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Precision agriculture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303027/compensation-effect-of-winter-wheat-grain-yield-reduction-under-straw-mulching-in-wide-precision-planting-in-the-north-china-plain
#1
Xinhui Liu, Yujie Ren, Chao Gao, Zhenxing Yan, Quanqi Li
Climate change and the growing demand for food security force growers to identify ways both to improve food production and to reduce agricultural carbon emissions. Although straw mulching is known to decrease CO2 emissions, winter wheat grain yield in the North China Plain was declined under straw mulching. In an effort to determine the most effective way to increase winter wheat yield under straw mulching, a field experiment was conducted using two planting patterns (wide-precision planting and conventional-cultivation planting) and two straw mulching rates (0 and 0...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289423/automated-method-to-determine-two-critical-growth-stages-of-wheat-heading-and-flowering
#2
Pouria Sadeghi-Tehran, Kasra Sabermanesh, Nicolas Virlet, Malcolm J Hawkesford
Recording growth stage information is an important aspect of precision agriculture, crop breeding and phenotyping. In practice, crop growth stage is still primarily monitored by-eye, which is not only laborious and time-consuming, but also subjective and error-prone. The application of computer vision on digital images offers a high-throughput and non-invasive alternative to manual observations and its use in agriculture and high-throughput phenotyping is increasing. This paper presents an automated method to detect wheat heading and flowering stages, which uses the application of computer vision on digital images...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275380/genetic-transformation-and-genomic-resources-for-next-generation-precise-genome-engineering-in-vegetable-crops
#3
REVIEW
Teodoro Cardi, Nunzio D'Agostino, Pasquale Tripodi
In the frame of modern agriculture facing the predicted increase of population and general environmental changes, the securement of high quality food remains a major challenge to deal with. Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. Due to their nutritional value, they have an important place in human diet. In recent years, many crop genomes have been sequenced permitting the identification of genes and superior alleles associated with desirable traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260684/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-bioavailability-in-industrial-and-agricultural-soils-linking-spme-and-tenax-extraction-with-bioassays
#4
Meixia Guo, Zongqiang Gong, Xiaojun Li, Graeme Allinson, James Rookes, David Cahill
The aims of this study were to evaluate the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in industrial and agricultural soils using chemical methods and a bioassay, and to study the relationships between the methods. This was conducted by comparing the quantities of PAHs extracted from two manufactured gas plant (MGP) soils and an agricultural soil with low level contamination by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and Tenax-TA extraction with the quantities taken up by the earthworm (Eisenia fetida)...
March 2, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241488/monitoring-citrus-soil-moisture-and-nutrients-using-an-iot-based-system
#5
Xueyan Zhang, Jianwu Zhang, Lin Li, Yuzhu Zhang, Guocai Yang
Chongqing mountain citrus orchard is one of the main origins of Chinese citrus. Its planting terrain is complex and soil parent material is diverse. Currently, the citrus fertilization, irrigation and other management processes still have great blindness. They usually use the same pattern and the same formula rather than considering the orchard terrain features, soil differences, species characteristics and the state of tree growth. With the help of the ZigBee technology, artificial intelligence and decision support technology, this paper has developed the research on the application technology of agricultural Internet of Things for real-time monitoring of citrus soil moisture and nutrients as well as the research on the integration of fertilization and irrigation decision support system...
February 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226230/genomics-physiology-and-molecular-breeding-approaches-for-improving-salt-tolerance
#6
Abdelbagi M Ismail, Tomoaki Horie
Salt stress reduces land and water productivity and contributes to poverty and food insecurity. Increased salinization caused by human practices and climate change is progressively reducing agriculture productivity despite escalating calls for more food. Plant responses to salt stress are fairly well understood, involving numerous critical processes that are each controlled by multiple genes. Knowledge of the critical mechanisms controlling salt uptake and exclusion from functioning tissues, signaling of salt stress, and the arsenal of protective metabolites is advancing...
