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Precision agriculture

Marica Baldoncini, Matteo Albéri, Carlo Bottardi, Enrico Chiarelli, Kassandra Giulia Cristina Raptis, Virginia Strati, Fabio Mantovani
Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy recently emerged as a promising technique for non-stop monitoring of soil water content with possible applications in the field of precision farming. The potentialities of the method are investigated by means of Monte Carlo simulations applied to the reconstruction of gamma-ray spectra collected by a NaI scintillation detector permanently installed at an agricultural experimental site. A two steps simulation strategy based on a geometrical translational invariance is developed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Benjamin J Kotopka, Yanran Li, Christina D Smolke
Covering: 2006 to 2018Phytochemicals are important sources for the discovery and development of agricultural and pharmaceutical compounds, such as pesticides and medicines. However, these compounds are typically present in low abundance in nature, and the biosynthetic pathways for most phytochemicals are not fully elucidated. Heterologous production of phytochemicals in plant, bacterial, and yeast hosts has been pursued as a potential approach to address sourcing issues associated with many valuable phytochemicals, and more recently has been utilized as a tool to aid in the elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways...
June 13, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Juan-Carlos Lizardo-Huerta, Baptiste Sirjean, Laurent Verdier, René Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude
Chloropicrin (CCl3NO2) is widely used in agriculture as a pesticide, weed-killer, fungicide or nematicide. It has also been used as chemical agent during World War I. The precise understanding of its combustion chemistry for destruction processes or in the event of accidental fire of stored reserves is a major safety issue. A detailed chemical kinetic model for the combustion and pyrolysis of chloropicrin is proposed for the first time. A large number of thermo-kinetic parameters were calculated using quantum chemistry and reaction rate theory...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Zhenran Gao, Yan Zhu, Cheng Liu, Hongzhou Qian, Weixing Cao, Jun Ni
To meet the demand of intelligent irrigation for accurate moisture sensing in the soil vertical profile, a soil profile moisture sensor was designed based on the principle of high-frequency capacitance. The sensor consists of five groups of sensing probes, a data processor, and some accessory components. Low-resistivity copper rings were used as components of the sensing probes. Composable simulation of the sensor’s sensing probes was carried out using a high-frequency structure simulator. According to the effective radiation range of electric field intensity, width and spacing of copper ring were set to 30 mm and 40 mm, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Sensors
Rahim Nosrati, Sadegh Dehghani, Bahareh Karimi, Meysam Yousefi, Seyed Mohammad Taghdisi, Khalil Abnous, Mona Alibolandi, Mohammad Ramezani
Siderophores are small organic compounds secreted by microorganisms under iron-depleted conditions which enhance the uptake of iron. Siderophores can play vital roles in ecology, agriculture, bioremediation, biosensor, and medicine. In recent years, the concept of siderophore-based biosensing devices has opened new horizons in high precision detection of various metal ions especially the iron, microorganisms, phosphopeptides, antibiotics as well pesticides. Once combined with nanomaterials, nano-scale siderophore systems provide powerful analytical platforms for detection of low concentration of metal ions and numerous pathogens...
May 30, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Effi Haque, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Md Mahmudul Hassan, Pankaj Bhowmik, M Rezaul Karim, Magdalena Śmiech, Kaijun Zhao, Mahfuzur Rahman, Tofazzal Islam
The world population is expected to increase from 7.3 to 9.7 billion by 2050. Pest outbreak and increased abiotic stresses due to climate change pose a high risk to tropical crop production. Although conventional breeding techniques have significantly increased crop production and yield, new approaches are required to further improve crop production in order to meet the global growing demand for food. The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein9) genome editing technology has shown great promise for quickly addressing emerging challenges in agriculture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhaoyu Zhai, José-Fernán Martínez Ortega, Néstor Lucas Martínez, Jesús Rodríguez-Molina
As the demand for food grows continuously, intelligent agriculture has drawn much attention due to its capability of producing great quantities of food efficiently. The main purpose of intelligent agriculture is to plan agricultural missions properly and use limited resources reasonably with minor human intervention. This paper proposes a Precision Farming System (PFS) as a Multi-Agent System (MAS). Components of PFS are treated as agents with different functionalities. These agents could form several coalitions to complete the complex agricultural missions cooperatively...
