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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943713/does-the-timing-of-suicide-risk-assessments-influence-ratings-of-risk-severity
#1
Carol Chu, Kimberly A Van Orden, Jessica D Ribeiro, Thomas E Joiner
Clinicians are often tasked with identifying and managing patients who are at risk for suicide. Therefore, greater understanding of factors that impact the efficacy of suicide risk assessments (SRA) are of critical importance. One potential factor that may affect assessments of risk severity is the timing of the evaluation during clinical interview. Given that some patients are reluctant to disclose suicide-related symptoms, it is possible that asking about suicide at the beginning of an interview elicits more false negatives...
April 2017: Professional Psychology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942954/serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-subjects-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-previous-suicide-attempt-a-population-based-study
#2
Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Cristiane Jackson Borges, Carolina David Wiener, Paula Moraes da Silva, Luis Valmor Portela, Diogo R Lara, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza, Karen Jansen, Jean Pierre Oses
Major depressive disorders (MDD) and suicide are significant public health concerns. Recent studies have been demonstrated that alterations in Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) can be associated with this psychiatric disorders, MDD and suicide. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate differences in serum levels in individuals with MDD and with or without suicide attempt (SA), from a population-based sample. This was a paired cross-sectional study nested in a population-based study. The psychopathology screen was performed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942743/genetic-risk-scores-and-family-history-as-predictors-of-schizophrenia-in-nordic-registers
#3
Y Lu, J G Pouget, O A Andreassen, S Djurovic, T Esko, C M Hultman, A Metspalu, L Milani, T Werge, P F Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Family history is a long-standing and readily obtainable risk factor for schizophrenia (SCZ). Low-cost genotyping technologies have enabled large genetic studies of SCZ, and the results suggest the utility of genetic risk scores (GRS, direct assessments of inherited common variant risk). Few studies have evaluated family history and GRS simultaneously to ask whether one can explain away the other. METHODS: We studied 5959 SCZ cases and 8717 controls from four Nordic countries...
September 25, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937803/hip-arthroscopy-for-femoroacetabular-impingement-in-a-military-population
#4
Darren D Thomas, Andrew S Bernhardson, Ethan Bernstein, Christopher B Dewing
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can lead to hip pain and early joint degeneration. There have been few reports to date on the outcomes of hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAI in the military population. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare patient demographics with postoperative outcomes after hip arthroscopy for symptomatic FAI and to identify preoperative risk factors for poor outcomes. The hypothesis was that certain preoperative patient characteristics will be predictive of poorer outcomes and that lower outcomes scores will be associated with a higher likelihood of medical separation from the military...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937468/psychogenic-low-back-pain-and-hysterical-paralysis-in-adolescence
#5
Tsukasa Kanchiku, Hidenori Suzuki, Yasuaki Imajo, Yuichiro Yoshida, Norihiro Nishida, Toshihiko Taguchi
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes in adolescents diagnosed with psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis and to evaluate the efficacy of differential diagnosis methods. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence of low-back pain in adolescence is similar to that in adults, but the causes of low-back pain are difficult to determine in most cases. For these patients, a definitive diagnosis of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis as well as adequate treatment are clinically important to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment...
