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Precision agriculture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641186/composition-of-dissolved-organic-matter-dom-from-periodically-submerged-soils-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-areas-as-determined-by-elemental-and-optical-analysis-infrared-spectroscopy-pyrolysis-gc-ms-and-thermally-assisted-hydrolysis-and-methylation
#1
Tao Jiang, Joeri Kaal, Jian Liang, Yaoling Zhang, Shiqiang Wei, Dingyong Wang, Nelson W Green
Soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) has a major influence in biogeochemical processes related to contaminant dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions, due to its reactivity and its bridging role between the soil and aquatic systems. Within the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR, China) area, an extensive water-fluctuation zone periodically submerges the surrounding soils. Here we report a characterization study of soil-derived DOM across the TGR areas, using elemental and optical analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis-GC-MS (Py-GC-MS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM-GC-MS)...
June 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621739/root-system-water-consumption-pattern-identification-on-time-series-data
#2
Manuel Figueroa, Christopher Pope
In agriculture, soil and meteorological sensors are used along low power networks to capture data, which allows for optimal resource usage and minimizing environmental impact. This study uses time series analysis methods for outliers' detection and pattern recognition on soil moisture sensor data to identify irrigation and consumption patterns and to improve a soil moisture prediction and irrigation system. This study compares three new algorithms with the current detection technique in the project; the results greatly decrease the number of false positives detected...
June 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612238/gene-editing-in-birds-takes-flight
#3
Mark E Woodcock, Alewo Idoko-Akoh, Michael J McGrew
The application of gene editing (GE) technology to create precise changes to the genome of bird species will provide new and exciting opportunities for the biomedical, agricultural and biotechnology industries, as well as providing new approaches for producing research models. Recent advances in modifying both the somatic and germ cell lineages in chicken indicate that this species, and conceivably soon other avian species, has joined a growing number of model organisms in the gene editing revolution.
June 13, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605605/nanosensor-technology-applied-to-living-plant-systems
#4
Seon-Yeong Kwak, Min Hao Wong, Tedrick Thomas Salim Lew, Gili Bisker, Michael A Lee, Amir Kaplan, Juyao Dong, Albert Tianxiang Liu, Volodymyr B Koman, Rosalie Sinclair, Catherine Hamann, Michael S Strano
An understanding of plant biology is essential to solving many long-standing global challenges, including sustainable and secure food production and the generation of renewable fuel sources. Nanosensor platforms, sensors with a characteristic dimension that is nanometer in scale, have emerged as important tools for monitoring plant signaling pathways and metabolism that are nondestructive, minimally invasive, and capable of real-time analysis. This review outlines the recent advances in nanotechnology that enable these platforms, including the measurement of chemical fluxes even at the single-molecule level...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603692/nanotechnology-the-new-perspective-in-precision-agriculture
#5
REVIEW
Joginder Singh Duhan, Ravinder Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Pawan Kaur, Kiran Nehra, Surekha Duhan
Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants...
September 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583389/fast-determination-of-pesticides-and-other-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-treated-wastewater-using-direct-injection-coupled-to-highly-sensitive-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Marina Celia Campos-Mañas, Patricia Plaza-Bolaños, José Antonio Sánchez-Pérez, Sixto Malato, Ana Agüera
It is well known that wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents usually contain micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals (or their transformation products, TPs) or pesticides, which is a major issue when evaluating their possible reuse (e.g. for irrigation in agriculture). In search for an improved accuracy and simplicity, methods based on the direct injection of the sample (DI) represent a recent trend taking advantage of the increasing sensitivity of new mass spectrometry (MS) instruments. Thus, the present study shows the development and validation of a DI-based method by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-linear ion trap analyser (UHPLC-QqLIT-MS/MS)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576697/sequencing-viral-sirnas-to-identify-previously-undescribed-viruses-and-viroids-in-a-panel-of-ornamental-plant-samples-structured-as-a-matrix-of-pools
#7
REVIEW
Eric Verdin, Catherine Wipf-Scheibel, Patrick Gognalons, François Aller, Mireille Jacquemond, Mark Tepfer
Ornamental plants constitute a largely unknown and potentially important source of pathogens affecting not only ornamental plants, but also major crop species. We have carried out studies using high-throughput sequencing of 21-24 nt RNAs from potentially virus-infected ornamental plants, followed by assembly of sequence scaffolds, to identify the virus and viroid genomes present in a panel of 67 plant samples representing 46 species belonging to the main sectors of the ornamental plant industry (cut flowers, pot plants, bulbs)...
