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David Israel Garrido, Santiago Moises Garrido
Background and aims: Cancer is a leading cause of death in Ecuador with high social and economic impact. This study aims to determinate the influence of living at a high altitude on the risk of developing or dying from cancer among the Ecuadorian population. Methods: This is an ecological and epidemiological analysis of cancer mortality and prevalence rates, based on national data from the Ecuadorian National Statistics and Census Institute, corresponding to the period between 2005 and 2014...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Paola Ochoa
Interest in burnout has developed extensively worldwide, but there is scarce the literature regarding the consequences that new legal demands have on burnout and on organizational outcomes in physicians. The global context of the medical profession has been characterized in the recent years by changes in the employment patterns, profound intensification of work, and increment of labor flexibility. In this context, the study aims to analyze the influence of burnout on organizational outcomes in physicians, depending on new legal demands perception in Ecuador...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mehmet Aykur, Muhammet Karakavuk, Ayşegül Ünver, Hande Dağcı
Over the past decade, the number of international travels has increased. Hence, the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases has also increased. One of the risk infections is malaria; Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum species can be transmitted. The distribution of leishmaniasis cases has been reported from the south of USA to the north of Argentina. Approximately 57,000 cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis occur annually, and approximately 4000 visceral leishmaniasis cases are observed. It is reported that Chagas disease is endemic in 21 countries, and approximately 6 million people are affected every year...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
David Ortega-Paredes, Pedro Barba, Santiago Mena-López, Nathaly Espinel, Jeannete Zurita
Dissemination of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae is a major medical threat. Vegetables and fruits, which are usually consumed raw, are a very suitable pathway for the spread of these bacteria from farm-to-fork. However, limited information exists regarding resistant bacteria and epidemic clones that are disseminated in vegetables and tap water in South America. We processed a total of 90 samples in triplicate of nine typically consumed raw vegetables from a central municipal market, and tap water samples were processed from twenty-one locations in Quito, Ecuador...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Belén Marco-Crespo, Sharon Casapulla, Claudia Nieto-Sanchez, J Guillermo Gómez Urrego, Mario J Grijalva
This qualitative study engaged a group of young people in participatory research and evaluation activities in order to study to what extent engaging youth in health interventions can inform research and evaluation processes. We applied a youth participatory research and evaluation approach (PRE) to inform research and evaluation on the impact of a Chagas disease control program in southern Ecuador. Our main interest was to examine the methodological contributions of PRE to knowledge sharing for health intervention planning in the context of global health and neglected tropical diseases...
April 30, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Karla Cruz-Moreira, Fuad Huamán-Garaicoa, Gabriela Mena
The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge on oral cancer and level of preventive care among the population. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate 408 individuals through a face-to-face survey at Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil during the 2016 academic year. Sixty-one percent (61%) of respondents said they knew of the existence of oral cancer, but 56.1% did not know that 'white spots' in the oral cavity could become malignant, and 50.7% did not know that 'lumps'could be oral cancer...
December 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Lingling Ye, Hiroo Kanamori, Thorne Lay
Despite the surge of great earthquakes along subduction zones over the last decade and advances in observations and analysis techniques, it remains unclear whether earthquake complexity is primarily controlled by persistent fault properties or by dynamics of the failure process. We introduce the radiated energy enhancement factor (REEF), given by the ratio of an event's directly measured radiated energy to the calculated minimum radiated energy for a source with the same seismic moment and duration, to quantify the rupture complexity...
March 2018: Science Advances
Vinicio Santillán, Marta Quitián, Boris A Tinoco, Edwin Zárate, Matthias Schleuning, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Eike Lena Neuschulz
Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of species assemblages is a main challenge in ecology. The mechanisms that shape species assemblages and their temporal fluctuations along tropical elevational gradients are particularly poorly understood. Here, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of bird assemblages along an elevational gradient in Ecuador. We conducted bird point counts at three elevations (1000, 2000 and 3000 m) on 18 1-ha plots and repeated the sampling eight times over two years (216 hours in total)...
2018: PloS One
Manuel Calvopina, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Melina Rendon, Hidekazu Takagi, Hiromu Sugiyama
To determine that Paragonimus sp. is actively transmitted in a tropical area of the Pacific region of Ecuador where human cases of pulmonary paragonimiasis have recently been documented, a total of 75 freshwater crabs were collected from 2 different streams in the Pedernales area of Manabí Province, Ecuador. All collected crabs were identified as Hypolobocera guayaquilensis based on morphological characteristics of the male gonopods. The hepatopancreas of each crab was examined by compressing it between 2 glass plates followed by observation under a stereomicroscope...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Karla B Jaramillo, Miriam Reverter, Paul O Guillen, Grace McCormack, Jenny Rodriguez, Frédéric Sinniger, Olivier P Thomas
Zoantharians represent a group of marine invertebrates widely distributed from shallow waters to the deep sea. Despite a high diversity and abundance in the rocky reefs of the Pacific Ocean, very few studies have been reported on the diversity of this group in the Tropical Eastern Pacific coasts. While molecular techniques recently clarified some taxonomic relationships within the order, the taxonomy of zoantharians is still highly challenging due to a lack of clear morphological characters and confusing use of different data in previous studies...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rodrigo Hucke-Gaete, Luis Bedriñana-Romano, Francisco A Viddi, Jorge E Ruiz, Juan Pablo Torres-Florez, Alexandre N Zerbini
Background: The most traditional scheme for migration among baleen whales comprises yearly migrations between productive waters at high latitude summer feeding grounds and warmer waters at lower latitudes where whales calve and mate, but rarely feed. Evidence indicates, however, that large departures from this scheme exist among populations and individuals. Furthermore, for some populations there is virtually no information on migratory pathways and destinations. Such is the case of Chilean blue whales throughout the Eastern South Pacific; hence, the goal of this study was to assess its migratory behavior...
