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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340444/comparative-effectiveness-of-dual-action-versus-single-action-antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#1
Jon C Mills, Jeffrey S Harman, Robert L Cook, Nicole M Marlow, Christopher A Harle, R Paul Duncan, Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence
BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little is known about the comparative effectiveness between different types of antidepressants used to treat depression in this population. We compared the effectiveness of dual-action and single-action antidepressants in PLWHA for achieving remission from depression. METHODS: We used data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic Systems to identify 1175 new user dual-action or single-action antidepressant treatment episodes occurring from 2005 to 2014 for PLWHA diagnosed with depression...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340122/potential-role-of-patients-cyp3a-status-in-clozapine-pharmacokinetics
#2
Katalin Tóth, Gábor Csukly, Dávid Sirok, Ales Belic, Ádám Kiss, Edit Háfra, Máté Déri, Ádám Menus, István Bitter, Katalin Monostory
Background: The atypical antipsychotic clozapine is effective in treatment-resistant schizophrenia; however, the success or failure of clozapine therapy is substantially affected by the variables that impact the clozapine blood concentration. Thus, elucidating the inter-individual differences in clozapine pharmacokinetics can facilitate the personalized therapy. Methods: Since potential role in clozapine metabolism is assigned to CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes, the association between the patients' CYP-status (CYP genotypes, CYP expression) and clozapine clearance was evaluated in 92 psychiatric patients...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338611/disability-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-men-referred-for-treatment-with-work-related-problems-to-primary-mental-health-care
#3
S Kathleen Bailey, Christopher J Mushquash, John M Haggarty
The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge...
March 24, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338545/risperidone-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-children-and-adolescents-clinical-and-instrumental-issues
#4
Emilia Matera, Lucia Margari, Vincenzo Ostilio Palmieri, Giuseppina Zagaria, Roberto Palumbi, Francesco Margari
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Although second-generation antipsychotics are used to treat and manage symptoms for several psychiatric disorders, data about their adverse effects in developmental age are limited. The aim of this prospective observational study was to verify the cardiovascular and metabolic risk in a sample of antipsychotic-naive children/adolescent patients starting risperidone therapy. METHODS: Twenty-two patients, younger than 18 years, were recruited. The assessment included anthropometric data, cardiovascular parameters, blood tests, and ultrasonographic abdominal study...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337928/suicide-risk-assessment-in-adolescents-c-ssrs-k10-and-read
#5
Ida Skytte Jakobsen, Kim Juul Larsen, John L Horwood
BACKGROUND: Assessment and screening are often the first step in planning interventions to help adolescents at risk of suicide. Causes of suicidal thoughts and behavior are multifaceted and it is important for clinical work that assessment reflects this complexity. AIMS: To investigate whether a general psychological Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) is associated with a validated suicide rating scale (C-SSRS). METHOD: An observational study of self-reported suicidality (C-SSRS), psychological distress (K10), and resiliency (READ) in three adolescent samples: suicide clinic (N = 147); general psychiatric clinic (N = 85); and a nonclinical sample (N = 92)...
March 24, 2017: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337845/nurses-attitudes-towards-the-use-of-prn-psychotropic-medications-in-acute-and-forensic-mental-health-settings
#6
Lesley Barr, Dianne Wynaden, Karen Heslop
Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337318/development-of-18-f-maleimide-based-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-ligands-for-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#7
Kongzhen Hu, Debasis Patnaik, Thomas Lee Collier, Katarzyna N Lee, Han Gao, Matthew R Swoyer, Benjamin H Rotstein, Hema S Krishnan, Steven H Liang, Jin Wang, Zhiqiang Yan, Jacob M Hooker, Neil Vasdev, Stephen J Haggarty, Ming-Yu Ngai
Dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Thus, development of GSK-3β radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is of paramount importance, because such a noninvasive imaging technique would allow better understanding of the link between the activity of GSK-3β and central nervous system disorders in living organisms, and it would enable early detection of the enzyme's aberrant activity. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of fluorine-substituted maleimide derivatives that are high-affinity GSK-3β inhibitors...
