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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636672/metabolomic-profile-and-nucleoside-composition-of-cordyceps-nidus-sp-nov-cordycipitaceae-a-new-source-of-active-compounds
#1
Juan Chiriví, Giovanna Danies, Rocio Sierra, Nicolas Schauer, Sandra Trenkamp, Silvia Restrepo, Tatiana Sanjuan
Cordyceps sensu lato is a genus of arthropod-pathogenic fungi, which have been used traditionally as medicinal in Asia. Within the genus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is the most coveted and expensive species in China. Nevertheless, harvesting wild specimens has become a challenge given that natural populations of the fungus are decreasing and because large-scale culture of it has not yet been achieved. The worldwide demand for products derived from cultivable fungal species with medicinal properties has increased recently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633900/analytical-and-clinical-performance-of-a-chikungunya-qrt-pcr-for-central-and-south-america
#2
Thomas Edwards, Leticia Del Carmen Castillo Signor, Christopher Williams, Clément Larcher, Mauricio Espinel, Jane Theaker, Evelin Donis, Luis E Cuevas, Emily R Adams
Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in 2015 causing a pandemic across the continent. Testing during the acute phase of infection relies on qRT-PCR, but available assays have a number of limitations. A qRT-PCR assay specific to the chikungunya E1 gene was designed using sequence data from contemporary strains. A probit analysis established the 95% limit of detection as 19.6 copies per reaction. We compared the assay with a US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) chikungunya qRT-PCR as the reference standard...
June 8, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632343/dispersal-isolation-and-diversification-with-continued-gene-flow-in-an-andean-tropical-dry-forest
#3
R Toby Pennington, Matt Lavin
The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628614/lamphimerus-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-detecting-amphimerus-sp-dna-in-human-stool-samples
#4
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, Cristina Fontecha-Cuenca, Hiromu Sugiyama, Megumi Sato, Julio López Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625111/successful-adaptation-of-a-research-methods-course-in-south-america
#5
Leonardo Tamariz, Diego Vasquez, Cecilia Loor, Ana Palacio
BACKGROUND: South America has low research productivity. The lack of a structured research curriculum is one of the barriers to conducting research. OBJECTIVE: To report our experience adapting an active learning-based research methods curriculum to improve research productivity at a university in Ecuador. DESIGN: We used a mixed-method approach to test the adaptation of the research curriculum at Universidad Catolica Santiago de Guayaquil...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624513/biodiversity-of-simulium-metallicum-sensu-lato-diptera-simuliidae-a-complex-of-neotropical-vectors-associated-with-human-onchocerciasis
#6
Peter H Adler, Art Borkent, Neusa Hamada, John W McCreadie
The polytene chromosomes of 130 larvae of the Neotropical Simulium metallicum complex from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Ecuador revealed five cytoforms, including three ('M', 'N', and 'O') that are new and two ('B' and 'J') that represent range extensions of up to 850km. The discovery of three new cytoforms brings the total number in the complex to 17. Cytoforms 'B', 'J', and 'N' are reproductively isolated from one another, and their species status is corroborated by morphological evidence. None of the three new cytoforms is known from current or historical onchocerciasis foci, although 'M' inhabits the periphery of the former Ecuadorian Santiago onchocerciasis focus a mere 30km to the west...
June 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623494/the-effects-of-pesticides-on-morphology-viability-and-germination-of-blackberry-rubus-glaucus-benth-and-tree-tomato-solanum-betaceum-cav-pollen-grains
#7
Flavio Padilla, Norman Soria, Abrahan Oleas, Darwin Rueda, Bangeppagari Manjunatha, Rajesh R Kundapur, Naga Raju Maddela, Bugude Rajeswari
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of application of pesticides on morphology, viability, and germination of pollen grains of Blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and Tree tomato (Solanum betaceum Cav.). The study was performed at Patate, Tungurahua province, Ecuador and was divided into two phases. Phase one dedicated to the study of morphology, viability, and identification of nutrient solution for better germination of pollen grains and phase two for the analysis of the effect of conventional, organic, and biological pesticides on pollen grain germination and pollen tube length...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614909/global-patterns-and-trends-in-stomach-cancer-incidence-age-period-and-birth-cohort-analysis
#8
Ganfeng Luo, Yanting Zhang, Pi Guo, Li Wang, Yuanwei Huang, Ke Li
The cases of stomach cancer (SC) incidence are increasing per year and the SC burden has remained very high in some countries. We aimed to evaluate the global geographical variation in SC incidence and temporal trends from 1978 to 2007, with an emphasis on the effect of birth cohort. Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort model were applied. From 2003 to 2007, male rate were 1.5- to 3-fold higher than female in all countries. Rates were highest in Eastern Asian and South American countries. Except for Uganda, all countries showed favorable trends...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614488/social-inequalities-in-maternal-mortality-among-the-provinces-of-ecuador
#9
Antonio Sanhueza, Jakeline Calle Roldán, Paulina Ríos-Quituizaca, Maria Cecilia Acuña, Isabel Espinosa
Objective: This study set out to describe the association between the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) estimates and a set of socioeconomic indicators and compute the MMR inequalities among the provinces of Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted, using data for 2014 from the country's 24 provinces. The MMR estimate was calculated for each province, as well as the association and its strength between MMR and specific socioeconomic indicators...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614475/-positioning-ecuador-in-the-global-health-agenda-as-a-result-of-sector-reform
#10
Cristina Luna, Carlos Andrés Emanuele, Daniel De La Torre
Objective: Analyze strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to position the country in the global health agenda during the period 2011-2015 as a result of health sector reform. Method: Documentary review and interviews with stakeholders in national and international agencies with respect to positioning in the global health sphere during the study period. Results: It was observed that the reform process produced a new framework to manage international health relations...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614474/-food-labeling-in-ecuador-implementation-results-and-pending-actions
