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Maximilian Von Laffert, Mathias Hänel, Manfred Dietel, Ioannis Anagnostopoulos, Korinna Jöhrens
The effect of imatinib on T and B cells in patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is not well understood. An upregulation of the transcription factor Broad-complex-Tramtrack-Bric-a-Brac and Cap'n'collar 1 bZip transcription factor 2 (BACH2), which is involved in the development and differentiation of B cells, was demonstrated in a CML cell line treated with imatinib. The present study retrospectively analysed the expression and distribution of cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD20 and BACH2 (per 1,000 cells), as well as the co-expression of CD20 and BACH2, using immunohistochemistry in serial bone marrow trephines obtained from 14 CML patients treated with imatinib in comparison to 17 patients with newly diagnosed CML and 6 control trephines...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Janani Varadarajan, Mary Jane McWilliams, Bryan T Mott, Craig J Thomas, Steven J Smith, Stephen H Hughes
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 integrase is the target for three FDA-approved drugs, raltegravir, elvitegravir, and dolutegravir. All three drugs bind at the active site of integrase and block the strand transfer step of integration. We previously showed that sub-optimal doses of the anti-HIV drug raltegravir can cause aberrant HIV integrations that are accompanied by a variety of deletions, duplications, insertions and inversions of the adjacent host sequences. RESULTS: We show here that a second drug, elvitegravir, also causes similar aberrant integrations...
September 29, 2016: Retrovirology
Agnieszka Pazderska, Bergithe E Oftedal, Catherine M Napier, Holly F Ainsworth, Eystein S Husebye, Heather J Cordell, Simon Hs Pearce, Anna L Mitchell
CONTEXT: Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is a rare but highly heritable condition. The BACH2 protein plays a crucial role in T lymphocyte maturation and allelic variation in its gene has been associated with a number of autoimmune conditions. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether alleles of the rs3757247 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BACH2 gene are associated with AAD. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: This case-control association study was performed in two phases using Taqman chemistry (Life Technologies)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Makoto Kuwahara, Wataru Ise, Mizuki Ochi, Junpei Suzuki, Kohei Kometani, Saho Maruyama, Maya Izumoto, Akira Matsumoto, Nobuaki Takemori, Ayako Takemori, Kenta Shinoda, Toshinori Nakayama, Osamu Ohara, Masaki Yasukawa, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Masakatsu Yamashita
Although Bach2 has an important role in regulating the Th2-type immune response, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We herein demonstrate that Bach2 associates with Batf and binds to the regulatory regions of the Th2 cytokine gene loci. The Bach2-Batf complex antagonizes the recruitment of the Batf-Irf4 complex to AP-1 motifs and suppresses Th2 cytokine production. Furthermore, we find that Bach2 regulates the Batf and Batf3 expressions via two distinct pathways. First, Bach2 suppresses the maintenance of the Batf and Batf3 expression through the inhibition of IL-4 production...
2016: Nature Communications
Martin J Richer, Mark L Lang, Noah S Butler
Recent data illustrate a key role for the transcriptional regulator bric-a-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and cap'n'collar homology (Bach)2 in orchestrating T cell differentiation and function. Although Bach2 has a well-described role in B cell differentiation, emerging data show that Bach2 is a prototypical member of a novel class of transcription factors that regulates transcriptional activity in T cells at super-enhancers, or regions of high transcriptional activity. Accumulating data demonstrate specific roles for Bach2 in favoring regulatory T cell generation, restraining effector T cell differentiation, and potentiating memory T cell development...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Maria Libera Ascierto, Tracee L McMiller, Alan E Berger, Ludmila Danilova, Robert A Anders, George J Netto, Haiying Xu, Theresa S Pritchard, Jinshui Fan, Chris Cheadle, Leslie Cope, Charles G Drake, Drew M Pardoll, Janis M Taube, Suzanne L Topalian
Pretreatment tumor PD-L1 expression has been shown to correlate with response to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. Yet, most patients with PD-L1(+) tumors do not respond to treatment. The current study was undertaken to investigate mechanisms underlying the failure of PD-1-targeted therapies in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) whose tumors express PD-L1. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pretreatment tumor biopsies expressing PD-L1 were derived from 13 RCC patients. RNA was isolated from PD-L1(+) regions and subjected to whole genome microarray and multiplex quantitative (q)RT-PCR gene expression analysis...