2018: PeerJ
Francisco Bravo, Bernardo Gontijo
Gnathostomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the third larval stage of nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. The disease is endemic in some countries around the world. In the American continent, the majority of cases is concentrated in Mexico, Ecuador, and Peru. However, due to increasing traveling either at the intercontinental or intracontinental level, the disease is seen each time more frequently in tourists. Furthermore, countries, such as Brazil, that have never been considered endemic are reporting autochthonous cases...
March 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Jose García-Arroyo, Amparo Osca Segovia
Burnout is a highly prevalent globalized health issue that causes significant physical and psychological health problems. In Latin America research on this topic has increased in recent years, however there are no studies comparing results across countries, nor normative reference cut-offs. The present meta-analysis examines the intensity of burnout (emotional exhaustion, cynicism and personal accomplishment) in 58 adult nonclinical samples from 8 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela)...
May 2, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ana Quevedo, Cecilia Condo, Gilda Valenzuela, Lucy Molina, Eduardo Castillo, Ana Palacio, Denisse Pareja, Guillermo Prado, Yannine Estrada, Maria Rosa Velazquez, Leonardo Tamariz
The informed consent comprehension process is key to engaging potential research subject participation.. The aim of this study is to compare informed consent comprehension between two methods: standard and video-delivered. We compared the in-person and video-delivered informed consent process in the Familias Unidas intervention. We evaluated comprehension using a 7-item true/false questionnaire. There were a total of 152 participants in the control group and 87 in the experimental.. General characteristics were similar between both groups (p>0...
May 2, 2018: Accountability in Research
Wilson Chicaiza-Ayala, Aquiles R Henríquez-Trujillo, Esteban Ortiz-Prado, Richard W Douce, Marco Coral-Almeida
BACKGROUND: Burden of disease studies intend to improve public health decision-making and to measure social and economic impact in population. The objective of this study was to describe the burden of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Ecuador between 2011 and 2015. METHODS: Five-year period morbidity and mortality data available from national agencies of statistics was analyzed to estimate the burden of disease attributable to acute respiratory infections. Cases and deaths registered were grouped according to their ICD-10 code into three diagnostic groups: Acute upper respiratory infections (J00-J06), Influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18), and Bronchitis and other acute lower respiratory infections (J20-J22, J85, J86)...
2018: PloS One
Jocelyn Champagnon, Jean-Dominique Lebreton, Hugh Drummond, David J Anderson
Understanding and modeling population change is urgently needed to predict effects of climate change on biodiversity. High trophic-level organisms are influenced by fluctuations of prey quality and abundance, which themselves may depend on climate oscillations. Modeling effects of such fluctuations is challenging because prey populations may vary with multiple climate oscillations occurring at different time scales. The analysis of a 28-yr time series of capture-recapture data of a tropical seabird, the Nazca Booby (Sula granti), in the Galápagos, Ecuador, allowed us to test for demographic effects of two major ocean oscillations occurring at distinct time-scales: the inter-annual El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and inter-decadal oscillations...
May 2018: Ecology
Juan C Sánchez-Nivicela, Elvis Celi-Piedra, Valentina Posse-Sarmiento, Verónica L Urgiles, Mario Yánez-Muñoz, Diego F Cisneros-Heredia
A new species of Pristimantis is described from the highland paramos on the eastern slopes of the Cajas Massif, southern Andes of Ecuador, at 3400 m. This new species is characterized by having a distinctive reddish color, cutaneous macroglands in suprascapular region and surfaces of arm and legs, and by lacking dentigerous processes of vomers. The cutaneous macroglands are similar to those exhibited by several species of the Pristimantis orcesi group, and may suggest a close phylogenetic relationship. The new species could be a latitudinal substitution of Pristimantis orcesi in the southern Andes of Ecuador...
2018: ZooKeys
Rosa de Los Ángeles Bayas-Rea, Fernando Félix, Rommel Montufar
The common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus , is widely distributed along the western coast of South America. In Ecuador, a resident population of bottlenose dolphins inhabits the inner estuarine area of the Gulf of Guayaquil located in the southwestern part of the country and is under threat from different human activities in the area. Only one genetic study on South American common bottlenose dolphins has been carried out to date, and understanding genetic variation of wildlife populations, especially species that are identified as threatened, is crucial for defining conservation units and developing appropriate conservation strategies...
2018: PeerJ
Ana L Moncayo, Raquel Lovato, Philip J Cooper
OBJECTIVE: The estimation of prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections at a country-level is an essential prerequisite for the implementation of a rational control programme. The aim of this present study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of STH infections and malnutrition in school-age children in rural areas of Ecuador. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012. SETTING: Eighteen rural schools were randomly selected from the three ecological regions of Ecuador (coastal, highlands and Amazon basin)...
April 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Fernanda Barbosa Piló, Enrique Javier Carvajal-Barriga, Maria Cristina Guamán-Burneo, Patricia Portero-Barahona, Arthur Matoso Morato Dias, Larissa Falabella Daher de Freitas, Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes, Carlos Augusto Rosa
Chicha, a type of beer made mainly with maize or cassava, is a traditional fermented beverage of the Andean region. There have only been a few studies on yeasts associated with chicha fermentation, and the species diversity occurring during the production of this beverage is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the biodiversity of yeasts in chicha, and to characterize the Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations associated with the production of chicha de jora, seven-grain chicha, chicha de yuca, and chicha de morocho in Ecuador...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
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