#11
Adrián Alberto Díaz, Paula Mariana Veliz, Gabriela Rivas-Mariño, Carina Vance Mafla, Luz María Martínez Altamirano, Cecilia Vaca Jones
Noncommunicable diseases are the world's leading cause of death, responsible for 38 million deaths in 2012. This epidemic is primarily associated with smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and changes in dietary patterns, characterized by diets high in sugar and saturated fat, typical of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, plus low intake of fruits and vegetables. Ecuador is no exception to this epidemiological profile or to changes in eating patterns. Thus, Ecuador's government designed and implemented an action plan aimed at changing the obesogenic environment, which includes six strategic lines...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614473/-active-community-case-finding-for-uptake-of-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-in-ecuador
#12
Jakeline Calle Roldán, Cecilia Acuña, Paulina Ríos
Objective: Document and analyze Ecuador's experience using active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of information obtained on active community case-finding of pregnant and postpartum women in the catchment areas of 200 primary care facilities of Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. Results: Visits were made to 460 451 homes in 20 provinces; 15 622 pregnant women and 4 014 postpartum women were identified...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614472/-human-resources-for-health-in-ecuador-s-new-model-of-care
#13
Verónica Espinosa, Daniel de la Torre, Cecilia Acuña, Cristina Cadena
Objective: Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. Methods: A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. Results: In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614471/-payment-mechanisms-and-financial-resources-management-for-consolidation-of-ecuador-s-health-system
#14
Tatiana Villacrés, Ana Cristina Mena
Objective: Analyze the proposal by the Ministry of Public Health to reform the public financing model in Ecuador with regard to pooling of funds and payment mechanisms. Method: A literature review was done of the financing model, the current legal framework, and the budgetary bases in Pubmed, SciELO, LILACS Ecuador, and regional LILACS using the key words health financing, health financing systems, capitation, pooling of funds, health system reform Ecuador, health system Ecuador, and health payment mechanisms...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614470/-health-technology-assessment-in-ecuador-s-ministry-of-public-health-as-a-tool-for-drug-purchasing-from-2012-to-2015
#15
Luciana Armijos, Santiago Escalante, Tatiana Villacrés
Objective: Learn how the Ministry of Public Health (MSP, the Spanish acronym) of Ecuador uses health technology assessment (HTA) in decision-making on the purchase of drugs that are not on the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). Methods: Information from databases of the Health Intelligence Directorate (DIS, the Spanish acronym) and the National Directorate of Drugs and Medical Devices (DNMDM, the Spanish acronym), was used to compare decisions made by both entities, to learn about the use and consistency of HTA reports in decisions on purchasing drugs not included in the NLEM...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611408/phylogeography-of-petrolisthes-armatus-an-invasive-species-with-low-dispersal-ability
#16
Alexandra Hiller, Harilaos A Lessios
Theoretically, species with high population structure are likely to expand their range, because marginal populations are free to adapt to local conditions; however, meta-analyses have found a negative relation between structure and invasiveness. The crab Petrolisthes armatus has a wide native range, which has expanded in the last three decades. We sequenced 1718 bp of mitochondrial DNA from native and recently established populations to determine the population structure of the former and the origin of the latter...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610300/new-species-of-leaf-mining-nepticulidae-lepidoptera-from-the-neotropical-and-ando-patagonian-regions-with-new-data-on-host-plants
#17
Jonas R Stonis, Andrius Remeikis, Arūnas Diškus, Nick Megoran
The paper treats fifteen species of leaf-mining pygmy moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) discovered in the Neotropics (British Virgin Islands, Belize, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and Ecuador), and Ando-Patagonian region (Argentina and Chile). Except for two species, all belong to Stigmella Schrank. Twelve species are new, and are named and described in the current paper: Stigmella apicibrunella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. decora Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.; S. unicaudata Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov.; S...
May 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610292/the-species-of-hemiancistrus-siluriformes-loricariidae-from-ecuador
#18
Francisco Provenzano R, Ramiro Barriga S
At the Fish Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Biológicas, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, three species traditionally grouped in the genus Hemiancistrus were identified: H. annectens (Regan 1904), H. landoni Eigenmann 1916, and a new specie described here. The new species inhabits exclusively in the Esmeraldas River Basin, Pacific slope, northwestern Ecuador. It is easily recognized by the completely naked abdomen, with rounded, dark spots, and a different color pattern on the dorsal and caudal fins...
May 29, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610287/a-new-species-of-i-cornutalis-i-sakakibara-membracidae-smiliinae-acutalini-from-colombia
#19
Camilo Flórez-V
The genus Cornutalis Sakakibara currently includes two valid species, Cornutalis cauca Sakakibara, 1997 (from Colombia) and C. valida Sakakibara, 1997 (from Ecuador). Herein, a new species, Cornutalis andinum sp. n., is described from the highlands in Colombia; additionally, a host plant is recorded for the first time for the genus. Also, a distribution map, a key to the species, and observations on the location and preservation state of type-specimens are included.
May 30, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610283/two-new-species-of-parandrinae-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-the-genera-i-parandra-i-and-i-acutandra-i-from-south-america
#20
Steven W Lingafelter, Alexey K Tishechkin
Two new species of high-elevation Parandrinae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are described from Bolivia and Ecuador, South America. Both species are unusual in having piceous coloration over most of the dorsal surface. Parandra (Tavandra) santossilvai Lingafelter & Tishechkin, new species, is described from Achira, Santa Cruz Province, Bolivia, a site at 2,000 meters elevation. Acutandra caterinoi Lingafelter & Tishechkin, new species, is described from Pichincha Province, Ecuador, from sites between 1,900-2,500 meters...
May 30, 2017: Zootaxa
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