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Alcohol screening

Cássia Toledo, Flávio Eduardo Nácul, Marcos Freitas Knibel, Nilton Brandão Silva, Ederlon Rezende, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho Grion, Murillo Assunção, Fernando Gutierrez, Joelma Villafanha Gandolfi, Suzana Margareth Lobo
BACKGROUND: Postoperative complications are the primary determinants of survival following major surgery. We aimed to characterize the early perioperative risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications (POPCs) in patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgeries. METHODS: This study utilized a multicenter prospective observational cohort design. Adult patients undergoing non-cardiac surgeries and admitted to 21 Brazilian ICUs were screened for inclusion in the study...
October 13, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Qiang-Rong Zhang
The constituents of the whole plant of Orobanche coerulescens were isolated and purified by using various column chromatographic techniques including D101, silica gel and ODS. The structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses including NMR and MS. A new phenylethanol glycoside was isolated from the whole plant of O. coerulescens, and was identified as 2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol-1-O- [(1→3)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-4, 6-O-di-feruloyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside, named as orobancheoside B. Through the antibacterial activity test, orobancheoside B was proved to have certain antibacterial activity, and be one of the main active components of O...
March 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Kwangmi Youn, Jong Sung Kim, Sung-Soo Kim, Seok Joon Yoon, Dong-Jin Woo
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a useful biomarker to identify excessive alcohol consumption; however, few studies have validated the %CDT cut-off value in elderly men. This study estimated the optimal %CDT cut-off value that could identify excessive alcohol consumption in men aged ≥65 years. METHODS: This retrospective study included 120 men who visited the department of family medicine at Chungnam National University Hospital for health check-up between January 2010 and August 2013...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
E Hayes-Larson, Y Hirsch-Moverman, S Saito, K Frederix, B Pitt, L Maama-Maime, A A Howard
SETTING: Limited data exist on the prevalence and correlates, including stigma, of mental health conditions, including depressive symptoms and alcohol use, among patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, despite their negative impact on health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and hazardous/harmful alcohol use among TB-HIV patients in the Start TB patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) study...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Arvin Bhana, Sujit D Rathod, One Selohilwe, Tasneem Kathree, Inge Petersen
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA) tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB), heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of treatment efforts among such patients. OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics, correlates and diagnoses of alcohol use disorders among chronic care patients in SA...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Stephen Bright, Katherine Walsh, Cylie Williams
OBJECTIVE: There is good data regarding the prevalence and patterns of dual diagnosis among the general population; however, data regarding the older adult cohort is limited. We aimed to extend the knowledge of the point prevalence and patterns of dual diagnosis among older adults, and the impact of dual diagnosis on the utilization of Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD) treatment services. METHOD: A 12 month medical chart audit of clients discharged from an Australian older adult-specific AOD treatment service...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Sanni Helander, Sirpa Heinävaara, Tytti Sarkeala, Nea Malila
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening may cause changes in health-related lifestyle. In 2010, Finnish Mass Screening Registry began a study on psychosocial effects of CRC screening. This article examines whether there are differential developments in self-reported lifestyle at ages 59-61 years among CRC screening invitees and non-contacted controls. Methods: A population-based random sample of 10 648 Finnish adults born in 1951 and living in the municipalities voluntary involved in the CRC screening programme were sent a lifestyle questionnaire in 2010...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Andréia Rodrigues Gonçalves Ayres, Gulnar Azevedo E Silva, Maria Teresa Bustamante Teixeira, Kristiane de Castro Dias Duque, Maria Lúcia Salim Miranda Machado, Carmen Justina Gamarra, José Eduardo Levi
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of cervical HPV infection among women assisted by the Family Health Strategy and identify the factors related to the infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 2,076 women aged 20-59 years old residing in Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais, who were asked to participate in an organized screening carried out in units were the Family Health Strategy had been implemented. Participants answered the standardized questionnaire and underwent a conventional cervical cytology test and HPV test for high oncogenic risk...
October 5, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
Susanna Martin, Muffazal Rawala
Aims and Method Suicidal acts on underground railway networks are an area of public health concern. Our aim was to review recent epidemiological patterns of suicidal acts on the London Underground to inform future preventive interventions. Data from 2000 to 2010 were obtained from the British Transport Police via a Freedom of Information request. Results The mean annual rate of suicidal acts from 2000 to 2010 was 5.8 per 100 million passenger journey stages. Of those who died by suicide, 77.3% were of White Northern European ethnicity...
October 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
Doris E Braun, Sreenivas R Lingireddy, Mark D Beidelschies, Rui Guo, Peter Müller, Sarah L Price, Susan M Reutzel-Edens
The solid form landscape of 5-HT2a antagonist 3-(4-(benzo[d]isoxazole-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropanoic acid hydrochloride (B5HCl) proved difficult to establish. Many crystalline materials were produced by solid form screening, but few forms readily grew high quality crystals to afford a clear picture or understanding of the solid form landscape. Careful control of crystallization conditions, a range of experimental methods, computational modeling of solvate structures, and crystal structure prediction were required to see potential arrangements of the salt in its crystal forms...
