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Formulas for calculation

Satish Kumar, Purab Kalyan Modak, S Haroon Ali, S K Barpanda, Vimal Singh Gusain, Rupali Roy
Objective: To determine the prevalence of ABO and Rh blood groups based on the antigenic presence on the surface of red blood cells with respect to gender and calculate allele frequency of the blood groups. Globally, approximately 700 type red cell antigens have been identified till now. ABO and Rh blood groups play an important role in the process of blood transfusion, resolving certain medicolegal issues, parental testing, and various genetic studies. Methods: This study was conducted in H...
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Kreshnik Hoti, Mustafa Atee, Jeffery D Hughes
Purpose: Accurate pain assessment is critical to detect pain and facilitate effective pain management in dementia patients. The electronic Pain Assessment Tool (ePAT) is a point-of-care solution that uses automated facial analysis in conjunction with other clinical indicators to evaluate the presence and intensity of pain in patients with dementia. This study aimed to examine clini-metric properties (clinical utility and predictive validity) of the ePAT in this population group. Methods: Data were extracted from a prospective validation (observational) study of the ePAT in dementia patients who were ≥65 years of age, living in a facility for ≥3 months, and had Psychogeriatric Assessment Scales - cognitive scores ≥10...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Dominik Lips, Philipp Maass
Several fluctuation formulas are available for calculating elastic constants from equilibrium correlation functions in computer simulations, but the ones available for simulations at constant pressure exhibit slow convergence properties and cannot be used for the determination of local elastic constants. To overcome these drawbacks, we derive a stress-stress fluctuation formula in the NPT ensemble based on known expressions in the NVT ensemble. We validate the formula in the NPT ensemble by calculating elastic constants for the simple nearest-neighbor Lennard-Jones crystal and by comparing the results with those obtained in the NVT ensemble...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Parvaneh Mehrbod, Muna Ali Abdalla, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Masoumeh Heidarzadeh, Abimbola O Aro, Jacobus N Eloff, Lyndy J McGaw, Folorunso O Fasina
BACKGROUND: Influenza infection is a major public health threat. The role of influenza A virus-induced inflammatory response in severe cases of this disease is widely recognized. Drug resistance and side effects of chemical treatments have been observed, resulting in increased interest in alternative use of herbal medications for prophylaxis against this infection. The South African medicinal plant, Rapanea melanophloeos (RM) (L.) Mez of the family Myrsinaceae was selected owing to its traditional use for the treatment of several diseases such as respiratory ailments and also previous preliminary studies of anti-influenza activity of its methanolic extract...
June 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Tomasz Zaprutko, Robert Göder, Krzysztof Kus, Wiktor Pałys, Filip Rybakowski, Elżbieta Nowakowska
Depression is a global health problem associated with a significant public health burden and costs. Although studies on costs of diseases are being considered as an increasingly important factor for health policies, information concerning costs of inpatient care of depression is still insufficient. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate costs of hospitalization of patients treated in 2016 in psychiatric clinics in Poznan (Poland) and in Kiel (Germany) and to analyze treatment used in these centers...
2018: PloS One
Manuel Schickinger, Denise Cibu, Florian Zischka, Karin Stierstorfer, Christoph Jessen, Andreas J Kornath
The syntheses of [OC(COX)3][MF6] and [(COX)4][MF6]2∙2HF were carried out in superacidic media XF/MF5 (M = As, Sb; X = H, D). The degree of protonation is highly dependent on the stoichiometric ratio of the Lewis acid with regard to squaric acid. The salts of diprotonated squaric acid were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and in the case of [(COH)4][MF6]2∙2HF (M = As, Sb) by single crystal X-ray structure analyses. [(COH)4][AsF6] crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n with two formula units per unit cell...
