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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533420/igf1-stimulates-greater-muscle-hypertrophy-in-the-absence-of-myostatin-in-male-mice
#1
Alexander Hennebry, Jenny M Oldham, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda Grounds, Philip Sheard, Marta Fiorotto, Shelley J Falconer, Heather K Smith, Carole Berry, Ferenc Jeanplong, Jeremy Bracegirdle, Kenneth G Matthews, Gina Nicholas, Monica Senna-Salerno, Trevor Watson, Christopher D McMahon
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null (Mstn-/-) mice with mice over-expressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle (Igf1+) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild-type (Mstn+/+), Mstn+/-, Mstn-/-, Mstn+/+:Igf1+, Mstn+/-:Igf1+ and Mstn-/-:Igf1+...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518182/triple-layered-closure-of-an-oroantral-fistula-a-case-report
#2
Eric George
Oroantral fistulae (OAF) are surgical sequelae that require complete resection and often leave large defects for the surgeon to repair. Closing these lesions is often technique sensitive and requires a detailed protocol, which, if not adhered to, can lead to recurrence. This case report presents a combined approach to closing an OAF by first excising the fistula and then resecting to retrieve the buccal fat pad to form a pedicle graft over the wound site. Next, a platelet-rich fibrin membrane is sandwiched over the buccal fat pad and completely covered by a buccal advancement flap...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511867/social-housing-and-social-isolation-impact-on-stress-indices-and-energy-balance-in-male-and-female-syrian-hamsters-mesocricetus-auratus
#3
Amy P Ross, Alisa Norvelle, Dennis C Choi, James C Walton, H Elliott Albers, Kim L Huhman
Although Syrian hamsters are thought to be naturally solitary, recent evidence from our laboratory demonstrates that hamsters may actually prefer social contact. Hamsters increase their preference for a location associated with an agonistic encounter regardless of whether they have "won" or "lost". It has also been reported that social housing as well as exposure to intermittent social defeat or to a brief footshock stressor increase food intake and body mass in hamsters. By contrast, it has also been suggested that housing hamsters in social isolation causes anxiety-induced anorexia and reductions in body mass selectively in females...
May 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508263/new-insights-into-the-anatomy-of-the-midface-musculature-and-its-implications-on-the-nasolabial-fold
#4
Chelsea C Snider, Ashley N Amalfi, Lauren E Hutchinson, Nicole Z Sommer
BACKGROUND: The prominent nasolabial fold is a distinct feature of the aging midface. As minimally invasive procedures have become mainstream, chemodenervation is a preferred method for treating dynamic facial rhytids. We therefore sought to identify relevant nasolabial fold and midfacial muscular anatomy to determine the ideal location of neuromodulation to improve the aesthetics of the midface and nasolabial fold without altering the upper lip and smile. METHODS: Twelve hemifacial cadaveric dissections were performed to identify midface muscle origin, insertion, width, vector of pull, and neighboring structures...
May 15, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507860/aging-and-sexual-differences-of-the-human-skull
#5
Luiz Eduardo Toledo Avelar, Márcio Alberto Cardoso, Leonardo Santos Bordoni, Lorena de Miranda Avelar, João Victor de Miranda Avelar
BACKGROUND: The aging process of the face comprises all layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and skeleton, and the signs of aging depend mainly on which layer is mostly affected. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aging facial skeleton, as well as establish the sexual differences, areas with a strong predisposition to resorption, and aesthetic repercussion for better treatment approach. METHODS: Skulls from the Forensic Anthropology Department of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were classified according to gender and age group (i...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501760/stromal-pdgfr-%C3%AE-activation-enhances-matrix-stiffness-impedes-mammary-ductal-development-and-accelerates-tumor-growth
#6
Anisha M Hammer, Gina M Sizemore, Vasudha C Shukla, Alex Avendano, Steven T Sizemore, Jonathan J Chang, Raleigh D Kladney, Maria C Cuitiño, Katie A Thies, Quinn Verfurth, Arnab Chakravarti, Lisa D Yee, Gustavo Leone, Jonathan W Song, Samir N Ghadiali, Michael C Ostrowski
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for mammary ductal development and differentiation, but how mammary fibroblasts regulate ECM remodeling remains to be elucidated. Herein, we used a mouse genetic model to activate platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRα) specifically in the stroma. Hyperactivation of PDGFRα in the mammary stroma severely hindered pubertal mammary ductal morphogenesis, but did not interrupt the lobuloalveolar differentiation program. Increased stromal PDGFRα signaling induced mammary fat pad fibrosis with a corresponding increase in interstitial hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen deposition...
