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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822615/alcohol-use-and-problem-drinking-among-women-firefighters
#1
Christopher K Haddock, Walker S C Poston, Sara A Jahnke, Nattinee Jitnarin
OBJECTIVES: Given high levels of occupational stress and toxic exposures, firefighters have a relatively high prevalence of occupationally related medical and mental health disorders compared with the general public. Previous research found high rates of heavy and binge drinking among male firefighters. This study is the first to examine alcohol use among women firefighters. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a national online survey of women, career firefighters...
August 16, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820539/a-survey-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-among-university-employees-a-single-institutional-study
#2
Emmanuel I Agaba, Maxwell O Akanbi, Patricia A Agaba, Amaka N Ocheke, Zumnan M Gimba, Steve Daniyam, Edith N Okeke
BACKGROUND: The incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is rising globally, with its attendant morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of NCDs and their risk factors among members of a university community. METHODS: All employees of the university were invited to the University health clinic for screening, using the World Health Organisation's STEPwise approach to NCDs. RESULTS: A total of 883 (521; 59...
August 15, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818717/the-effect-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-the-risk-of-developing-prescription-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions-iii
#3
Ahmed N Hassan, Bernard Le Foll, Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of baseline post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and each symptoms cluster on the risk of developing opioid use disorder (OUD) in those exposed to opioid painkillers and to assess the effect of comorbid PTSD and OUD on functioning, OUD severity, and treatment seeking compared with individuals with OUD only. METHODS: We obtained data from 4025 individuals exposed to opioid painkillers from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III...
August 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818247/alcohol-screening-and-brief-intervention-a-potential-role-in-cancer-prevention-for-young-adults
#4
Lela R McKnight-Eily, S Jane Henley, Patricia P Green, Erika C Odom, Daniel W Hungerford
Excessive or risky alcohol use is a preventable cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Alcohol use is a common preventable cancer risk factor among young adults; it is associated with increased risk of developing at least six types of cancer. Alcohol consumed during early adulthood may pose a higher risk of female breast cancer than alcohol consumed later in life. Reducing alcohol use may help prevent cancer. Alcohol misuse screening and brief counseling or intervention (also called alcohol screening and brief intervention among other designations) is known to reduce excessive alcohol use, and the U...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818243/mental-health-problems-and-cancer-risk-factors-among-young-adults
#5
Greta M Massetti, Cheryll C Thomas, Jessica King, Kathleen Ragan, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford
INTRODUCTION: Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. METHODS: In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817734/treatment-gap-and-barriers-for-mental-health-care-a-cross-sectional-community-survey-in-nepal
#6
Nagendra P Luitel, Mark J D Jordans, Brandon A Kohrt, Sujit D Rathod, Ivan H Komproe
CONTEXT: There is limited research on the gap between the burden of mental disorders and treatment use in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the treatment gap among adults with depressive disorder (DD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) and to examine possible barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment in Nepal. METHODS: A three-stage sampling technique was used in the study to select 1,983 adults from 10 Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Chitwan district...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814878/heavy-drinking-in-university-students-with-and-without-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-contributions-of-drinking-motives-and-protective-behavioral-strategies
#7
Andrea L Howard, Tyler R Pritchard
This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31) compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146). Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813500/telomere-biology-and-telomerase-mutations-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Flávia S Donaires, Natália F Scatena, Raquel M Alves-Paiva, Joshua D Podlevsky, Dhenugen Logeswaran, Barbara A Santana, Andreza C Teixeira, Julian J-L Chen, Rodrigo T Calado, Ana L C Martinelli
Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at linear chromosome termini, protecting chromosomes against end-to-end fusion and damage, providing chromosomal stability. Telomeres shorten with mitotic cellular division, but are maintained in cells with high proliferative capacity by telomerase. Loss-of-function mutations in telomere-maintenance genes are genetic risk factors for cirrhosis development in humans and murine models. Telomerase deficiency provokes accelerated telomere shortening and dysfunction, facilitating genomic instability and oncogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813444/effect-of-a-brief-intervention-for-alcohol-and-illicit-drug-use-on-trauma-recidivism-in-a-cohort-of-trauma-patients
#9
