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Fernando Domínguez-Castro, José Manuel Vaquero, María Cruz Gallego, Ana María Marín Farrona, Juan Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Erika Elizabeth Cevallos, Ricardo García Herrera, Cristina de la Guía, Raúl David Mejía, José Manuel Naranjo, María Del Rosario Prieto, Luis Enrique Ramos Guadalupe, Lizardo Seiner, Ricardo Machado Trigo, Marcos Villacís
This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Data
Joke Torbeyns, Gina Bojorque, Jo Van Hoof, Daniël Van Nijlen, Lieven Verschaffel
Recent evidence indicates that young children's spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) uniquely contributes to their early numerical abilities. This study complements previous findings by validating the relation between young children's SFON and their early numerical abilities in a developing country, namely Ecuador. We analysed 355 Ecuadorian 5- to 6-year-olds' SFON in relation to their early numerical abilities at the start of kindergarten, controlling for children's socio-demographic (socio-economic status, age) and general cognitive (working memory, intelligence) characteristics...
November 14, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Miguel Alonso, Edinaldo N Dos Santos-Silva, Damià Jaume
Notodiaptomus cannarensissp. n. is described from a reservoir on the Amazonian slope of the Ecuadorian Andes. The new species is unique among diaptomid calanoid copepods in the display of hypertrophied, symmetrical wing-like extensions at each side of the female composite genital somite. Furthermore, it displays a female urosome reduced to only two somites due to the incorporation of abdominal somites III and IV to the composite genital double-somite, and a male right fifth leg with the outer spine of second exopodal segment recurved and implanted proximally on margin...
2017: ZooKeys
Miguel Reina Ortiz, Nicole K Le, Vinita Sharma, Ismael Hoare, Edy Quizhpe, Enrique Teran, Eknath Naik, Hamisu M Salihu, Ricardo Izurieta
A recent major earthquake (M7.8), coupled with appropriate climatic conditions, led to significant destruction in Ecuador. Temperature variations, which may be induced by anthropogenic climate change, are often associated with changes in rainfall, humidity and pressure. Temperature and humidity are associated with ecological modifications that may favour mosquito breeding. We hypothesized that the disruptive ecological changes triggered by the earthquake, in the context of appropriate climatic conditions, led to an upsurge in Zika virus (ZIKV) infections...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guntars O Martinson, Bianca Pommerenke, Franziska B Brandt, Jürgen Homeier, Juan Ignacio Burneo, Ralf Conrad
Several thousands of tank bromeliads per hectare of neotropical forest create a unique wetland ecosystem that emits substantial amounts of CH4 . Tank bromeliads growing in the forest canopy (functional type-II tank bromeliads) were found to emit more CH4 than tank bromeliads growing on the forest floor (functional type-I tank bromeliads) but the reasons for this difference and the underlying microbial CH4-cycling processes have not been studied. Therefore, we characterized archaeal communities in bromeliad tanks of the two different functional types in a neotropical montane forest of southern Ecuador using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and performed tank-slurry incubations to measure CH4 production potential, stable carbon isotope fractionation and pathway of CH4 formation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Ernesto Rázuri-Gonzales, Ralph W Holzenthal, Blanca Ríos-Touma
Two new species in the rare, endemic Neotropical caddisfly genus Amphoropsyche Holzenthal, 1985 are described from Ecuador (A. carchisp. n.) and Peru (A. matsigenkasp. n.) bringing to 17 the number of species known in the genus. Almost all species are known from only a few individuals and from even fewer localities. The new species belong to a group of 10 other species that have tergum X in the male genitalia divided into a mesal process and a pair of lateral processes. Amphoropsyche carchi can be separated from those species by the rounded mesal concavity, the short mesobasal lobe, and the short 2nd article of the inferior appendage, while A...
2017: ZooKeys
C V Colindres, E Bryce, P Coral-Rosero, R M Ramos-Soto, F Bonilla, A Yassi
BACKGROUND: Nurses are frequently exposed to transmissible infections, yet adherence to infection control measures is suboptimal. There has been inadequate research into how the psychosocial work environment affects compliance with infection control measures, especially in low- and middle-income countries. AIM: To examine the association between effort-reward imbalance, burnout and adherence to infection control measures among nurses in Ecuador. INTRODUCTION: A cross-sectional study linking psychosocial work environment indicators to infection control adherence...
November 7, 2017: International Nursing Review
Ralph W Holzenthal, Blanca Ríos-Touma, Ernesto Rázuri-Gonzales
The genus Contulma Flint (Trichoptera: Anomalopsychidae) is composed mostly of regionally endemic species occurring above 2,000 m, with a few more widespread species and some that are found at lower elevations. Adults of three new species of Contulma are described and illustrated from the Andes of Ecuador, Contulma lina, new species, Contulma quito, new species, and Contulma sangay, new species. These species are similar to previously described species from the region, including C. paluguillensis, C. nevada, and C...
2017: PeerJ
William E Rudgard, Carlton A Evans, Sedona Sweeney, Tom Wingfield, Knut Lönnroth, Draurio Barreira, Delia Boccia
BACKGROUND: Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a "TB-specific" approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a "TB-sensitive" approach)...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
Lourdes Huiracocha, Carlos Almeida, Karina Huiracocha, Jorge Arteaga, Andrea Arteaga, Stuart Blume
Most studies of parenting children with Down syndrome (DS) have been conducted in industrialized countries. They suggest that sensitive communication on the part of professionals, and social support, can lead to acceptance and positive adjustments in the family. This study examined the impact of a diagnosis of DS on Ecuadorian families, in particular at how the diagnosis had been communicated and received, as well as the feelings and experiences which followed. Despite considerable progress in recent years, Ecuador is still marked by discriminatory attitudes which affect children with disabilities and their families, and by the persistence of widespread poverty...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
F Aguirre P, A Coca, M F Aguirre, G Celis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and the presence of vascular inflammation in apparently-normal children (10-15 years) of both sexes in Guayaquil, Ecuador. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 395 apparently-healthy students from a middle-income school in a cross-sectional survey. Informed consent was obtained from students and parents. Anthropometric measurements including blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and blood tests were recorded...