May 11, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500749/local-resectability-assessment-of-head-and-neck-cancer-positron-emission-tomography-mri-versus-positron-emission-tomography-ct
#7
Tetsuro Sekine, Felipe de Galiza Barbosa, Gaspar Delso, Irene A Burger, Paul Stolzmann, Edwin E Ter Voert, Gerhard F Huber, Spyros S Kollias, Gustav K von Schulthess, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Martin W Huellner
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI with PET/CT for local resectability of head and neck cancer. METHODS: Sequential contrast-enhanced PET/CT-MRI was performed in 58 patients referred for the staging or restaging of head and neck cancer. Tumors were assessed with PET/CT and PET/MRI for the presence of resectability-defining factors: T4b status (mediastinal invasion, invasion of the prevertebral space, and vascular encasement), and another 8 findings that would imply obstacles for surgical cure (invasion of the laryngeal cartilage, invasion of the preepiglottic fat pad, perineural spread, orbital invasion, bone infiltration, skull base invasion, dural infiltration, and invasion of the brachial plexus)...
May 13, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499884/inhibition-of-ubiquitin-specific-protease-34-usp34-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-promotes-stemness-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#8
Eunhye Oh, Ji Young Kim, Daeil Sung, Youngkwan Cho, Nahyun Lee, Hyunsook An, Yoon-Jae Kim, Tae-Min Cho, Jae Hong Seo
Ubiquitin-specific protease 34 (USP34) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that regulates Axin stability and plays a critical role in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We sought to investigate the role of USP34 on epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) induction and its effects on mammary epithelial stem cells. USP34 expression levels were relatively lower in MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 mesenchymal-like cells when compared to epithelial-like cells. Inhibition of USP34 in NMuMG cells induced EMT, as evidenced by the upregulation of EMT markers including N-cadherin, phospho-Smad3, Snail and active-β-catenin, as well as the downregulation of Axin 1 and E-cadherin...
May 10, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493046/trastuzumab-uptake-and-its-relation-to-efficacy-in-an-animal-model-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-brain-metastasis
#9
Gail D Lewis Phillips, Merry C Nishimura, Jennifer Arca Lacap, Samir Kharbanda, Elaine Mai, Janet Tien, Kimberly Malesky, Simon P Williams, Jan Marik, Heidi S Phillips
PURPOSE: The extent to which efficacy of the HER2 antibody Trastuzumab in brain metastases is limited by access of antibody to brain lesions remains a question of significant clinical importance. We investigated the uptake and distribution of trastuzumab in brain and mammary fat pad grafts of HER2-positive breast cancer to evaluate the relationship of these parameters to the anti-tumor activity of trastuzumab and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). METHODS: Mouse transgenic breast tumor cells expressing human HER2 (Fo2-1282 or Fo5) were used to establish intracranial and orthotopic tumors...
May 10, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492793/left-atrial-ganglionated-plexi-detection-is-related-to-heart-rate-and-early-recurrence-of-atrial-fibrillation-after-surgical-ablation
#10
Grzegorz Suwalski, Małgorzata M Marczewska, Kamil Kaczejko, Jakub Mróz, Leszek Gryszko, Andrzej Cwetsch, Andrzej Skrobowski
INTRODUCTION: Left atrial ganglionated plexi ablation is an adjuvant technique used to increase the success rate of surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Ganglionated plexi ablation requires previous detection. We aimed to assess determinants of successful ganglionated plexi detection and to correlate range of ganglionated plexi ablation with risk of early atrial fibrillation recurrence. METHODS: The study involved 34 consecutive patients referred for surgical coronary revascularization with concomitant atrial fibrillation ablation...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489661/use-of-buccinator-myomucosal-flap-in-tongue-reconstruction
#11
Alessandro Bardazzi, Giada Anna Beltramini, Luca Autelitano, Roberto Bazzacchi, Dimitri Rabbiosi, Marco Pedrazzoli, Karim Tewfik, Angela Rezzonico, Federico Biglioli
The myomucosal buccinator flap, first described by Bozola in 1989, has become an important tool for intraoral defects reconstruction. In the literature, there is a variety of proposed myomucosal cheek flaps, both pedicled and island, based on the buccal or the facial arteries. From January 2007 to December 2011, the authors used a pedicled buccinator flap based posteriorly on the buccal artery to reconstruct partial lingual defects following tumor resection in 27 patients. The buccal fat pad was translated to cover the donor site defect...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479049/co-culture-of-infrapatellar-fat-pad-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-articular-chondrocytes-in-plasma-clot-for-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#12
Aditya Arora, M Sriram, Anjaney Kothari, Dhirendra S Katti
BACKGROUND: Cell source plays a deterministic role in defining the outcome of a cell-based cartilage regenerative therapy and its clinical translational ability. Recent efforts in the direction of co-culture of two or more cell types attempt to combine the advantages of constituent cell types and negate their demerits. METHODS: We examined the potential of co-culture of infrapatellar fat pad-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (IFP MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs) in plasma clots in terms of their ratios and culture formats for cartilage tissue engineering...
May 4, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479048/digital-design-of-functional-surgery-for-odontogenic-cyst-intruding-into-maxillary-sinus
#13
Ying Kai Hu, Chi Yang, Guang Zhou Xu, Qian Yang Xie
INTRODUCTION: Traditional Caldwell-Luc approach needs modifications for odontogenic cysts intruding into the maxillary sinus, to preserve sinus mucosa and bony contour. Recently, digital technology has been widely applied to the field of maxillofacial surgery, guiding the surgical plan and improving its accuracy. OBJECTIVE: This study attempted to present and evaluate the functional surgery of odontogenic cysts intruding into the maxillary sinus using a computer-assisted pre-surgical design...
