on-the-genetic-and-environmental-determinants-of-body-mass-index-evolution-in-canadian-undergraduate-students
#12
Rita E Morassut, Christine Langlois, Akram Alyass, Adeola F Ishola, Fereshteh T Yazdi, Alexandra J Mayhew, Hudson Reddon, James MacKillop, Marie Pigeyre, David Meyre
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a global epidemic and is a risk factor for developing other comorbidities. Young adulthood is a critical period for body weight change and establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours. The 'Freshman 15' suggests that undergraduate students gain 15 lbs (6.8 kg) during their first year of university, although evidence estimates a more modest weight gain of approximately 3-5 lbs (1.4-2.3 kg). Previous studies have only investigated weight change in the first year and do not study potential risk factors...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229000/changes-in-specific-substance-involvement-scores-among-sbirt-recipients-in-an-hiv-primary-care-setting
#13
Carol Dawson-Rose, Jessica E Draughon, Yvette Cuca, Roland Zepf, Emily Huang, Bruce A Cooper, Paula J Lum
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). METHODS: We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic...
December 12, 2017: Addiction Science & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228661/interactions-between-acyp2-genetic-polymorphisms-and-environment-factors-with-susceptibility-to-ischemic-stroke-in-a-han-chinese-population
#14
Qiong Cheng, Yong-Kun Li, Feng Lu, Lianhua Yin, Yin-Zhou Wang, Wen Wei, Qian Lin
Aims: To investigate the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within ACYP2 gene and additional gene- environment interaction with ischemic stroke (IS) risk in a Chinese population. Results: IS risk was significantly higher in carriers with the G allele of rs11896604 than those with CC genotype (CG or GG versus CC), adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.60 (1.18-2.20), and higher in carriers with the A allele of rs12615793 than those with GG genotype (GA or AA versus GG), adjusted OR (95%CI) = 1...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227235/drinking-motives-and-alcohol-use-the-serve-study-of-u-s-current-and-former-service-members
#15
Cynthia D Mohr, Cameron T McCabe, Sarah N Haverly, Leslie B Hammer, Kathleen F Carlson
OBJECTIVE: Hazardous drinking in the armed forces is a significant problem. Alcohol use motivations, known risk factors for problem drinking, have been underexplored in this population. Our study extends knowledge about drinking motives among current and former U.S. service members and provides recommendations on their utility in identifying alcohol-related problems by examining the factor structure of multidimensional drinking motives and their association to alcohol use. METHOD: Post-9/11 separated service members and current reservists were recruited from 35 Oregon employers to participate in a workplace study of supervisor support...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227222/the-future-of-research-on-alcohol-related-disparities-across-u-s-racial-ethnic-groups-a-plan-of-attack
#16
Sarah E Zemore, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Nina Mulia, William C Kerr, Cindy L Ehlers, Won Kim Cook, Priscilla Martinez, Camillia Lui, Thomas K Greenfield
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests striking disparities in alcohol use, problems, and treatment across racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, research on alcohol-related disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities remains in its developmental stages. The current article aims to support future research in this growing field by highlighting some of the most important findings, questions, and approaches, focusing on psychosocial research. METHOD: This article advances seven research needs (i...
January 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224243/discovery-of-a-novel-thermostable-zn2-dependent-alcohol-dehydrogenase-from-chloroflexus-aurantiacus-through-conserved-domains-mining
#17
Christoph Loderer, David Wagner, Frances Morgenstern, Antje Spieß, Marion B Ansorge-Schumacher
AIMS: The purpose of the study was to demonstrate feasibility of the Conserved Domains Database (CDD) for identification of novel biocatalysts with desirable properties from a class of well-characterized biocatalysts. METHODS AND RESULTS: The thermostable ADH from Sulfolobus solfataricus with a broad substrate range was applied as a template for the search for novel thermostable ADHs via Conserved Domains Database. From the resulting hits, a putative ADH gene from the thermophilic organism Chloroflexus aurantiacus was cloned and expressed in E...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220610/predictors-of-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-among-women-attending-midwife-obstetric-units-in-the-cape-metropole-south-africa
#18
Petal Petersen-Williams, Catherine Mathews, Esmé Jordaan, Charles D H Parry
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the nature and extent of substance use among pregnant women in Cape Town (South Africa) despite the very high levels of substance use and related consequences such as FASD in this part of the country. The aim of the study was to determine predictors of alcohol use among pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs) in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219190/phenomenology-genetics-and-cns-network-abnormalities-in-laryngeal-dystonia-a-30-year-experience
#19
Andrew Blitzer, Mitchell F Brin, Kristina Simonyan, Laurie J Ozelius, Steven J Frucht
OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal dystonia (LD) is a functionally specific disorder of the afferent-efferent motor coordination system producing action-induced muscle contraction with a varied phenomenology. This report of long-term studies aims to review and better define the phenomenology and central nervous system abnormalities of this disorder and improve diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Our studies categorized over 1,400 patients diagnosed with LD over the past 33 years, including demographic and medical history records and their phenomenological presentations...
December 8, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219083/a-descriptive-study-of-treatment-provision-for-problem-alcohol-drinking-in-adult-males-in-khayelitsha-cape-town-south-africa
#20
Amina Saban, Neo Morojele, Leslie London
BACKGROUND: Poor, Black African males are underrepresented as patients in facilities that treat problem drinking in Cape Town, South Africa. Reasons for this remain unclear, but factors such as the kinds of treatment provided, perceptions of treatment efficacy, social stigma and traditional treatment beliefs have been suggested as possible barriers to treatment seeking. This descriptive study examined the availability and nature of problem drinking treatment facilities in Khayelitsha, a largely poor township of Black, Xhosa-speaking Africans, on the outskirts of Cape Town...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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