March 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336492/looking-into-the-brain-through-the-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-psychiatric-disorders-a-review-of-evidences
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Schwitzer, Raymund Schwan, Emanuel Bubl, Laurence Lalanne, Karine Angioi-Duprez, Vincent Laprevote
Psychiatry and neuroscience research need novel approaches to indirectly investigate brain function. As the retina is an anatomical and developmental extension of the central nervous system (CNS), changes in retinal function may reflect neurological dysfunctions in psychiatric disorders. The last and most integrated retinal relay before visual information transfer to the brain is the ganglion cell layer. Here, based on collected arguments, we argue that these cells offer a crucial site for indirectly investigating brain function...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336159/the-anticholinergic-impregnation-scale-towards-the-elaboration-of-a-scale-adapted-to-prescriptions-in-french-psychiatric-settings
#9
Jeanne Briet, Hervé Javelot, Edwige Heitzmann, Luisa Weiner, Catherine Lameira, Philippe D'Athis, Marie Corneloup, Jean-Louis Vailleau
PURPOSE: Some drugs have anticholinergic activity and can cause peripheral or central side effects. Several scales exist to evaluate the potential anticholinergic effect of prescribed drugs but: (i) they are validated in the elderly and mainly assess the cognitive side effect of treatments; (ii) they do not concern some of the drugs frequently used in clinical psychiatry in France. The aim of our study is to develop a new scale, the anticholinergic impregnation scale (AIS), with drugs used in France and based on an assessment of the drugs used against peripheral anticholinergic adverse effects...
February 17, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335460/neuropsychology-of-aesthetic-judgment-of-ambiguous-and-non-ambiguous-artworks
#10
Maddalena Boccia, Sonia Barbetti, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia, Anna Maria Giannini
Several affective and cognitive processes have been found to be pivotal in affecting aesthetic experience of artworks and both neuropsychological as well as psychiatric symptoms have been found to affect artistic production. However, there is a paucity of studies directly investigating effects of brain lesions on aesthetic judgment. Here, we assessed the effects of unilateral brain damage on aesthetic judgment of artworks showing part/whole ambiguity. We asked 19 unilaterally brain-damaged patients (10 left and 9 right brain damaged patients, respectively LBDP and RBDP) and 20 age- and education-matched healthy individuals (controls, C) to rate 10 Arcimboldo's ambiguous portraits (AP), 10 realistic Renaissance portraits (RP), 10 still life paintings (SL), and 10 Arcimboldo's modified portraits where only objects/parts are detectable (AO)...
March 18, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335446/knowledge-self-confidence-and-attitudes-towards-suicidal-patients-at-emergency-and-psychiatric-departments-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-an-educational-poster-campaign
#11
Renate van Landschoot, Gwendolyn Portzky, Kees van Heeringen
Educational posters are used to enhance knowledge, attitudes and self-confidence of patients. Little is known on their effectiveness for educating health care professionals. As these professionals may play an important role in suicide prevention, the effects of a poster and accompanying evaluation and triage guide on knowledge, self-confidence and attitudes regarding suicidal thoughts and behaviours, were studied in a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial, involving staff from 39 emergency and 38 psychiatric departments throughout Flanders (n = 1171)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334938/clinical-and-genetic-characterization-of-leukoencephalopathies-in-adults
#12
David S Lynch, Anderson Rodrigues Brandão de Paiva, Wei Jia Zhang, Enrico Bugiardini, Fernando Freua, Leandro Tavares Lucato, Lucia Inês Macedo-Souza, Rahul Lakshmanan, Justin A Kinsella, Aine Merwick, Alexander M Rossor, Nin Bajaj, Brian Herron, Paul McMonagle, Patrick J Morrison, Deborah Hughes, Alan Pittman, Matilde Laurà, Mary M Reilly, Jason D Warren, Catherine J Mummery, Jonathan M Schott, Matthew Adams, Nick C Fox, Elaine Murphy, Indran Davagnanam, Fernando Kok, Jeremy Chataway, Henry Houlden
Leukodystrophies and genetic leukoencephalopathies are a rare group of disorders leading to progressive degeneration of cerebral white matter. They are associated with a spectrum of clinical phenotypes dominated by dementia, psychiatric changes, movement disorders and upper motor neuron signs. Mutations in at least 60 genes can lead to leukoencephalopathy with often overlapping clinical and radiological presentations. For these reasons, patients with genetic leukoencephalopathies often endure a long diagnostic odyssey before receiving a definitive diagnosis or may receive no diagnosis at all...
