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Amaya Sánchez-Gómez, William Cevallos, Mario J Grijalva, Luis C Silva-Ayçaguer, Susana Tamayo, Jerry O Jacobson, Jaime A Costales, Rodrigo Jiménez-Garcia, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Suzanne Serruya, Celia Riera
Objectives: Prenatal care is a pillar of public health, enabling access to interventions including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and congenital syphilis. This paper describes social factors related to use of prenatal care in Ecuador. Methods: In 2011 and 2012, participant clinical history and interview information was analyzed from a national probability sample of 5 998 women presenting for delivery or miscarriage services in 15 healthcare facilities in Ecuador, to estimate prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and Chagas disease, and prenatal care coverage...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
José Ramos-Castañeda, Flavia Barreto Dos Santos, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araujo, Graham Joint, Elsa Sarti
Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4). A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
María Isabel Roldós, Phaedra Corso, Justin Ingels
CONTEXT: There is an established association between the provision of health care services and maternal mortality. In Ecuador, little is known if the societal value is greater than the resources expended in preventive medicine. AIMS: The purpose of this research is to investigate Ecuadorians' willingness to pay to prevent maternal death and disabilities due to complications of care during childbirth in the context of universal coverage. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study elicited a "contingent" market on morbidity and mortality outcomes, specific to Ecuador's epidemiologic profiles between a hypothetical market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal mortality from 100 to 50 per 100,000, and a market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal morbidity from 4,000 to 2,000 per 100,000...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
Paul Schutzmeier, Ursula Berger, Stephan Bose-O'Reilly
Mercury is a toxic metal and is used in small scale gold mining. In Portovelo, Ecuador, mercury has been an environmental and health problem for decades. The target of this study was to assess the mercury concentration in the urine of miners from Portovelo/Zaruma to establish a prevalence of high values. Eight hundred and sixty-five (865) urine samples were collected and analysed for their mercury content, using cold vapor atom absorption spectroscopy. The prevalence of high mercury values (>25 μg/L) was estimated...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Fausto López-Rodríguez, Daniel Rosado
Protected areas are home to biodiversity, habitats and ecosystem as well as a critical component of human well-being and a generator of leisure-related revenues. However, management is sometimes unsatisfactory and requires new ways of evaluation. Management effectiveness of 36 protected areas in southern Ecuador have been assessed. The protected areas belong to three categories: Heritage of Natural Areas of the Ecuadorian State (PANE), created and funded by the State, Areas of Forest and Protective Vegetation (ABVP), created but no funded by the State, and private reserves, declared and funded by private entities...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Monica Cartelle Gestal, Jeannete Zurita, Gabriela Gualpa, Cecibel Gonzalez, Ariane Paz Y Mino
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii (ABA) is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with high mortality rates in intensive care units (ICUs). An outbreak in the ICU of a secondary-level hospital in Quito, Ecuador, occurred during April and May 2015 and was successfully controlled. METHODOLOGY: Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and repetitive element palindromic (REP)-PCR was conducted on all isolates recovered from patients, as well as environmental samples, to confirm the presence of an outbreak...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Markus G Stetter, Thomas Müller, Karl J Schmid
The domestication syndrom comprises phenotypic changes that differentiate crops from their wild ancestors. We compared the genomic variation and phenotypic differentiation of the two putative domestication traits seed size and seed color of the grain amaranth Amaranthus caudatus, which is an ancient crop of South America, and its two close wild relatives and putative ancestors A. hybridus or A. quitensis. Genotyping 119 accessions of the three species from the Andean region using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) resulted in 9,485 SNPs that revealed a strong genetic differentiation of cultivated A...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Katherine B Burgess, Lydie I E Couturier, Andrea D Marshall, Anthony J Richardson, Scarla J Weeks, Michael B Bennett
The characterization of diet for the giant manta ray Manta birostris has been problematic given their large-scale movement patterns and the difficulty in obtaining stomach contents from this species. The large majority of existing information is based on observational data limited to feeding events at the sea surface during daylight. Recently discovered aggregation sites for the giant manta ray off mainland Ecuador are some of the most accessible to date and provide a unique opportunity for researchers to gather much needed information on this elusive species...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Fadya Orozco, Diana Ochoa, Maria Muquinche, Manuel Padro, Christopher L Melby
BACKGROUND: In 2014, Ecuador became the first country in Latin America to adopt the nutritional traffic light labeling system as a public policy aimed at guiding informed food choices. OBJECTIVE: To describe the differences in comprehension and use of the new nutrition label in 2 different ethnic populations residing in a limited resource area of central Ecuador. METHODS: A total of 394 women (18-75 years, 54.8% indigenous and 45.2% mixed-race mestizas) were randomly selected in the Chimborazo Province and were requested by a questionnaire to provide information regarding their awareness and comprehension of the traffic light nutritional labeling system and personal use of the food label in food selection...