February 22, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214113/classification-and-assessment-models-of-first-year-byproducts-nitrogen-plant-availability-from-literature-data
#7
Claude-Alla Joseph, Lotfi Khiari, Jacques Gallichand, Sidki Bouslama
Byproducts can provide an important amount of nutrients for crops and improve soils properties. According to their C/N, nitrogen (N) mineralization or immobilization may be observed after their application onto agricultural land. Therefore, an indicator is needed to assess byproducts N availability for crops. Thirty-seven studies from the scientific literature on N mineralization or immobilization after application to agricultural land under a wide range of climatic and experimental conditions were collected in order to elaborate models assessing non-composted byproducts N availability during the first growing season according to the C/N ratio...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213677/a-new-distribution-range-of-ateles-chamek-humboldt-1812-in-an-ecotone-of-three-biomes-in-the-paraguay-river-basin
#8
Manoel Dos Santos-Filho, Christine Steiner São Bernardo, Henry Willian Van der Laan Barbosa, Almério Câmara Gusmão, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Gustavo Rodrigues Canale
Historical records of Ateles chamek (black-faced black spider monkey) suggest that the species range extends further south of the known species distribution, within an ecotonal region between the Amazonia, Cerrado and Pantanal biomes in Brazil. Ecotones are zones of habitat transition with high species richness that remain undersampled as conservationists often prioritize biodiversity hotspots. Thus, distribution ranges may be inaccurately measured when species occur in ecotonal zones. We report the first precise records of A...
February 17, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213222/development-of-a-qcm-d-biosensor-for-ochratoxin-a-detection-in-red-wine
#9
Aleksandra Karczmarczyk, Karsten Haupt, Karl-Heinz Feller
Ochratoxin A (OTA), a highly toxic compound, is one of the most widely spread mycotoxins that contaminates a large variety of agricultural commodities. Due to its presence in the food chain, it imposes a hazard on both human and animal health. Therefore, there is a need for precise, fast and simple methods for toxin quantification. Herein, a novel sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and antibodies for specific analyte recognition was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of OTA in red wine...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202728/satellite-based-assessment-of-yield-variation-and-its-determinants-in-smallholder-african-systems
#10
Marshall Burke, David B Lobell
The emergence of satellite sensors that can routinely observe millions of individual smallholder farms raises possibilities for monitoring and understanding agricultural productivity in many regions of the world. Here we demonstrate the potential to track smallholder maize yield variation in western Kenya, using a combination of 1-m Terra Bella imagery and intensive field sampling on thousands of fields over 2 y. We find that agreement between satellite-based and traditional field survey-based yield estimates depends significantly on the quality of the field-based measures, with agreement highest ([Formula: see text] up to 0...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174306/a-mobile-element-in-muts-drives-hypermutation-in-a-marine-vibrio
#11
Nathaniel D Chu, Sean A Clarke, Sonia Timberlake, Martin F Polz, Alan D Grossman, Eric J Alm
Bacteria face a trade-off between genetic fidelity, which reduces deleterious mistakes in the genome, and genetic innovation, which allows organisms to adapt. Evidence suggests that many bacteria balance this trade-off by modulating their mutation rates, but few mechanisms have been described for such modulation. Following experimental evolution and whole-genome resequencing of the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus 12B01, we discovered one such mechanism, which allows this bacterium to switch to an elevated mutation rate...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160174/spatiotemporal-evaluation-of-the-groundwater-quality-in-gharbiya-governorate-egypt
#12
Alaa A Masoud, Mohamed M El Bouraie, Wafaa El-Nashar, Hamdy Mashaly
Groundwater quality indicators were monitored over 6 years (2007-2012) from 55 drinking water supply wells in Gharbiya Governorate (Egypt). The prime objective was to characterize, for the first time, the governorate-wide significant and sustained trends in the concentrations of the groundwater pollutants. Quality indicators included turbidity, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), Cl(-), SO4(2-), Na(+), total alkalinity, hardness (total, Mg, and Ca), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), F(-), NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-), dissolved oxygen (DO), and SiO2 contents...
February 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134822/superframe-duration-allocation-schemes-to-improve-the-throughput-of-cluster-tree-wireless-sensor-networks
#13
Erico Leão, Carlos Montez, Ricardo Moraes, Paulo Portugal, Francisco Vasques
The use ofWireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies is an attractive option to support wide-scale monitoring applications, such as the ones that can be found in precision agriculture, environmental monitoring and industrial automation. The IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee cluster-tree topology is a suitable topology to build wide-scale WSNs. Despite some of its known advantages, including timing synchronisation and duty-cycle operation, cluster-tree networks may suffer from severe network congestion problems due to the convergecast pattern of its communication traffic...