September 2, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
Young-Eun Cho, Lawrence L Latour, Hyungsuk Kim, L Christine Turtzo, Anlys Olivera, Whitney S Livingston, Dan Wang, Christiana Martin, Chen Lai, Ann Cashion, Jessica Gill
Older age consistently relates to a lesser ability to fully recover from a traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is limited data to explicate the nature of age-related risks. This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of age on gene-activity following a TBI, and how this biomarker relates to changes in neuroimaging findings. A young group (between the ages of 19 and 35 years), and an old group (between the ages of 60 and 89 years) were compared on global gene-activity within 48 h following a TBI, and then at follow-up within 1-week...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Risa Ebina-Shibuya, Miki Watanabe-Matsui, Mitsuyo Matsumoto, Ari Itoh-Nakadai, Ryo Funayama, Keiko Nakayama, Akihiko Muto, Kazuhiko Igarashi
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a disease resulting from a dysfunction of the alveolar macrophages (AMs) where excess surfactant protein accumulates in the alveolar spaces. We previously reported that Bach2 KO mice developed PAP due to a defect in the handling of lipids by AMs. To investigate the functions of Bach1 and Bach2, which are regulated by oxidative stress, in the AMs and in lung homeostasis, we generated mice that lacked both Bach1 and Bach2 (Bach1/2 DKO mice). The Bach1/2 DKO mice showed more severe PAP phenotype than Bach2 KO mice with abnormal AMs, whereas the Bach1 KO mice did not develop any pulmonary disease...
July 7, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
Tom Sidwell, Axel Kallies
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2016: Nature Immunology
Ai-Ping Mao, Michael G Constantinides, Rebecca Mathew, Zhixiang Zuo, Xiaoting Chen, Matthew T Weirauch, Albert Bendelac
The transcription factor PLZF [promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger, encoded by zinc finger BTB domain containing 16 (Zbtb16)] is induced during the development of innate and innate-like lymphocytes to direct their acquisition of a T-helper effector program, but the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Using biotinylation-based ChIP-seq and microarray analysis of both natural killer T (NKT) cells and PLZF-transgenic thymocytes, we identified several layers of regulation of the innate-like NKT effector program...
July 5, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Charles Herbaux, Elisabeth Bertrand, Guillemette Marot, Christophe Roumier, Nicolas Poret, Valérie Soenen, Olivier Nibourel, Catherine Roche-Lestienne, Natacha Broucqsault, Sylvie Galiègue-Zouitina, Eileen M Boyle, Guillemette Fouquet, Aline Renneville, Sabine Tricot, Franck Morschhauser, Claude Preudhomme, Bruno Quesnel, Stephanie Poulain, Xavier Leleu
Approximately 30% of the patients who fulfil the criteria of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) are diagnosed while asymptomatic (indolent), and will not require immediate therapy. Conversely, patients with a disease-related event will be considered for therapy. The physiopathology of these 2 groups remains unclear, and the mechanisms of progression from indolent to symptomatic WM have yet to be fully understood. Seventeen patients diagnosed with WM were included in this study, 8 asymptomatic WM (A-WM) and 9 symptomatic WM (S-WM)...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Tomoji Suenaga, Miki Watanabe-Matsui, Tamami Uejima, Hiroki Shima, Toshitaka Matsui, Masao Ikeda-Saito, Mikako Shirouzu, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Kazutaka Murayama
Bach2 is a transcriptional repressor that plays an important role in the differentiation of T-cells and B-cells. Bach2 is functionally regulated by heme binding, and possesses five CP-motifs as the heme binding site. To reveal the molecular mechanism of heme binding by Bach2, the intrinsically disordered heme binding region (a.a. 331-520; Bach2(331-520)) and its CP-motif mutant were prepared and characterized with and without heme, by UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermal profiles. In addition, the charge-state-distributions (CSDs) were assessed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
May 20, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
Ryo Shinnakasu, Takeshi Inoue, Kohei Kometani, Saya Moriyama, Yu Adachi, Manabu Nakayama, Yoshimasa Takahashi, Hidehiro Fukuyama, Takaharu Okada, Tomohiro Kurosaki
Despite the importance of memory B cells in protection from reinfection, how such memory cells are selected and generated during germinal-center (GC) reactions remains unclear. We found here that light-zone (LZ) GC B cells with B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) of lower affinity were prone to enter the memory B cell pool. Mechanistically, cells in this memory-prone fraction had higher expression of the transcriptional repressor Bach2 than that of their counterparts with BCRs of higher affinity. Haploinsufficiency of Bach2 resulted in reduced generation of memory B cells, independently of suppression of the gene encoding the transcription factor Blimp-1...