March 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468196/extra-oral-excision-of-a-buccal-fat-pad-lipoma
#14
Guilherme Dos Santos Trento, Diego José Stringhini, Nelson Luis Barbosa Rebellato, Rafaela Scariot
Lipomas and its variants are common soft tissue tumors, and however occur infrequently in the oral and maxillofacial region. Their incidence in the oral cavity is low among all oral lesions. Oral lipoma is yellowish and soft to palpation, and histologically can be mistaken by other lipoma variants. The aim of this study is to report a case of a lipoma located at the buccal fat pad which was removed through an extra-oral access. A 43-year-old male is presenting an augmentation in the right buccal region, being a soft consistency mobile lesion with 1...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465201/strickland-s-hypothenar-fat-pad-flap-for-revision-surgery-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-prospective-study-of-34%C3%A2-cases
#15
L Athlani, J-P Haloua
Several techniques are available for revision surgery of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) to preserve a gliding layer and protect the median nerve, including Strickland's pedicled hypothenar fat pad flap. The objective of this single-center, prospective study was to report the results of this flap after a minimum follow-up of two years. Between March 2006 and April 2014, 34 patients were enrolled (mean age 67 years) who had postoperative complications after the primary surgical release of CTS with nighttime paresthesia and/or neuropathic pain and abnormal electromyography findings...
April 4, 2017: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463991/selective-effect-of-phosphatidylcholine-on-the-lysis-of-adipocytes
#16
Ji-Young Kim, Min-Seo Kwon, Junghyun Son, Sang-Wook Kang, Youngsup Song
Obesity, a serious health risk factor, is often associated with depression and negatively affects many aspects of life. Injection of a formula comprising phosphatidylcholine (PPC) and deoxycholate (DC) has emerged as an alternative to liposuction in the reduction of local fat deposits. However, the formula component mainly responsible for this effect and the mechanism behind the actions of the components with respect to fat reduction are unknown. Here, we investigate the specific effects of PPC and DC on adipocyte viability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463859/adiponectin-lipids-and-atherosclerosis
#17
Niki Katsiki, Christos Mantzoros, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adiponectin is an adipokine with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiatherogenic, pro-angiogenic, vasoprotective and insulin-sensitizing properties. Several factors may influence adiponectin levels, such as genetic polymorphisms, obesity / body fat distribution, diet and exercise as well as cardiovascular risk factors such as sleep deprivation and smoking as well as medications. Adiponectin has been proposed as a potential prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with cardiometabolic diseases...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463545/meniscal-tissue-engineering-using-aligned-collagen-fibrous-scaffolds-comparison-of-different-human-cell-sources
#18
Jihye Baek, Sujata Sovani, Wonchul Choi, Sungho Jin, Shawn P Grogan, Darryl D'Lima
Hydrogel and electrospun scaffold materials support cell attachment and neotissue development and can be tuned to structurally and mechanically resemble native ECM by altering either electrospun fiber or hydrogel properties. In this study, we examined meniscus tissue generation from different human cell sources including meniscus cells derived from vascular and avascular regions, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), synovial cells, and cells from the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP). All cells were seeded onto aligned electrospun collagen type I scaffolds and were optionally encapsulated in a tricomponent hydrogel...
May 2, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460457/the-vitamin-d-receptor-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-human-breast-cancer-cell-growth-via-a-ligand-independent-function-in-cytoplasm
#19
Trupti Trivedi, Yu Zheng, Pierrick G J Fournier, Sreemala Murthy, Sutha John, Suzanne Schillo, Colin R Dunstan, Khalid S Mohammad, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel, Theresa A Guise
Vitamin D has pleiotropic effects on multiple tissues, including malignant tumors. Vitamin D inhibits breast cancer growth through activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and via classical nuclear signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the VDR can also function in the absence of its ligand to control behaviour of human breast cancer cells both outside and within the bone microenvironment. Stable shRNA expression was used to knock down VDR expression in MCF-7 cells, generating two VDR knockdown clonal lines...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458274/supplementation-with-hualian-no-4-wild-bitter-gourd-momordica-charantia-linn-var-abbreviata-ser-extract-increases-anti-fatigue-activities-and-enhances-exercise-performance-in-mice
#20
Chien-Yu Hsiao, Yi-Ming Chen, Yi-Ju Hsu, Chi-Chang Huang, Hsin-Ching Sung, Sheng-Shih Chen
Hualian No. 4 wild bitter gourd (WBG) is a specific vegetable cultivated by the Hualien District Agricultural Research and Extension Station in Taiwan. WBG is commonly consumed as a vegetable and used as a popular folk medicine. However, few studies have demonstrated the effects of WBG supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue and the biochemical profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of WBG extract on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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