October 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937333/provider-prioritized-domains-of-quality-in-pediatric-home-based-hospice-and-palliative-care-a-study-of-the-ohio-pediatric-palliative-care-and-end-of-life-network
#6
Rachel Thienprayoon, Melissa San Julian Mark, Daniel Grossoehme
BACKGROUND: Children receiving hospice and palliative care (HPC) differ from adults in important ways. Children are more likely to have rare diagnoses, less likely to have cancer, have longer lengths of stay on hospice, and are more likely to be technology dependent than adults. The National Consensus Project (NCP) in Palliative Care established domains of quality for HPC, but these domains have not been evaluated for applicability in children. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish consensus stakeholder-prioritized domains of high-quality pediatric home-based hospice and palliative care (HBHPC)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936821/-forensic-psychiatric-assessment-with-the-claim-of-incitement-solicitation-assistance-to-suicide-and-reinforcement-of-suicide-decision-a-case-report
#7
Altan Eşsizoğlu, Mustafa Sercan
Although the act of suicide is not considered a crime in Turkish Criminal Law, any contribution (incitement, solicitation, assistance and reinforcement of suicide decision) to the commitment of suicide is a crime according to the 84th item. However, the number of cases opened with respect to this item as well as request for forensic psychiatric expertise is very rare. In these cases, forensic psychiatric expertise depends on the psychiatric evaluation of the individual that committed suicide and the analysis of his/her relationship with the person that incited the suicide...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933013/role-of-ramelteon-in-reduction-of-as-needed-antipsychotics-in-elderly-patients-with-delirium-in-a-general-hospital-setting
#8
Aaron Pinkhasov, Sara A James, Melissa Fazzari, Deepan Singh, Sum Lam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Abnormalities in melatonin levels have been linked to delirium. This dysregulation may be offset with the use of ramelteon, a melatonin receptor agonist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ramelteon in decreasing the need for as-needed (PRN) use of antipsychotics in elderly patients with delirium. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study involving 488 patients who were placed on constant observation and received care by psychiatric service from May 2015 through October 2015...
September 20, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931645/comorbidity-in-multiple-sclerosis-is-associated-with-diagnostic-delays-and-increased-mortality
#9
Anja Thormann, Per Soelberg Sørensen, Nils Koch-Henriksen, Bjarne Laursen, Melinda Magyari
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of chronic comorbidity on the time of diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and on mortality in MS. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, nationwide cohort study including all incident MS cases in Denmark with first MS symptom between 1980 and 2005. To investigate the time of diagnosis, we compared individuals with and without chronic comorbidity using multinomial logistic regression. To investigate mortality, we used Cox regression with time-dependent covariates, following study participants from clinical MS onset until endpoint (death) or to the end of the study, censuring at emigration...
September 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931385/internet-use-ehealth-literacy-and-attitudes-toward-computer-internet-among-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study-in-two-distant-european-regions
#10
Christina Athanasopoulou, Maritta Välimäki, Katerina Koutra, Eliisa Löttyniemi, Antonios Bertsias, Maria Basta, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Christos Lionis
BACKGROUND: Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders use the Internet for general and health-related purposes. Their ability to find, understand, and apply the health information they acquire online in order to make appropriate health decisions - known as eHealth literacy - has never been investigated. The European agenda strives to limit health inequalities and enhance mental health literacy. Nevertheless, each European member state varies in levels of Internet use and online health information-seeking...
September 20, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931220/race-ethnicity-and-the-pharmacogenetics-of-reported-suicidality-with-efavirenz-among-clinical-trials-participants
#11
Katie R Mollan, Camlin Tierney, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Joseph J Eron, Michael G Hudgens, Roy M Gulick, Richard Haubrich, Paul E Sax, Thomas B Campbell, Eric S Daar, Kevin R Robertson, Diana Ventura, Qing Ma, Digna R Velez Edwards, David W Haas
Background: We examined associations between suicidality and genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure among AIDS Clinical Trials Group study participants in the United States. Methods: Four clinical trials randomly assigned treatment-naive participants to efavirenz-containing regimens; suicidality was defined as reported suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide. Genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure were defined by CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929992/mood-disorders-and-circulating-levels-of-inflammatory-markers-in-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#12
J Glaus, R von Känel, A M Lasserre, M-P F Strippoli, C L Vandeleur, E Castelao, M Gholam-Rezaee, C Marangoni, E-Y N Wagner, P Marques-Vidal, G Waeber, P Vollenweider, M Preisig, K R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with mood disorders. However, the findings have been inconsistent because of heterogeneity across studies and methodological limitations. Our aim is to prospectively evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mood disorders. METHODS: The sample consisted of 3118 participants (53...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928677/virtual-reality-objectifies-the-diagnosis-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Martine J van Bennekom, Pelle P de Koning, Damiaan Denys
BACKGROUND: To date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR) creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927773/-school-refusal-psychopathological-profiles-of-adolescents-followed-in-a-day-hospital-setting
#14
J Romani, S Campredon, D Da Fonseca
INTRODUCTION: School refusal appeared when formal education became compulsory in 1882, with the Jules Ferry laws. In international psychiatric classifications, school refusal does not appear as a diagnosis by itself, but it co-exists and is inherent to the symptoms of other psychiatric conditions, in particular of anxiety and depressive disorders. The main goal of this study was to describe psychopathological disorders in teenagers presenting school refusal followed in a day hospital setting...