July 2016: Nature Immunology
Rahul Roychoudhuri, David Clever, Peng Li, Yoshiyuki Wakabayashi, Kylie M Quinn, Christopher A Klebanoff, Yun Ji, Madhusudhanan Sukumar, Robert L Eil, Zhiya Yu, Rosanne Spolski, Douglas C Palmer, Jenny H Pan, Shashank J Patel, Derek C Macallan, Giulia Fabozzi, Han-Yu Shih, Yuka Kanno, Akihiko Muto, Jun Zhu, Luca Gattinoni, John J O'Shea, Klaus Okkenhaug, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Warren J Leonard, Nicholas P Restifo
T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling drives distinct responses depending on the differentiation state and context of CD8(+) T cells. We hypothesized that access of signal-dependent transcription factors (TFs) to enhancers is dynamically regulated to shape transcriptional responses to TCR signaling. We found that the TF BACH2 restrains terminal differentiation to enable generation of long-lived memory cells and protective immunity after viral infection. BACH2 was recruited to enhancers, where it limited expression of TCR-driven genes by attenuating the availability of activator protein-1 (AP-1) sites to Jun family signal-dependent TFs...
July 2016: Nature Immunology
Fumiki Katsuoka, Masayuki Yamamoto
The small Maf proteins (sMafs) are basic region leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factors. The basic region of the Maf family is unique among the bZIP factors, and it contributes to the distinct DNA-binding mode of this class of proteins. MafF, MafG and MafK are the three vertebrate sMafs, and no functional differences have been observed among them in terms of their bZIP structures. sMafs form homodimers by themselves, and they form heterodimers with cap 'n' collar (CNC) proteins (p45 NF-E2, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3) and also with Bach proteins (Bach1 and Bach2)...
July 25, 2016: Gene
Yin Zhou, Haijing Wu, Ming Zhao, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu
The transcription factors Bach1 and Bach2, which belong to a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) family, repress target gene expression by forming heterodimers with small Maf proteins. With the ability to bind to heme, Bach1 and Bach2 are important in maintaining heme homeostasis in response to oxidative stress, which is characterized by high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and thereby induces cellular damage and senescence. The inactivation of Bach1 exerts an antioxidant effect. Thus, Bach1 may be a potential therapeutic target of oxidative stress-related diseases...
June 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Hiroki Shima, Ryo Ando, Toru Tamahara, Kazuhiko Igarashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Seikagaku. the Journal of Japanese Biochemical Society
Q Luo, C Wu, S Sun, F Lu, L Xie, H Zhao, X Zhong, Q Zhou
The spatial-temporal expressions of bach1a, bach1b, bach2a and bach2b in early development of zebrafish Danio rerio embryos were examined in the present study by whole mount in situ hybridization. Transcripts of all genes were found at the one cell stage, suggesting that these four genes are maternally inherited. From the phylogenetic analyses, Bach1a and Bach1b from fishes form a well-supported group with two sub-groups. Bach2a and Bach2b, however, did not fall into one clade, suggesting that Bach2 proteins diverged faster or earlier than Bach1 proteins in fishes...
April 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Aleksandar Vojta, Paula Dobrinić, Vanja Tadić, Luka Bočkor, Petra Korać, Boris Julg, Marija Klasić, Vlatka Zoldoš
Epigenetic studies relied so far on correlations between epigenetic marks and gene expression pattern. Technologies developed for epigenome editing now enable direct study of functional relevance of precise epigenetic modifications and gene regulation. The reversible nature of epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, has been already exploited in cancer therapy for remodeling the aberrant epigenetic landscape. However, this was achieved non-selectively using epigenetic inhibitors. Epigenetic editing at specific loci represents a novel approach that might selectively and heritably alter gene expression...
July 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga, Maria Uribarri, Maria C Alcaro, Sergio Escorza-Treviño, Jokin Del Amo, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano, Paola Migliorini, Veronika Lóránd, Andone Estonba
OBJECTIVES: To replicate the association of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility loci in an independent European sample and to assess their specificity with anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) status. METHODS: A selection of 64 SNP previously associated with RA have been typed in a cohort of 267 RA patients (169 ACPA-positive and 98 ACPA-negative) and 152 controls from the Rheumatology Units of the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy) and the University of Pécs Medical Center (Hungary)...
March 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
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