June 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Bangaru Subban, Roobanguru Dhanraj
The luminescence properties of praseodymium (Pr3+ ) ion in potassium bromide (KBr) host have been investigated. The excitation bands observed in the region 220-300 nm are attributed to the transitions from 4f level to the 5d crystal field splitting levels of Pr3+ ion. Emission bands originated due to transition of 3 P2 →3 H6 (564 nm), 3 P0 →3 H6 (604 nm), 1 D2 →3 P4 (721 nm) and 3 P0 →3 F2 (659 nm) have been observed. Optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence (TL) studies confirms the trivalent state of Pr3+ ion in KBr host...
June 13, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Jitendra Kumar Singh, Rajendra Kadel, Dilaram Acharya, Daniel Lombard, Saval Khanal, Shri Prakash Singh
BACKGROUND: Capacity development of health volunteers and text messaging to pregnant women through mobile phones have shown improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes and is associated with increased utilisation of MCH services. However, such interventions are uncommon in Nepal. We aim to carry out an intervention with the hypothesis that capacity building and text messaging intervention will increase the MCH service utilisation. METHOD/DESIGN: MATRI-SUMAN is a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
June 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
J Skytte Larsson, G Bragadottir, B Redfors, S-E Ricksten
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is commonly seen after liver transplantation. The optimal perioperative target mean arterial pressure (MAP) for renal filtration, perfusion and oxygenation in liver recipients is not known. The effects of norepinephrine-induced changes in MAP on renal blood flow (RBF), oxygen delivery (RDO2 ), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal oxygenation (=renal oxygen extraction, RO2 Ex) were therefore studied early after liver transplantation. METHODS: Ten patients with an intra- and post-operative vasopressor-dependent systemic vasodilation were studied early after liver transplantation during sedation and mechanical ventilation...
June 12, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Nanjie Deng, Di Cui, Bin W Zhang, Junchao Xia, Jeffrey Cruz, Ronald Levy
Accurately predicting absolute binding free energies of protein-ligand complexes is important as a fundamental problem in both computational biophysics and pharmaceutical discovery. Calculating binding free energies for charged ligands is generally considered to be challenging because of the strong electrostatic interactions between the ligand and its environment in aqueous solution. In this work, we compare the performance of the potential of mean force (PMF) method and the double decoupling method (DDM) for computing absolute binding free energies for charged ligands...
June 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
M Bach, M B Hoffmann
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Retinal conduction speed analysis reveals different origins of the P50 and N95 components of the (multifocal) pattern electroretinogram" (Bach et al., 2018) [1]. That analysis required the individual length data of the retinal nerve fibers (from ganglion cell body to optic nerve head, depending on the position of the ganglion cell body). Jansonius et al. (2009, 2012) [2,3] mathematically modeled the path morphology of the human retinal nerve fibers...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Furui Liu, Laiwan Chan
In this letter, we study the confounder detection problem in the linear model, where the target variable [Formula: see text] is predicted using its [Formula: see text] potential causes [Formula: see text]. Based on an assumption of a rotation-invariant generating process of the model, recent study shows that the spectral measure induced by the regression coefficient vector with respect to the covariance matrix of [Formula: see text] is close to a uniform measure in purely causal cases, but it differs from a uniform measure characteristically in the presence of a scalar confounder...
June 12, 2018: Neural Computation
Mariana L Meyers, Jacquelyn R Garcia, Kiara L Blough, Wei Zhang, Christopher I Cassady, Amy R Mehollin-Ray
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to establish normal total fetal lung volume reference ranges from 18 to 38 weeks' gestation at 1-week intervals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 665 patients who underwent fetal MRI at two tertiary fetal centers from 2001 to 2013 was performed. Total fetal lung volume was measured in at least two planes, either manually or using a 3D workstation. The mean, median, SD, minimum, maximum, and lower and upper quartiles for total fetal lung volume were determined per gestational week...
