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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036930/automatic-hotspot-and-sun-glint-detection-in-uav-multispectral-images
#1
Damian Ortega-Terol, David Hernandez-Lopez, Rocio Ballesteros, Diego Gonzalez-Aguilera
Last advances in sensors, photogrammetry and computer vision have led to high-automation levels of 3D reconstruction processes for generating dense models and multispectral orthoimages from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images. However, these cartographic products are sometimes blurred and degraded due to sun reflection effects which reduce the image contrast and colour fidelity in photogrammetry and the quality of radiometric values in remote sensing applications. This paper proposes an automatic approach for detecting sun reflections problems (hotspot and sun glint) in multispectral images acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), based on a photogrammetric strategy included in a flight planning and control software developed by the authors...
October 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022835/time-for-multiple-extraction-methods-in-proteomics-a-comparison-of-three-protein-extraction-methods-in-the-eustigmatophyte-alga-microchloropsis-gaditana-ccmp526
#2
Anbarasu Karthikaichamy, Pranali Deore, Vineeta Rai, Dieter Bulach, John Beardall, Santosh Noronha, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Proteomics is a crucial postgenomic biotechnology for functional and systems scale analyses in cell and integrative biology, not to mention clinical and precision medicine research. However, a fundamental requirement for an accurate examination of the protein complement of cells is an efficient method for extracting the proteins. This study reports on the evaluation of three protein extraction methods: trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone, phenol, and TRIzol, in the eustigmatophyte alga Microchloropsis gaditana CCMP526 for proteomic analysis...
October 12, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991973/determining-the-effect-of-drying-time-on-phosphorus-solubilization-from-three-agricultural-soils-under-climate-change-scenarios
#3
K J Forber, M C Ockenden, C Wearing, M J Hollaway, P D Falloon, R Kahana, M L Villamizar, J G Zhou, P J A Withers, K J Beven, A L Collins, R Evans, K M Hiscock, C J A Macleod, P M Haygarth
Climate projections for the future indicate that the United Kingdom will experience hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters, bringing longer dry periods followed by rewetting. This will result in changes in phosphorus (P) mobilization patterns that will influence the transfer of P from land to water. We tested the hypothesis that changes in the future patterns of drying-rewetting will affect the amount of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) solubilized from soil. Estimations of dry period characteristics (duration and temperature) under current and predicted climate were determined using data from the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) Weather Generator tool...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987354/determination-of-underivatized-amino-acids-to-evaluate-quality-of-beer-by-capillary-electrophoresis-with-online-sweeping-technique
#4
Tian Luo, Jing Ke, Yunfei Xie, Yuming Dong
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ultraviolet detection was applied to determine underivatized amino acids in beer, based on the coordination interaction of copper ions and amino acids. An online sweeping technique was combined with CE to improve detection sensitivity. Using the United Nations Food Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization model of essential amino acid pattern and flavor of amino acids, the quality and taste in three kinds of beer were evaluated. It was found that Beer2 had higher quality than the other two kinds and the content of phenylalanine, proline, serine, and isoleucine was relatively large in all three kinds of beers with a great influence on beer flavor...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985771/novel-two-stage-fine-milling-enables-high-throughput-determination-of-glyphosate-residues-in-raw-agricultural-commodities
#5
Leah S Riter, Chad E Wujcik
Dramatic process-efficiency gains for residue analysis of glyphosate in raw agricultural commodities (RACs) were achieved by development and validation of a two-stage fine-milling process. This secondary milling produced a uniform and consistent product that could be reproducibly measured with 75 mg analytical test portions. The milligram scale sample size enabled the direct weighing of sample into a liquid-handler-compatible 96-well format. A high-throughput workflow based on this innovative comminution approach for the quantitation of glyphosate, a nonselective herbicide, and its main degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid, was validated in various RACs and used to demonstrate the applicability of the two-step milling process...
