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Roberto Manfredini, Fabio Fabbian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Julia M Selfridge, Tetsuya Gotoh, Samuel Schiffhauer, JingJing Liu, Philip E Stauffer, Andrew Li, Daniel G S Capelluto, Carla V Finkielstein
Circadian rhythms are a collection of endogenously driven biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes that oscillate in a 24-h cycle and can be entrained by external cues. Circadian clock molecules are responsible for the expression of regulatory components that modulate, among others, the cell's metabolism and energy consumption. In clinical practice, the regulation of clock mechanisms is relevant to biotransformation of therapeutics. Accordingly, xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification, the two processes that directly influence drug effectiveness and toxicity, are direct manifestations of the daily oscillations of the cellular and biochemical processes taking place within the gastrointestinal, hepatic/biliary, and renal/urologic systems...
October 3, 2016: Drugs
Yoshihiro Seto, Fumiyasu Okazaki, Keiji Horikawa, Jing Zhang, Hitoshi Sasaki, Hideto To
BACKGROUND: Although cis-diamminedichloro-platinum (CDDP) exhibits strong therapeutic effects in cancer chemotherapy, its adverse effects such as peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and vomiting are dose-limiting factors. Previous studies reported that chronotherapy decreased CDDP-induced nephropathy and vomiting. In the present study, we investigated the influence of dosing times on CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. METHODS: CDDP (4 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at 5:00 or 17:00 every 7 days for 4 weeks to male Sprague-Dawley rats, and saline was given to the control group...
September 27, 2016: BMC Cancer
Shuangshuang Zhang, Hongxiang Yan, Panpan Yu, Yulong Xia, Wenli Zhang, Jianping Liu
The present study was aimed to develope a proliposomal formulation to decrease the hepatic first-pass metabolism of protocatechualdehyde (PD), followed by pellet coating to modify the drug release for angina chronotherapy. PD proliposomes were prepared by depositing PD-phospholipid complex on mannitol powders to improve the drug encapsulation. Afterwards, the PD proliposomes were prepared into pellet cores via extrusion-spheronization using 10% κ-carrageenan as pelletization aid prior to the development of PD sustained-release pellets (PD-SRPs)...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Andrea Cerciello, Giulia Auriemma, Silvana Morello, Rita P Aquino, Pasquale Del Gaudio, Paola Russo
In this work, a platform of alginate beads loaded with Prednisolone in hypromellose/gellan gum capsules (F6/Cps) able to delay steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (SAID) release as needed for chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis is proposed. Rheumatoid arthritis, showing a worsening in symptoms in the morning upon waking, is a pathology that can benefit from chronotherapy. With the aim to maximize prednisolone therapeutic action allowing the right timing of glucocorticoid therapy, different engineered microparticles (gel-beads) were manufactured using prilling (laminar jet break-up) as micro-encapsulation technique and Zn-alginate as gastroresistant carrier...
2016: PloS One
Henrik Galbo, Lisbeth Kall
BACKGROUND: In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), no systematic investigation of diurnal variation has been carried out in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). The aim of the study was to provide the often-requested documentation of the 24-h time course of clinical symptoms in PMR and relate them to concentrations during the day of melatonin, inflammatory cytokines, and cortisol. Furthermore, the effects of 14 days of prednisolone treatment were studied. METHODS: Ten glucocorticoid-naive patients newly diagnosed with PMR and seven non-PMR control subjects were studied for 24 h before treatment and during the 14th day of treatment with 20 mg/day of prednisolone...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Jia-Jie Luan, Yu-Shan Zhang, Xiao-Yun Liu, Ya-Qin Wang, Jian Zuo, Jian-Guo Song, Wen Zhang, Wu-San Wang
To evaluate the time- and dose-dependent toxicity of clofarabine in mice and to further define the chronotherapy strategy of it in leukemia, we compared the mortality rates, LD50s, biochemical parameters, histological changes and organ indexes of mice treated with clofarabine at various doses and time points. Plasma clofarabine levels and pharmacokinetic parameters were monitored continuously for up to 8 hours after the single intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg at 12:00 noon and 12:00 midnight by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method...
May 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Ramón C Hermida, Diana E Ayala, Michael H Smolensky, José R Fernández, Artemio Mojón, Francesco Portaluppi
Correlation between blood pressure (BP) and target organ damage, vascular risk, and long-term patient prognosis is stronger for measurements derived from around-the-clock ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) than in-clinic daytime ones. Numerous studies consistently substantiate the asleep BP mean is both an independent and much better predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than either the awake or 24 h means. Elevated sleep-time BP, i.e., sleep-time hypertension, which can only be diagnosed by around-the-clock ABPM, is much more common than suspected, not only in patients with sleep disorders, but, among others, in those who are elderly or have type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or resistant hypertension...
April 14, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Bo-Shi Fan, En-Hui Zhang, Ming-He Cheng, Zhao-Tang Wu, Bing Han, Jian-Guang Yu
AIMS: Cholinergic antiinflammatory (CAI) pathway functions importantly in inflammation via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR). The present work tested circadian rhythm in peripheral CAI activity and validities of CAI activity and glucocorticoids in chronotherapy for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced shock. METHODS: Vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) expressed in liver and kidney was examined every 3 h in C57BL/6 mice. Proinflammatory cytokines in serum and survival time in shock were monitored after LPS injection every 3 h...