November 3, 2017: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
Stefania Brandini, Paola Bergamaschi, Marco Fernando Cerna, Francesca Gandini, Francesca Bastaroli, Emilie Bertolini, Cristina Cereda, Luca Ferretti, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Vincenza Battaglia, Antonio Salas, Ornella Semino, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri, Antonio Torroni
Recent and compelling archaeological evidence attests to human presence ∼14.5 thousand years ago (Kya) at multiple sites in South America and a very early exploitation of extreme high-altitude Andean environments. Considering that, according to genetic evidence, human entry into North America from Beringia most likely occurred ∼16 Kya, these archeological findings would imply an extremely rapid spread along the double continent. To shed light on this issue from a genetic perspective, we first completely sequenced 217 novel modern mitogenomes of Native American ancestry from the northwestern area of South America (Ecuador and Peru); we then evaluated them phylogenetically together with other available mitogenomes (430 samples, both modern and ancient) from the same geographic area and, finally, with all closely related mitogenomes from the entire double continent...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Nadia Montero-Oleas, Solange Núñez-González, Daniel Simancas-Racines
AIM: This study was aimed to describe the gastric cancer mortality trend, and to analyze the spatial distribution of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015. METHODS: Data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) database. Crude gastric cancer mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and indirect standardized mortality rates (ISMRs) were calculated per 100,000 persons. For time trend analysis, joinpoint regression was used...
October 30, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Juliano Calil, Borja G Reguero, Ana R Zamora, Iñigo J Losada, Fernando J Méndez
As the world's population grows to a projected 11.2 billion by 2100, the number of people living in low-lying areas exposed to coastal hazards is projected to increase. Critical infrastructure and valuable assets continue to be placed in vulnerable areas, and in recent years, millions of people have been displaced by natural hazards. Impacts from coastal hazards depend on the number of people, value of assets, and presence of critical resources in harm's way. Risks related to natural hazards are determined by a complex interaction between physical hazards, the vulnerability of a society or social-ecological system and its exposure to such hazards...
2017: PloS One
Lora L Iannotti, Chessa K Lutter, William F Waters, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, Santiago Aguirre, Luis Narvaez, Fernando López, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Hideji Fujiwara, Daniel S Ory, Rebecca Young, Christine P Stewart
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids.Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Jorge Reyes, Viviana Quezada, Carolina Satán, Nelson Cevallos, Sofía Barrera, Gabriel Trueba, Luis E Escobar, José E Villacís
OBJECTIVES: To describe a clinical case of Klebsiella pneumoniae harboring New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) plasmid in Ecuador and to present a map of reports of NDM isolates in South America. METHODS: We used the Modified Hodge Test, Carbapenem Inactivation Method, the synergy with imipenem-EDTA disk method, and Rapidec Carba NP for identification of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. The presence of resistant genes was explored with a conjugation assay, and molecular confirmation of NDM with PCR and DNA sequencing...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Juan P Román, Fernanda García, Doris Medina, Manolo Vásquez, José García, Matthew R Graham, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Pedro P de Oliveira Pardal, Edna A Y Ishikawa, Adolfo Borges
Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported...
October 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
John Barba-Pacheco, Gutenberg Navarro, Diego Gonzalez-Rivas, Fernando Polit, Pamela Wong, Fabrizio Nieto, Manuel Romero, Jaime Carrera, Jonathan Villacis, Martha J Zambrano, Karina Bravo, Renee Velastegui, Freddy Rodríguez, Manuel Reyes, Silvia Cullacay, Ramiex Cercado, Sara Salvatierra
Currently video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the evolution Uniportal VATS have a worldwide acceptance and Ecuador is not exception when we decided invited to Dr. Diego Gonzalez-Rivas pioneer surgeon in the world of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic procedures, with the aim to provide a faster recovery of the patients compared to those who received a conventional thoracotomy. We thanks the opportunity to present a report to the first Masterclass in Uniportal VATS with live surgery, performed on February 23(rd) to 24(th) of 2017 at the Luis Vernaza Hospital in Guayaquil-Ecuador...
2017: J Vis Surg
Andrea Ariani, Jorge Berny Mier Y Teran, Paul Gepts
The wild progenitor of common-bean has an exceptionally large distribution from northern Mexico to northwestern Argentina, unusual among crop wild progenitors. This research sought to document major events of range expansion that led to this distribution and associated environmental changes. Through the use of genotyping-by-sequencing (~20,000 SNPs) and geographic information systems applied to a sample of 246 accessions of wild P. vulgaris , including 157 genotypes of the Mesoamerican, 77 of the southern Andean and 12 of the Northern Peru-Ecuador gene pools, we identified five geographically distinct subpopulations...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
J C Eiras, G C Pavanelli, R M Takemoto, Y Nawa
Fish-borne zoonotic nematodes may infect humans when fish or squid are ingested raw or inadequately cooked. Human infections may have serious consequences, including the unexpected deaths of infected people. This kind of disease is poorly known in general, and the characteristics of such infections in South American countries as a whole have never been assessed. In this paper the present status of fish-borne nematodiases in humans in South American countries is characterized. Potentially zoonotic nematode species are very common in both freshwater and marine fish in South America...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
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