October 6, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985063/personalized-medicine-for-crops-opportunities-for-the-application-of-molecular-recognition-in-agriculture
#6
Emily Mastronardi, Carlos Monreal, Maria C DeRosa
This perspective examines the detection of rhizosphere biomarkers, namely root exudates and microbial metabolites, using molecular recognition elements such as molecularly imprinted polymers, antibodies, and aptamers. Tracking these compounds in the rhizosphere could provide valuable insight into the status of the crop and soil in a highly localized way. The outlook and potential impact of the combination of molecular recognition and other innovations such as nanotechnology and precision agriculture and the comparison to advances in personalized medicine are considered...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971308/ozone-flux-in-plant-ecosystems-new-opportunities-for-long-term-monitoring-networks-to-deliver-ozone-risk-assessments
#7
Silvano Fares, Adriano Conte, Abad Chabbi
Ozone (O3) is a photochemically formed reactive gas responsible for a decreasing carbon assimilation in plant ecosystems. Present in the atmosphere in trace concentrations (less than 100 ppbv), this molecule is capable of inhibiting carbon assimilation in agricultural and forest ecosystems. Ozone-risk assessments are typically based on manipulative experiments. Present regulations regarding critical ozone levels are mostly based on an estimated accumulated exposure over a given threshold concentration. There is however a scientific consensus over flux estimates being more accurate, because they include plant physiology analyses and different environmental parameters that control the uptake-that is, not just the exposure-of O3...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961254/statistical-modelling-for-precision-agriculture-a-case-study-in-optimal-environmental-schedules-for-agaricus-bisporus-production-via-variable-domain-functional-regression
#8
Efstathios Panayi, Gareth W Peters, George Kyriakides
Quantifying the effects of environmental factors over the duration of the growing process on Agaricus Bisporus (button mushroom) yields has been difficult, as common functional data analysis approaches require fixed length functional data. The data available from commercial growers, however, is of variable duration, due to commercial considerations. We employ a recently proposed regression technique termed Variable-Domain Functional Regression in order to be able to accommodate these irregular-length datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946606/uncooled-thermal-camera-calibration-and-optimization-of-the-photogrammetry-process-for-uav-applications-in-agriculture
#9
Krishna Ribeiro-Gomes, David Hernández-López, José F Ortega, Rocío Ballesteros, Tomás Poblete, Miguel A Moreno
The acquisition, processing, and interpretation of thermal images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is becoming a useful source of information for agronomic applications because of the higher temporal and spatial resolution of these products compared with those obtained from satellites. However, due to the low load capacity of the UAV they need to mount light, uncooled thermal cameras, where the microbolometer is not stabilized to a constant temperature. This makes the camera precision low for many applications...
September 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945022/-progress-of-gene-editing-technologies-and-prospect-in-traditional-chinese-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Yan-Yan Ma, Jing-Zhe Li, Er-Ning Gao, Dan Qian, Ju-Ying Zhong, Chang-Zhen Liu
Gene editing is a kind of technologies that makes precise modification to the genome. It can be used to knock out/in and replace the specific DNA fragment, and make accurate gene editing on the genome level. The essence of the technique is the DNA sequence change with use of non homologous end link repair and homologous recombination repair, combined with specific DNA target recognition and endonuclease.This technology has wide range of development prospects and high application value in terms of scientific research, agriculture, medical treatment and other fields...
January 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938132/development-and-validation-of-carbofuran-and-3-hydroxycarbofuran-analysis-by-high-pressure-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detector-hplc-dad-for-forensic-veterinary-medicine
#11
Vagner Gonçalves, Nicolle Queiroz Hazarbassanov, Adriana de Siqueira, Jorge Camilo Florio, Claudia Helena Pastor Ciscato, Paulo Cesar Maiorka, André Rinaldi Fukushima, Helenice de Souza Spinosa
Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932198/progress-and-prospects-of-crispr-cas-systems-in-insects-and-other-arthropods
#12
REVIEW
Dan Sun, Zhaojiang Guo, Yong Liu, Youjun Zhang
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and the CRISPR-associated gene Cas9 represent an invaluable system for the precise editing of genes in diverse species. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an adaptive mechanism that enables bacteria and archaeal species to resist invading viruses and phages or plasmids. Compared with zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has the advantage of requiring less time and effort. This efficient technology has been used in many species, including diverse arthropods that are relevant to agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and public health; however, there is no review that systematically summarizes its successful application in the editing of both insect and non-insect arthropod genomes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930999/measuring-and-mapping-patterns-of-soil-erosion-and-deposition-related-to-soil-carbonate-concentrations-under-agricultural-management
#13
Robert H Erskine, Lucretia A Sherrod, Timothy R Green
Spatial patterns of soil erosion and deposition can be inferred from differences in ground elevation mapped at appropriate time increments. Such changes in elevation are related to changes in near-surface soil carbonate (CaCO3) profiles. The objective is to describe a simple conceptual model and detailed protocol for repeatable field and laboratory measurements of these quantities. Here, accurate elevation is measured using a ground-based differential global positioning system (GPS); other data acquisition methods could be applied to the same basic method...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926963/broad-and-inconsistent-muscle-food-classification-is-problematic-for-dietary-guidance-in-the-u-s
#14
REVIEW
Cody L Gifford, Lauren E O'Connor, Wayne W Campbell, Dale R Woerner, Keith E Belk
Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via methods that include: (1) food frequency questionnaires; (2) food disappearance data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service; and (3) dietary recall information from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data...