Sergio Cordovilla-Guardia, Enrique Fernández-Mondéjar, Raquel Vilar-López, Juan F Navas, Mónica Portillo-Santamaría, Sergio Rico-Martín, Pablo Lardelli-Claret
OBJECTIVE: Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. METHODS: Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811694/estimation-of-upper-limit-of-normal-for-serum-alanine-transaminase-in-healthy-south-indian-population
#10
Pazhanivel Mohan, Varun Sundar, Emmanuel Bhaskar, Syluvai Anthony
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most common and cost effective screening test for asymptomatic liver disease. There is paucity of data on normal ALT among healthy individuals in India. An observational cross sectional study was conducted from January to July 2013 to estimate the upper limit of normal for ALT in healthy south Indian population. Adults undergoing voluntary or pre-employment health screening were included. Those with current and past alcoholism or smoking, acute illness or hospitalization during preceding 12 months, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or over the counter medication use within a month, current or past intake of herbal medications, any chronic medical illness, abnormal body mass index (BMI), fatty liver in ultrasound, abnormality in haemoglobin, platelet count, blood sugar, creatinine, lipid profile and thyroid function test and positive serology (Hepatitis B, C or HIV) were excluded...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811180/development-of-an-opioid-self-administration-assay-to-study-drug-seeking-in-zebrafish
#11
Gabriel D Bossé, Randall T Peterson
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become an excellent tool to study mental health disorders, due to its physiological and genetic similarity to humans, ease of genetic manipulation, and feasibility of small molecule screening. Zebrafish have been shown to exhibit characteristics of addiction to drugs of abuse in non-contingent assays, including conditioned place preference, but contingent assays have been limited to a single assay for alcohol consumption. Using inexpensive electronic, mechanical, and optical components, we developed an automated opioid self-administration assay for zebrafish, enabling us to measure drug seeking and gain insight into the underlying biological pathways...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810975/adaptation-of-screening-brief-intervention-referral-to-treatment-to-active-duty-military-personnel-in-an-emergency-department-findings-from-a-formative-research-study
#12
Megan Holt, Mark Reed, Susan I Woodruff, Gerard DeMers, Michael Matteucci, Suzanne L Hurtado
BACKGROUND: The transient nature of military life coupled with environmental and psychosocial stressors increase the risk for alcohol misuse and abuse among active duty (AD) military service members and recent epidemiological studies demonstrate high rates of heavy drinking among AD personnel. Over the past decade, Department of Defense health care systems have observed increases in the utilization of substance use services among military personnel demobilizing from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810195/alcohol-use-and-receipt-of-alcohol-screening-and-brief-intervention-in-a-representative-sample-of-sexual-minority-and-heterosexual-adults-receiving-health-care
#13
Keren Lehavot, John R Blosnich, Joseph E Glass, Emily C Williams
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of alcohol disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals in the general population, research has not examined whether there are disparities in receipt of alcohol screening and brief intervention - together considered one of the highest prevention priorities for US adults. This study examined differences in alcohol use and receipt of alcohol screening and brief intervention across sexual minority status. METHODS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2014 data from eight US states were used to estimate patterns of alcohol use and receipt of alcohol screening and brief intervention among persons reporting sexual orientation and a checkup in the last two years (N=47,800)...
August 2, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809727/models-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-potential-translational-value-the-effects-of-3-5-l-diiodothyronine
#14
Elena Grasselli, Laura Canesi, Piero Portincasa, Adriana Voci, Laura Vergani, Ilaria Demori
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in industrialized countries and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic diseases. Molecular mechanisms on the root of the disrupted lipid homeostasis in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies can benefit of in vivo and in vitro experimental models of fatty liver. Here, we describe the high fat diet (HFD)-fed rat in vivo model, and two in vitro models, the primary cultured rat fatty hepatocytes or the FaO rat hepatoma fatty cells, mimicking human NAFLD...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809726/clinical-and-laboratory-associations-with-persistent-hyperferritinemia-in-373-black-hemochromatosis-and-iron-overload-screening-study-participants
#15
James C Barton, J Clayborn Barton, Paul C Adams
BACKGROUND: 373 black participants had elevated screening and post-screening serum ferritin (SF) (> 300 μg/L men; > 200 μg/L women). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied SF and post-screening age; sex; body mass index; transferrin saturation (TS); ALT; AST; GGT; elevated C-reactive protein; ß-thalassemia; neutrophils; lymphocytes; monocytes; platelets; metacarpophalangeal joint hypertrophy; hepatomegaly; splenomegaly; diabetes; HFE H63D positivity; iron/alcohol intakes; and blood/erythrocyte transfusion units...