January 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132186/single-cell-metabolomics
#14
Samy Emara, Sara Amer, Ahmed Ali, Yasmine Abouleila, April Oga, Tsutomu Masujima
The dynamics of a cell is always changing. Cells move, divide, communicate, adapt, and are always reacting to their surroundings non-synchronously. Currently, single-cell metabolomics has become the leading field in understanding the phenotypical variations between them, but sample volumes, low analyte concentrations, and validating gentle sample techniques have proven great barriers toward achieving accurate and complete metabolomics profiling. Certainly, advanced technologies such as nanodevices and microfluidic arrays are making great progress, and analytical techniques, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), are gaining popularity with high-throughput methodology...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109660/spatial-distribution-of-soil-chemical-properties-in-an-organic-farm-in-croatia
#15
Igor Bogunovic, Paulo Pereira, Eric C Brevik
Soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), available phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) are some of the most important indicators of soil fertility. These soil parameters are highly variable in space and time, especially in agricultural areas, with implications for crop production. The aim of this work was to study the spatial variability of pH, EC, OM, AP and AK using kriging and co-kriging methods in the Rasa River Valley (Croatia). As co-variates for each variable we considered the distance from the sea (DFS), distance from the river channels (DFC), pH, EC, OM, AP and AK...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071048/solvent-free-strategy-yields-size-and-shape-uniform-capsules
#16
Ana M S Costa, João F Mano
Capsules with a liquefied core were fabricated via the assembly of polymeric droplets induced by superamphiphobic surfaces. These highly repellent substrates exhibit distinct features such as (i) an easy and precise control over the particle size and shape, (ii) a high encapsulation efficiency, (iii) mild processing conditions, and (iv) the possibility to include any object in either a water or oil-based liquid core, which are not found on the current available strategies. As proof of concept, a photo-cross-linkable derivative of chitosan was used to produce the polymeric shell while a wealth variety of template cores were tested using a reversible cross-linking mechanism, interfacial gelation process or ice...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068898/integrated-mrna-and-microrna-analysis-identifies-genes-and-small-mirna-molecules-associated-with-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-level-responses-to-both-drought-stress-and-re-watering-treatment-in-tobacco
#17
Qiansi Chen, Meng Li, Zhongchun Zhang, Weiwei Tie, Xia Chen, Lifeng Jin, Niu Zhai, Qingxia Zheng, Jianfeng Zhang, Ran Wang, Guoyun Xu, Hui Zhang, Pingping Liu, Huina Zhou
BACKGROUND: Drought stress is one of the most severe problem limited agricultural productivity worldwide. It has been reported that plants response to drought-stress by sophisticated mechanisms at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing the responses of tobacco leaves to drought stress and water status are not well understood. To identify genes and miRNAs involved in drought-stress responses in tobacco, we performed both mRNA and small RNA sequencing on tobacco leaf samples from the following three treatments: untreated-control (CL), drought stress (DL), and re-watering (WL)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055134/moving-forward-socio-economically-focused-models-of-deforestation
#18
Camille Dezécache, Jean-Michel Salles, Ghislain Vieilledent, Bruno Hérault
While high resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially-explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050058/sustainable-crop-intensification-through-surface-water-irrigation-in-bangladesh-a-geospatial-assessment-of-landscape-scale-production-potential
#19
Timothy J Krupnik, Urs Schulthess, Zia Uddin Ahmed, Andrew J McDonald
Changing dietary preferences and population growth in South Asia have resulted in increasing demand for wheat and maize, along side high and sustained demand for rice. In the highly productive northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, farmers utilize groundwater irrigation to assure that at least two of these crops are sequenced on the same field within the same year. Such double cropping has had a significant and positive influence on regional agricultural productivity. But in the risk-prone and food insecure lower Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP), cropping is less intensive...
January 2017: Land Use Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042817/think-yellow-and-keep-green-role-of-sulfanes-from-garlic-in-agriculture
#20
REVIEW
Awais Anwar, Emma Gould, Ryan Tinson, Murree Groom, Chris J Hamilton
Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils...
December 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
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