September 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Sigride Thome-Souza, Jacquelyn Klehm, Michele Jackson, Navah E Kadish, Sheryl Manganaro, Iván Sánchez Fernández, Tobias Loddenkemper
PURPOSE: Clobazam treatment tailored to the timing of patient's seizures may improve seizure control. We aim to describe the safety and efficacy of higher-evening differential dose of clobazam as add-on therapy in patients with night-time/early morning seizures. METHOD: Differential dosing with higher evening dosing was started based on a high proportion of seizures (>80%) at nighttime (6p.m. to 6a.m.). Differential dosing was defined as providing more than 50% of the total daily dose of clobazam after 6p...
August 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Andi Kristanto, Randy Adiwinata, Silvia Suminto, Benny N Kurniawan, Finna Christianty, Robert Sinto
The body circardian rhythm affects blood pressure variability at day and night, therefore blood pressure at day and night might be different. Nocturnal hypertension is defined as increase of blood pressure >120/70mmHg at night, which is caused by disturbed circadian rhythm, and associated with higher cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events also mortality in hypertensive patients. Nocturnal hypertension and declining blood pressure pattern, can only be detected by continuous examination for 24 hours, also known as ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM)...
January 2016: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Ramón C Hermida
This article describes the rationale, objectives, design and conduct of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)-based Hygia Project. Given the substantial evidence of the significantly better prognostic value of ABPM compared to clinic BP measurements, several international guidelines now propose ABPM as a requirement to confirm the office diagnosis of hypertension. Nonetheless, all previous ABPM outcome investigations, except the Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares study (MAPEC) study, relied upon only a single, low-reproducible 24 h ABPM assessment per participant done at study inclusion, thus precluding the opportunity to explore the potential reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with modification of prognostic ABPM-derived parameters by hypertension therapy...
2016: Chronobiology International
Bart A W Jacobs, Maarten J Deenen, Dick Pluim, J G Coen van Hasselt, Martin D Krähenbühl, Robin M J M van Geel, Niels de Vries, Hilde Rosing, Didier Meulendijks, Artur M Burylo, Annemieke Cats, Jos H Beijnen, Alwin D R Huitema, Jan H M Schellens
AIMS: The enzymatic activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are important for the tolerability and efficacy of the fluoropyrimidine drugs. In the present study, we explored between-subject variability (BSV) and circadian rhythmicity in DPD and TS activity in human volunteers. METHODS: The BSVs in DPD activity (n = 20) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in plasma, measured by means of the dihydrouracil (DHU) and uracil (U) plasma levels and DHU : U ratio (n = 40), and TS activity in PBMCs (n = 19), were examined...
September 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Krisztina Ella, Roland Csépányi-Kömi, Krisztina Káldi
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood. Beside being essential responders in bacterial and fungal infections, they also contribute to tissue reactions in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Although several immune responses linked to neutrophil functions have been described to be rhythmic, the mechanism of the circadian regulation of these cells is still not understood. Characterization of the time-of-day-specific control of neutrophil responsiveness could help to better understand the pathomechanism of these inflammatory responses and design effective chronotherapy...
October 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Kimberly K Truong, Michael T Lam, Michael A Grandner, Catherine S Sassoon, Atul Malhotra
Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions...
July 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Elisabet Ortiz-Tudela, Pasquale F Innominato, Maria Angeles Rol, Francis Lévi, Juan Antonio Madrid
BACKGROUND: Adequate circadian timing of cancer treatment schedules (chronotherapy) can enhance tolerance and efficacy several-fold in experimental and clinical situations. However, the optimal timing varies according to sex, genetic background and lifestyle. Here, we compute the individual phase of the Circadian Timing System to decipher the internal timing of each patient and find the optimal treatment timing. METHODS: Twenty-four patients (11 male; 13 female), aged 36 to 77 years, with advanced or metastatic gastro-intestinal cancer were recruited...
2016: BMC Cancer
Gagandeep Kaur, Craig L Phillips, Keith Wong, Andrew J McLachlan, Bandana Saini
Chronotherapy involves the administration of medication in coordination with the body's circadian rhythms to maximise therapeutic effectiveness and minimise/avoid adverse effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the "time of administration" recommendations on chronotherapy for commonly-prescribed medicines in Australia. This study also aimed to explore the quality of information on the timing of administration presented in drug information sources, such as consumer medicine information (CMI) and approved product information (PI)...
2016: Pharmaceutics
L M Vera, H Migaud
Daily variation in the absorption, metabolism and excretion of toxic substances will ultimately determine the actual concentration to which the cells and tissues are exposed. In aquaculture, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) can be frequently exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to treat topical skin and gill infections, particularly in relation to parasitic infections (e.g. sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and amoebic gill disease caused by Neoparamoeba perurans). It is well accepted that the time of administration influences pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs which in turn affects their efficacy and toxicity...
2016: Chronobiology International
Maurizio Cutolo
It is evident that the morning symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are linked to the circadian abnormal increase in night inflammation, favoured by inadequate cortisol secretion under conditions of active disease. Therefore, exogenous glucocorticoid treatment is recommended in RA at low doses since it may partially act like a 'replacement therapy'. The prevention/treatment of the night upregulation of the immune/inflammatory reaction (and related flare of cytokine synthesis) has been shown to be more effective when exogenous glucocorticoid administration is obtained with a night-time-release formulation...
2016: RMD Open
Nikhil Biswas, Ketousetuo Kuotsu
The objective was to improve the dissolution of valsartan by developing valsartan nanocrystals and design a pulsed release system for the chronotherapy of hypertension. Valsartan nanocrystals were prepared by sonication-anti-solvent precipitation method and lyophilized to obtain dry powder. Nanocrystals were directly compressed to minitablets and coated to achieve pulsatile valsartan release. Pharmacokinetic profiles of optimized and commercial formulations were compared in rabbit model. The mean particle size and PDI of the optimized nanocrystal batch V4 was reported as 211 nm and 0...
March 9, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
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