May 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554145/physiological-and-biochemical-perspectives-of-non-salt-tolerant-plants-during-bacterial-interaction-against-soil-salinity
#8
REVIEW
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan, Kwang Hyun Baek
Climatic changes on earth affect the soil quality of agricultural lands, especially by increasing salt deposition in soil, which results in soil salinity. Soil salinity is a major challenge to growth and reproduction among glycophytes (including all crop plants). Soil bacteria present in the rhizosphere and/or roots naturally protect plants from the adverse effects of soil salinity by reprogramming the stress-induced physiological changes in plants. Bacteria can enrich the soil with major nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) in a form easily available to plants and prevent the transport of excess sodium to roots (exopolysaccharides secreted by bacteria bind with sodium ions) for maintaining ionic balance and water potential in cells...
May 22, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#9
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499824/quantifying-dietary-exposure-to-pesticide-residues-using-spraying-journal-data
#10
Martin Olof Larsson, Vibe Sloth Nielsen, Christian Ørsted Brandt, Niels Bjerre, Frank Laporte, Nina Cedergreen
Relatively few studies are available on the combined risk of realistic dietary pesticide exposure. Despite available studies showing low risk, public concern remains. Recent methods used to estimate realistic exposure levels have a number of drawbacks, and better methods are needed. Using a novel approach, we estimated the combined exposure in the Danish population, resulting from pesticide usage in Danish agriculture. The complete Danish spraying journal data from 2014, and supervised trial residue levels reported by EFSA, were used in combination, generating residue estimates in 25 crops...
May 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492480/detection-of-soil-nitrogen-using-near-infrared-sensors-based-on-soil-pretreatment-and-algorithms
#11
Pengcheng Nie, Tao Dong, Yong He, Fangfang Qu
Soil nitrogen content is one of the important growth nutrient parameters of crops. It is a prerequisite for scientific fertilization to accurately grasp soil nutrient information in precision agriculture. The information about nutrients such as nitrogen in the soil can be obtained quickly by using a near-infrared sensor. The data can be analyzed in the detection process, which is nondestructive and non-polluting. In order to investigate the effect of soil pretreatment on nitrogen content by near infrared sensor, 16 nitrogen concentrations were mixed with soil and the soil samples were divided into three groups with different pretreatment...
May 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490138/contamination-of-chinese-salted-fish-with-volatile-n-nitrosamines-as-determined-by-quechers-and-gas-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#12
Yuesheng Qiu, Jie-Hua Chen, Weijun Yu, Pei Wang, Minxian Rong, Hong Deng
The QuEChERS sample preparation method and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were employed to determine nine volatile N-nitrosamines (VNAs) in Chinese salted fish. This method was validated by considering calibration plot linearity, selectivity, matrix effects, trueness, precision, limits of quantification and specificity. Fifty-four samples of Chinese salted fish obtained from five provinces were analyzed. The results indicated that the concentrations of one VNA, N-nitrosodimethylamine in 57.4% of the samples exceeded the acceptable limit (the China national standard value of 4μgkg(-1)), and total VNA contents in 68...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489860/rediscovery-of-the-enigmatic-fungus-farming-ant-mycetosoritis-asper-mayr-hymenoptera-formicidae-implications-for-taxonomy-phylogeny-and-the-evolution-of-agriculture-in-ants
#13
Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Ana Ješovnik, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Mauricio Bacci, Ted R Schultz
We report the rediscovery of the exceedingly rarely collected and enigmatic fungus-farming ant species Mycetosoritis asper. Since the description of the type specimen in 1887, only four additional specimens are known to have been added to the world's insect collections. Its biology is entirely unknown and its phylogenetic position within the fungus-farming ants has remained puzzling due to its aberrant morphology. In 2014 we excavated and collected twenty-one colonies of M. asper in the Floresta Nacional de Chapecó in Santa Catarina, Brazil...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487275/a-phenome-database-neauhlfpd-designed-and-constructed-for-broiler-lines-divergently-selected-for-abdominal-fat-content
#14
Li Min, Dong Xiangyu, Liang Hao, Leng Li, Zhang Hui, Wang Shouzhi, Li Hui, Du Zhi-Qiang
Effective management and analysis of precisely recorded phenotypic traits are important components of the selection and breeding of superior livestocks. Over two decades, we divergently selected chicken lines for abdominal fat content at Northeast Agricultural University (Northeast Agricultural University High and Low Fat, NEAUHLF), and collected large volume of phenotypic data related to the investigation on molecular genetic basis of adipose tissue deposition in broilers. To effectively and systematically store, manage and analyze phenotypic data, we built the NEAUHLF Phenome Database (NEAUHLFPD)...