September 15, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925637/hair-loss-common-causes-and-treatment
#15
T Grant Phillips, W Paul Slomiany, Robert Allison
Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically...
September 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925334/comparative-patient-satisfaction-and-feasibility-of-a-pilot-parkinson-s-disease-enrichment-program
#16
Tabina K Choudhury, Celeste Harris, Kathleen Crist, Terry K Satterwhite, Michele K York
BACKGROUND: Available treatment options for Parkinson's disease (PD) are primarily aimed at pharmacological and/or neurosurgical management of motor symptoms. However, many patients also experience chronic non-motor symptoms (NMS), including significant cognitive and mood changes. Currently, there is a gap in the neuropsychological literature regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatment options for cognitive and mood changes in PD. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the efficacy and patient satisfaction of a pilot nonpharmacological intervention for alleviating NMS in patients with PD...
September 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924006/the-neural-basis-of-aversive-pavlovian-guidance-during-planning
#17
Níall Lally, Quentin J M Huys, Neir Eshel, Paul Faulkner, Peter Dayan, Jonathan P Roiser
Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. Evaluating every possible combination of choices is computationally intractable, particularly for longer multi-step decisions. Therefore, humans frequently employ heuristics to reduce the complexity of decisions. We recently used a goal-directed planning task to demonstrate the profound behavioral influence and ubiquity of one such shortcut, namely aversive pruning, a reflexive Pavlovian process that involves neglecting parts of the decision space residing beyond salient negative outcomes...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923721/evidence-of-sexual-dimorphism-of-htr1b-gene-on-major-adult-adhd-comorbidities
#18
Diana Müller, Eugenio H Grevet, Alana C Panzenhagen, Renata B Cupertino, Bruna S da Silva, Djenifer B Kappel, Nina R Mota, Paula Blaya-Rocha, Stefania P Teche, Eduardo S Vitola, Luis A Rohde, Verônica Contini, Diego L Rovaris, Jaqueline B Schuch, Claiton H D Bau
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a very common psychiatric disorder across the life cycle and frequently presents comorbidities. Since ADHD is highly heritable, several studies have focused in the underlying genetic factors involved in its etiology. One of the major challenges in this search is the phenotypic heterogeneity, which could be partly attributable to the sexual dimorphism frequently seen in psychiatric disorders. Taking into account the well-known sexual dimorphic effect observed in serotonergic system characteristics, we differentially tested the influence of HTR1B SNPs (rs11568817, rs130058, rs6296 and rs13212041) on ADHD susceptibility and on its major comorbidities according to sex...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923189/gender-differences-in-sleep-disorders-in-the-us-military
#19
Shannon N Foster, Shana L Hansen, Dale C Capener, Panagiotis Matsangas, Vincent Mysliwiec
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to compare sleep disorders between male and female military personnel. Comorbid behavioral health disorders and chronic pain were also studied in relation to sleep disorders. DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective review of military personnel who underwent a sleep medicine evaluation and an in-laboratory attended polysomnography. Initial sleep questionnaires, demographics, polysomnographic variables, and comorbid disorders of interest were reviewed and compared for each sex...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#20
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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