March 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334382/concussion-like-symptom-reporting-in-non-concussed-collegiate-athletes
#13
Breton M Asken, Aliyah R Snyder, James R Clugston, Leslie S Gaynor, Molly J Sullan, Russell M Bauer
Objective: Non-concussed individuals may report a variety of concussion-like symptoms even in the absence of a diagnosed brain injury. Previous studies described concussion-like symptom reporting in adolescent athletes. This study provides complementary data on concussion-like symptoms in collegiate athletes. Methods: We analyzed baseline symptom scales from 738 collegiate athletes (452 men and 286 women) who completed either the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, 3 Symptom Evaluation (S3SE; n = 377) or the Post-Concussion Scale (PCS; n = 361) and determined if subjects met criteria for diagnosis of International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) postconcussional syndrome...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333778/cochlear-implant-in-severe-impaired-psychiatric-patients-a-case-series
#14
Ioana T Herisanu, Mark Praetorius, Margarete Mattern
OBJECTIVE: Psychotic disorders and intelligence deficiencies are no longer contraindications for cochlear implantation regarding the revised German guidelines from May 2012. This article aims to evaluate the outcome of patients with severe psychiatric comorbidities. Therefore the database of the Cochlear Implant Center of the University Hospital of Heidelberg was investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. METHODS: We present three patients who received a cochlear implant (CI) despite a serious psychiatric disorder...
March 22, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331571/clinical-evaluation-of-autistic-symptoms-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#15
Heather Westwood, William Mandy, Kate Tchanturia
BACKGROUND: Despite a suggested link between anorexia nervosa (AN) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), previous studies have used self-report or diagnostic criteria to assess for ASD in AN populations, rather than direct observation of symptom characteristic of ASD. The aim of this study was to use a standardised, clinical assessment of ASD, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd Edition (ADOS-2), to investigate the presence of autistic symptoms in a cross-sectional sample of women with AN...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330790/outcomes-of-diagnostic-exome-sequencing-in-patients-with-diagnosed-or-suspected-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Mari Rossi, Dima El-Khechen, Mary Helen Black, Kelly D Farwell Hagman, Sha Tang, Zöe Powis
BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing has recently been proved to be a successful diagnostic method for complex neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing for autism spectrum disorders has not been extensively evaluated in large cohorts to date. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed diagnostic exome sequencing in a cohort of 163 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (66.3%) or autistic features (33.7%). RESULTS: The diagnostic yield observed in patients in our cohort was 25...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327508/adverse-childhood-experiences-commitment-offense-and-race-ethnicity-are-the-effects-crime-race-and-ethnicity-specific
#17
Matt DeLisi, Justin Alcala, Abdi Kusow, Andy Hochstetler, Mark H Heirigs, Jonathan W Caudill, Chad R Trulson, Michael T Baglivio
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327378/gender-related-psychopathology-in-opioid-use-disorder-results-from-a-representative-sample-of-italian-addiction-services
#18
Beniamino Leone, Marco Di Nicola, Lorenzo Moccia, Mauro Pettorruso, Luisa De Risio, Giuseppe Nucara, Lorenzo Zamboni, Antonino Callea, Luigi Janiri, Mauro Cibin, Fabio Lugoboni
AIMS: Gender and psychiatric comorbidity seem to influence patients' inter-individual response to Opioid Substitution Treatments (OST) in Opioid Use Disorder (OUD) management. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathological dimensions in an Italian sample of OUD individuals entering a methadone/buprenorphine maintenance program; secondary, we evaluated the possible gender-specific differences within the psychopathological profiles. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 1052 (792 male; 260 female) OUD subjects receiving OST...
March 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326870/misidentification-of-mental-health-symptoms-in-presence-of-organic-diseases-and-delirium-during-psychiatric-liaison-consulting
#19
Victor Henrique Oyamada Otani, Thaís Zélia Dos Santos Otani, Andrea Freirias, Elie Leal de Barros Calfat, Patricia Satiko Aoki, Quirino Cordeiro, Richard A A Kanaan, Sean Cross, Susan Liersch-Sumskis, Ricardo Riyoiti Uchida
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of misidentification of organic mental disorders and delirium in patients undergoing psychiatric liaison consultation. METHODS: Data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo between July of 2009 and March of 2013. We included in our analysis all inpatients for whom the requesting service judged that a psychiatric consultation was required for a possible mental health condition. Outcomes of interest were the instances of misidentification where a condition was initially deemed to be of a psychiatric nature, whereas the final diagnosis by the liaison psychiatric team was of an organic disease or delirium...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326863/use-of-patient-controlled-psychiatric-hospital-admissions-patients-perspective
#20
Trine Ellegaard, Vibeke Bliksted, Kirsten Lomborg, Mimi Mehlsen
BACKGROUND: By patient-controlled admission (PCA), psychiatric patients with a PCA contract can initiate a brief admission without a health professional gatekeeper. However, research regarding use of PCA is scarce. AIMS: In this Danish multi-centre study, motives for and satisfaction with PCA were explored. METHODS: During a 1-year period, patients from 11 Danish mental health units evaluated PCA using a questionnaire developed for the purpose...
March 22, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
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