May 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484343/uncertainty-quantification-and-optimal-decisions
#15
REVIEW
C L Farmer
A mathematical model can be analysed to construct policies for action that are close to optimal for the model. If the model is accurate, such policies will be close to optimal when implemented in the real world. In this paper, the different aspects of an ideal workflow are reviewed: modelling, forecasting, evaluating forecasts, data assimilation and constructing control policies for decision-making. The example of the oil industry is used to motivate the discussion, and other examples, such as weather forecasting and precision agriculture, are used to argue that the same mathematical ideas apply in different contexts...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434113/precision-knockdown-of-egfr-gene-expression-using-radio-frequency-electromagnetic-energy
#16
Ilya V Ulasov, Haidn Foster, Mike Butters, Jae-Geun Yoon, Tomoko Ozawa, Theodore Nicolaides, Xavier Figueroa, Parvinder Hothi, Michael Prados, John Butters, Charles Cobbs
Electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the radio frequency energy (RFE) range can affect cells at the molecular level. Here we report a technology that can record the specific RFE signal of a given molecule, in this case the siRNA of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We demonstrate that cells exposed to this EGFR siRNA RFE signal have a 30-70% reduction of EGFR mRNA expression and ~60% reduction in EGFR protein expression vs. control treated cells. Specificity for EGFR siRNA effect was confirmed via RNA microarray and antibody dot blot array...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#17
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426952/plant-viruses-and-bacteriophages-for-drug-delivery-in-medicine-and-biotechnology
#18
REVIEW
Anna E Czapar, Nicole F Steinmetz
There are a wide variety of synthetic and naturally occurring nanomaterials under development for nanoscale cargo-delivery applications. Viruses play a special role in these developments, because they can be regarded as naturally occurring nanomaterials evolved to package and deliver cargos. While any nanomaterial has its advantage and disadvantages, viral nanoparticles (VNPs), in particular the ones derived from plant viruses and bacteriophages, are attractive options for cargo-delivery as they are biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-infectious to mammals...
April 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424714/relationships-between-root-pathogen-resistance-abundance-and-expression-of-pseudomonas-antimicrobial-genes-and-soil-properties-in-representative-swiss-agricultural-soils
#19
Nicola Imperiali, Francesca Dennert, Jana Schneider, Titouan Laessle, Christelle Velatta, Marie Fesselet, Michele Wyler, Fabio Mascher, Olga Mavrodi, Dmitri Mavrodi, Monika Maurhofer, Christoph Keel
Strains of Pseudomonas that produce antimicrobial metabolites and control soilborne plant diseases have often been isolated from soils defined as disease-suppressive, i.e., soils, in which specific plant pathogens are present, but plants show no or reduced disease symptoms. Moreover, it is assumed that pseudomonads producing antimicrobial compounds such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) or phenazines (PHZ) contribute to the specific disease resistance of suppressive soils. However, pseudomonads producing antimicrobial metabolites are also present in soils that are conducive to disease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414338/open-path-spectroscopic-methane-detection-using-a-broadband-monolithic-distributed-feedback-quantum-cascade-laser-array
#20
Anna P M Michel, Jason Kapit, Mark F Witinski, Romain Blanchard
Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that has both natural and anthropogenic sources. The ability to measure methane using an integrated path length approach such as an open/long-path length sensor would be beneficial in several environments for examining anthropogenic and natural sources, including tundra landscapes, rivers, lakes, landfills, estuaries, fracking sites, pipelines, and agricultural sites. Here a broadband monolithic distributed feedback-quantum cascade laser array was utilized as the source for an open-path methane sensor...
April 10, 2017: Applied Optics
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