October 4, 2017: Crystal Growth & Design
Simon Coulton, Martin Bland, Helen Crosby, Veronica Dale, Colin Drummond, Christine Godfrey, Eileen Kaner, Jennifer Sweetman, Ruth McGovern, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Steve Parrott, Gillian Tober, Judith Watson, Qi Wu
Aims: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped-care intervention versus a minimal intervention for the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. Method: Multi-centre, pragmatic RCT, set in Primary Care in UK. Patients aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test were allocated either to 5-min of brief advice or to 'Stepped Care': an initial 20-min of behavioural change counselling, with Step 2 being three sessions of Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Step 3 referral to local alcohol services (progression between each Step being determined by outcomes 1 month after each Step)...
September 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Emma L Davies, Adam J Lonsdale, Sarah E Hennelly, Adam R Winstock, David R Foxcroft
Aim: To assess the effectiveness of two personalized digital interventions (OneTooMany and Drinks Meter) compared to controls. Method: Randomized controlled trial (AEARCTR-0,001,082). Volunteers for the study, aged 18-30, were randomly allocated to one of two interventions or one of two control groups and were followed up 4 weeks later. Primary outcomes were AUDIT-C, drinking harms and pre-loading. Drinks Meter provided participants with brief screening and advice for alcohol in addition to normative feedback, information on calories consumed and money spent...
August 9, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Renee Y Hsia, Matthew Niedzwiecki
Objective: To better characterize and understand the nature of a very conservative definition of 'avoidable' emergency department (ED) visits in the United States to provide policymakers insight into what interventions can target non-urgent ED visits. Design/setting: We performed a retrospective analysis of a very conservative definition of 'avoidable' ED visits using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2005 to 2011. Participants: We examined a total of 115 081 records, representing 424 million ED visits made by patients aged 18-64 years who were seen in the ED and discharged home...
October 1, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
Devin Gilmore, Jennifer Zorland, Joanna Akin, J Aaron Johnson, James G Emshoff, Gabriel P Kuperminc
BACKGROUND: Illicit drug use is common among Emergency Department (ED) patients, yet the association between drug use and subsequent mortality is not well understood. This study examines 36-month mortality rates for a sample of ED patients based on reported use of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine both individually and in combination. METHODS: Patients (N = 1669) from two urban EDs were surveyed at the time of the visit. The patient survey included the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and information on physical and mental health, healthcare utilization, and risk factors associated with substance use...
October 9, 2017: Substance Abuse
Naoto Fujiwara, Scott L Friedman, Nicolas Goossens, Yujin Hoshida
Chronic fibrotic liver disease caused by viral or metabolic etiologies is a high-risk condition for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even after complete HCC tumor resection or ablation, the carcinogenic tissue microenvironment in the remnant liver can give rise to recurrent de novo HCC tumors, which progress into incurable, advanced-stage disease in the majority of patients. Thus, early detection and prevention of HCC development is, in principle, the most impactful strategy to improve patient prognosis...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
Catriona Matheson, Christiane Pflanz-Sinclair, Amna Almarzouqi, Christine M Bond, Amanda J Lee, Anwar Batieha, H Al Ghaferi, A El Kashef
Aim This project evaluated the effectiveness of screening brief intervention and referral for treatment (SBIRT) in primary care in Abu Dhabi to manage patients with problematic substance use. This study aimed to determine whether: (i) training primary care physicians on the SBIRT model increased the identification of patients using substances at a harmful, hazardous or dependent level; (ii) training improved physicians' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in self-efficacy in managing substance use. BACKGROUND: Substance use is increasing in the United Arab Emirates yet there has been no formal primary care intervention...
October 9, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Paul Sebo, Bernard Cerutti, Jean-Pascal Fournier, Cédric Rat, Fabien Rougerie, Nicolas Senn, Dagmar M Haller, Hubert Maisonneuve
OBJECTIVES: We previously identified that general practitioners (GPs) in French-speaking regions of Europe had a variable uptake of common preventive recommendations. In this study, we describe GPs' reports of how they put different preventive recommendations into practice. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2015 in Switzerland and France. 3400 randomly selected GPs were asked to complete a postal (n=1100) or online (n=2300) questionnaire...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
Luisa Stella Dolci, Silvia Panzavolta, Beatrice Albertini, Barbara Campisi, Massimo Gandolfi, Adriana Bigi, Nadia Passerini
The aim of this work was to develop an innovative drug delivery system potentially useful for the local delivery of Bisphosphonates to bone tissue. We propose the use of Solid Lipid Microparticles (MPs), up to now mainly used for oral and topical drug delivery, as carrier for bisphosphonates due to the favourable biocompatibility and lower toxicity of the lipids compared with many polymers. The delivery platform consisted of a biomimetic α-tricalcium phosphate-gelatin cement (CPC) enriched with alendronate loaded MPs (MPs-AL) produced by the spray congealing technology...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Thomas Ganz, Michael Braun, Marion Laging, Karin Schermelleh-Engel, Johannes Michalak, Thomas Heidenreich
BACKGROUND: Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking...
September 28, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Nicolas Bertholet, Debbie M Cheng, Tibor P Palfai, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Jeffrey H Samet, Richard Saitz
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aims to investigate whether anxiety, depression, and pain are associated with changes in marijuana use and drug use consequences among primary care patients. METHODS: In all, 331 adult primary care patients with marijuana as the only drug used were followed prospectively to investigate associations between anxiety/depression symptoms (no/minimal symptoms; anxiety or depression symptoms; symptoms of both) and pain (1-10 scale: none [0]; low [1-3]; medium [4-6]; high [7-10]) (independent variables) and substance use outcomes in regression models...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
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