September 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926371/residential-agricultural-pesticide-exposures-and-risks-of-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#15
Gary M Shaw, Wei Yang, Eric M Roberts, Susan E Kegley, David K Stevenson, Suzan L Carmichael, Paul B English
BACKGROUND: Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. METHODS: The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data...
September 18, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924448/comparison-of-visible-imaging-thermography-and-spectrometry-methods-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-heterodera-schachtii-inoculation-on-sugar-beets
#16
Samuel Joalland, Claudio Screpanti, Frank Liebisch, Hubert Vincent Varella, Alain Gaume, Achim Walter
BACKGROUND: Phenotyping technologies are expected to provide predictive power for a range of applications in plant and crop sciences. Here, we use the disease pressure of Beet Cyst Nematodes (BCN) on sugar beet as an illustrative example to test the specific capabilities of different methods. Strong links between the above and belowground parts of sugar beet plants have made BCN suitable targets for use of non-destructive phenotyping methods. We compared the ability of visible light imaging, thermography and spectrometry to evaluate the effect of BCN on the growth of sugar beet plants...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923297/quick-analysis-of-organic-matter-in-soil-by-energy-dispersive-x-ray-fluorescence-and-multivariate-analysis
#17
Franslley Morona, Felipe R Dos Santos, André M Brinatti, Fábio L Melquiades
The rapid, simple and accurate determination of soil quality indicators is fundamental for improvements in precision agriculture and consequently in production efficiency. The objectives of this study were to determine the organic matter (OM) and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in agricultural soil and to discriminate soil provenance by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) combined with principal component analysis and partial least square regression. The conventional methods used for the determination of OM and TOC concentrations are the gravimetric and Walkley-Black methods, respectively...
September 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922383/timing-and-adequate-attendance-of-antenatal-care-visits-among-women-in-ethiopia
#18
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale, Vaibhav Shah, Bernard Kadio, Ogochukwu Udenigwe
INTRODUCTION: Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. METHODS: Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918574/fecal-sludge-management-in-developing-urban-centers-a-review-on-the-collection-treatment-and-composting
#19
Emmanuel Alepu Odey, Zifu Li, Xiaoqin Zhou, Loissi Kalakodio
The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting...
October 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912524/precise-insertion-and-guided-editing-of-higher-plant-genomes-using-cpf1-crispr-nucleases
#20
Matthew B Begemann, Benjamin N Gray, Emma January, Gina C Gordon, Yonghua He, Haijun Liu, Xingrong Wu, Thomas P Brutnell, Todd C Mockler, Mohammed Oufattole
Precise genome editing of plants has the potential to reshape global agriculture through the targeted engineering of endogenous pathways or the introduction of new traits. To develop a CRISPR nuclease-based platform that would enable higher efficiencies of precise gene insertion or replacement, we screened the Cpf1 nucleases from Francisella novicida and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 for their capability to induce targeted gene insertion via homology directed repair. Both nucleases, in the presence of a guide RNA and repairing DNA template flanked by homology DNA fragments to the target site, were demonstrated to generate precise gene insertions as well as indel mutations at the target site in the rice genome...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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