January 1, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
C Rodríguez-Haro, M M Montes, P Marcotegui, S R Martorelli
A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species...
December 21, 2016: Acta Tropica
Patricia C Guerra, Clifford B Keil, Philip C Stevenson, Diego Mina, Servio Samaniego, Eduardo Peralta, Nelson Mazon, Timothy C B Chancellor
Delia platura Meigen is an important pest in crops around the world. Its host range includes almost 50 species, and it can develop in soil organic matter. In Ecuador, D. platura is a serious problem for the crop, Lupinus mutabilis Sweet (Chocho), and it also attacks broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.). After broccoli is harvested, crop residue is mixed with soil or collected and stored close to Chocho fields. The objectives of this study were to determine the adaptive responses of larvae reared on different hosts and whether D...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ricardo Chávez
Objective: Estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol in Ecuador using cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Urban and Rural Household Income and Expenditures (ENIGHUR is the acronym in Spanish) 2011-2012. Methods: ENIGHUR 2011-2012 data were used with Deaton's (1, 2) methodology to estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol with expenditure and quantity information. Household socioeconomic variables were also included...
October 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Raúl Harari, Florencia Harari, Francesco Forastiere
INTRODUCTION: Nickel is a strong skin and respiratory sensitizer and a recognized carcinogen. Oil refineries are important sources of atmospheric emissions of toxic pollutants, including nickel. Populations residing close to oil refineries are at potential risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to nickel in a population living close to the largest oil refinery in Ecuador, located in the city of Esmeraldas. METHODOLOGY: We recruited 47 workers from the oil refinery as well as 195 students from 4 different schools close to the plant and 94 students from another school 25 km far from the industry...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Bradley M Conrad, Matthew R Johnson
Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Carlos Andres Gallegos, William F Waters, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann
BACKGROUND: Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents...
December 18, 2016: International Health
Alejandro Valencia-Zuleta, Andrés Felipe Jaramillo-Martínez, Mario H Yánez-Muñoz
We redescribe Pristimantis colomai (Lynch & Duellman, 1997) on the basis of new specimens from Colombia and Ecuador. Also provide a new diagnosis, reassess its distribution, and describe the mating call for the first time. Besides the data in the original description, only is available for this species: (i) new records from Ecuador (Yánez-Muñoz et al. 2011) and (ii) molecular phylogenetic inferences that place this species in the Pristimantis ridens series (Hedges et al. 2008; Padial et al. 2014). Pristimantis colomai is currently classified as endangered due to its restrict distribution and habitat quality (Castro et al...
November 17, 2016: Zootaxa
Maria Helena M Galileo, Antonio Santos-Silva
Five new species are described from American fauna: Stizocera boliviensis and Sphaerion lingafelteri from Bolivia (Elaphidiini); Ectenessa wappesi from Panama (Ectenessini); Mecometopus martinsi from Peru and Ecuador (Clytini); Recchia volcanensis from Bolivia (Aerenicini). The new species are included in previous keys. Sphaerion rusticum Burmeister, 1865 is recorded from Bolivia for the first time.
November 20, 2016: Zootaxa
Antonio Santos-Silva, Juan Pablo Botero
Oreodera antonkozlovi, new species from Ecuador is described and illustrated. A key to species of Oreodera, currently known from Ecuador, is provided. Moreover, the following new country records are reported in Oreodera: O. basicretata (Brazil); O. cretata (Peru); O. sororcula (Brazil); O. wappesi (Costa Rica and Guatemala). Additionally, new state records from Brazil are added: O. bituberculata (Goiás); O. griseozonata (Amapá); O. melzeri (Amazonas).
November 23, 2016: Zootaxa
Jonas R Stonis, Andrius Remeikis, Arūnas Diškus, Virginijus Gerulaitis
On the basis of morphological studies of collection samples from the Andes (Ecuador, Peru and Argentina), we describe five new species of Stigmella Schrank (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): S. varispinella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Ecuador), S. olekarsholti Remeikis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. magnispinella Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Peru), S. dolia Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. patagonica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Argentina). All treated taxa belong to the newly designated S. magnispinella group...
December 1, 2016: Zootaxa
Marco Aurélio Bortoni, Eduardo Mitio Shimbori, Scott Richard Shaw, Carolina DA Silva Souza-Gessner, Angélica Maria Penteado-Dias
Orionis is a small Neotropical euphorine genus, currently in the tribe Perilitini. Although the biology of the genus is unknown, Orionis eximius (Muesebeck) was described from a single female specimen reared from a cocoon associated with Lantana camara. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of Orionis and the first records of the genus from South America and Thailand, with descriptions of three new species: O. brasiliensis sp. nov., O. ecuadoriensis sp. nov. and O. orientalis sp. nov. We also report the first record of O...
December 16, 2016: Zootaxa
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