August 8, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809483/discrimination-and-enantiomeric-excess-determination-of-chiral-primary-amines-based-on-a-chiral-at-metal-ir-iii-complex-using-nmr-spectroscopy
#16
Li-Ping Li, Bao-Hui Ye
A three-component protocol involving enantiopure Δ-[Ir(ppy)2(MeCN)2](PF6) (ppy is 2-phenylpyridine) and salicylaldehyde as chiral auxiliaries was successfully applied to discriminate the absolute configuration and determine the enantiopurity of primary amines and amine alcohols via (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The assembly reaction is rapid and quantitative, generating a pair of diastereomers that can be determined directly without physical separation. Single crystal structural analyses indicate that the shielding effects on the ligands imposed by a pair of diastereomers are different and generate sufficient resolution NMR signals for identification...
August 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807841/racial-disparity-in-gastrointestinal-cancer-risk
#17
REVIEW
Hassan Ashktorab, Sonia S Kupfer, Hassan Brim, John M Carethers
Cancer from the gastrointestinal tract and its associated excretory organs will occur in over 300,000 Americans in 2017, with colorectal cancer responsible for over forty percent of that burden; there will be over 150,000 deaths from this group of cancers in the same time period. Disparities among subgroups related to these cancers' incidence and mortality exist. The epidemiology and risk factors associated with each cancer bear out differences for racial groups in the United States. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is more frequent in Non-Hispanic Whites, whereas esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with risk factors of tobacco and alcohol is more frequent among Blacks...
August 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807133/the-tense-the-hostile-and-the-distressed-multidimensional-psychosocial-risk-profiles-based-on-the-esc-interview-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-the-thoresci-study
#18
Eveline van Montfort, Johan Denollet, Jeroen K Vermunt, Jos Widdershoven, Nina Kupper
BACKGROUND: While single psychosocial factors have been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, it is still unclear how they cluster. Therefore, we examined whether latent multidimensional psychosocial risk profiles could be identified in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) psychosocial screening interview. Additionally we examined whether these profiles were associated with specific sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics. METHOD: 681 coronary artery disease patients (age=64...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805404/mixed-methods-evaluation-of-a-collaborative-care-implementation-using-re-aim
#19
Bethany M Kwan, Sanjay Chadha, Mika K Hamer, David Spagnolo, Sheila Kee
INTRODUCTION: Application of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework using mixed methods to evaluate a collaborative care practice implementation can inform the literature on real-world collaborative care experiences. METHOD: Two primary care practices serving Niagara Falls, NY, implemented collaborative care. Adults age 18 and over were screened at least annually for depression, anxiety, and alcohol use using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7), and the AUDIT alcohol consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C)...
August 14, 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804980/using-bayes-factors-to-evaluate-evidence-for-no-effect-examples-from-the-sips-project
#20
Zoltan Dienes, Simon Coulton, Nick Heather
AIMS: To illustrate how Bayes Factors are important for determining the effectiveness of interventions. METHOD: We consider a case where inappropriate conclusions were publicly drawn based on significance testing, namely the SIPS Project (Screening and Intervention Programme for Sensible drinking), a pragmatic, cluster-randomized controlled trial in each of two healthcare settings and in the criminal justice system. We show how Bayes Factors can disambiguate the non-significant findings from the SIPS Project and thus determine whether the findings represent evidence of absence or absence of evidence...
August 13, 2017: Addiction
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