June 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Alberto García-Fernández, Ismael Marcos-Cives, Carlos Platas-Iglesias, Socorro Castro-García, Digna Vázquez-García, Alberto Fernández, Manuel Sánchez-Andújar
We present a novel family of polyhalide salts of Bi(III) with the general formula [Dim]2 [Bi2 X10 ], where Dim2+ is the diimidazolium cation (C9 H14 N4 )2+ and X is Cl- , Br- , or I- . Single-phase materials are easily obtained by means of a mild solution chemistry method performed at room temperature. This [Dim]2 [Bi2 X10 ] family exhibits a crystal structure based on halobismuthate [Bi2 X10 ]4- dimers, built by distorted {BiX6 } octahedra interconnected by edge sharing, and sandwiched between two diimidazolium cations...
June 12, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Martin Dahlqvist, Andreas Thore, Johanna Rosen
With the recent discovery of in-plane chemically ordered MAX phases (<i>i</i>-MAX) of the general formula (<i>M</i><sup>1</sup><sub>2/3</sub><i>M</i><sup>2</sup><sub>1/3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>AC comes addition of non-traditional MAX phase elements. In the present study, we use density functional theory calculations to investigate the electronic structure, bonding nature, and mechanical properties of the novel (W<sub>2/3</sub>Sc<sub>1/3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>AlC and (W<sub>2/3</sub>Y<sub>1/3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>AlC <i>i</i>-MAX phases...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Alistair S Curry, Shkun Chadda, Aurélie Danel, Douglas L Nguyen
Objectives: Gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance is associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill patients receiving enteral nutrition (EN). The objective of this analysis is to quantify the cost of GI intolerance and the cost implications of starting with semi-elemental EN in intensive care units (ICUs). Study design: A US-based cost-consequence model was developed to compare the costs for patients with and without GI intolerance and the costs with semi-elemental or standard EN while varying the proportion of GI intolerance cases avoided...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Kwang Jun Oh, Byung Kag Kim, Myung Il Jo, Byung Mun Ahn
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare acetabular cup positioning using an imageless navigation-assisted total hip arthroplasty (THA) to a case-matched control group using the conventional technique in Asian physique. METHODS: Case matching controlled study using retrospectively collected data for THAs was done. Matching criteria were gender, age ± 5 years, and body mass index ± 5 kg/m2 . Thirty patients who had navigation THAs were manually matched to a conventional group of 30 patients...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Justin Bradley Ziemba, Pan Li, Rishab Gurnani, Satomi Kawamoto, Elliot Fishman, George Fung, Wesley Ludwig, Dan Stoianovici, Brian Matlaga
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard for visualizing renal and ureteral calculi. CT 3D reformatting allows for automatic, accurate, and reliable measurement of stone size, volume, density, and location. In this study, we aimed to develop and test a software platform capable of calculating a battery of clinically important urinary stone parameters at the point-of-care (POC). METHODS: The syngo Calcium Scoring (Siemens Corporation) algorithm was modified to identify calcium-based stones using an attenuation threshold (250 HU) within a region of interest (ROI)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Dirk Enders, Susanne Engel, Roland Linder, Iris Pigeot
In survival analyses, inverse-probability-of-treatment (IPT) and inverse-probability-of-censoring (IPC) weighted estimators of parameters in marginal structural Cox models are often used to estimate treatment effects in the presence of time-dependent confounding and censoring. In most applications, a robust variance estimator of the IPT and IPC weighted estimator is calculated leading to conservative confidence intervals. This estimator assumes that the weights are known rather than estimated from the data...
June 11, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Zhiguo Li, Xiaofei Wang, Yuan Wu, Kouros Owzar
Grouped survival data arise often in studies where the disease status is assessed at regular visits to clinic. The time to the event of interest can only be determined to be between two adjacent visits or is right censored at one visit. In data analysis, replacing the survival time with the endpoint or midpoint of the grouping interval leads to biased estimators of the effect size in group comparisons. Prentice and Gloeckler developed a maximum likelihood estimator for the proportional hazards model with grouped survival data and the method has been widely applied...
June 10, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
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