June 2, 2018: Sensors
Gaëlle Daniele, Florent Lafay, Céline Pelosi, Clémentine Fritsch, Emmanuelle Vulliet
Agricultural intensification, and in particular the use of pesticides, leads over the years to a loss of biodiversity and a decline of ecosystem services in cultivated zones and agricultural landscapes. Among the animal communities involved in the functioning of agro-ecosystems, earthworms are ubiquitous and recognized as indicators of land uses and cultural practices. However, little data is available on the levels of pesticides in such organisms in natura, which would allow estimating their actual exposure and the potentially resulting impacts...
June 4, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor, Juan Manuel García-Chamizo, Mario Nieto-Hidalgo, José Mora-Martínez
The Internet of Things (IoT) has opened productive ways to cultivate soil with the use of low-cost hardware (sensors/actuators) and communication (Internet) technologies. Remote equipment and crop monitoring, predictive analytic, weather forecasting for crops or smart logistics and warehousing are some examples of these new opportunities. Nevertheless, farmers are agriculture experts but, usually, do not have experience in IoT applications. Users who use IoT applications must participate in its design, improving the integration and use...
May 28, 2018: Sensors
Lauren A Ostrowski, Amanda M Seto, Barry Saville
Smut fungi are the etiological agents of several devastating agricultural diseases. They are characterized by the production of teliospores, which are thick-walled dispersal agents. Teliospores can remain dormant for decades. The dormancy is characterized by low metabolic rates, paused macromolecular biosynthesis and greatly reduced levels of respiration. Upon receiving required environmental signals, teliospores germinate to produce haploid cells, which can initiate new rounds of infection. Teliospore germination is characterized by the resumption of macromolecular biosynthesis, increased respiration and dramatic morphological changes...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Gabriel Gaál, Tatiana A da Silva, Vladimir Gaál, Rafael C Hensel, Lucas R Amaral, Varlei Rodrigues, Antonio Riul
Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Avishai Karny, Assaf Zinger, Ashima Kajal, Janna Shainsky-Roitman, Avi Schroeder
As the world population grows, there is a need for efficient agricultural technologies to provide global food requirements and reduce environmental toll. In medicine, nanoscale drug delivery systems grant improved therapeutic precision by overcoming biological barriers and enhancing drug targeting to diseased tissues. Here, we loaded nanoscale drug-delivery systems with agricultural nutrients, and applied them to the leaves of tomato plants. We show that the nanoparticles - liposomes composed of plant-derived lipids, penetrate the leaf and translocate in a bidirectional manner, distributing to other leaves and to the roots...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kranthi Varala, Amy Marshall-Colón, Jacopo Cirrone, Matthew D Brooks, Angelo V Pasquino, Sophie Léran, Shipra Mittal, Tara M Rock, Molly B Edwards, Grace J Kim, Sandrine Ruffel, W Richard McCombie, Dennis Shasha, Gloria M Coruzzi
This study exploits time, the relatively unexplored fourth dimension of gene regulatory networks (GRNs), to learn the temporal transcriptional logic underlying dynamic nitrogen (N) signaling in plants. Our "just-in-time" analysis of time-series transcriptome data uncovered a temporal cascade of cis elements underlying dynamic N signaling. To infer transcription factor (TF)-target edges in a GRN, we applied a time-based machine learning method to 2,174 dynamic N-responsive genes. We experimentally determined a network precision cutoff, using TF-regulated genome-wide targets of three TF hubs (CRF4, SNZ, and CDF1), used to "prune" the network to 155 TFs and 608 targets...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xueting Zeng, Tienan Li, Cong Chen, Zhenjiang Si, Guohe Huang, Ping Guo, Xiaowen Zhuang
In this study, a hybrid land-water-environment (LWE) model is developed for identifying ecological effect and risk under uncertain precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem. A simulation-based fuzzy-stochastic programming with risk analysis (SFSR) method is used into LWE model to reflect the meteorological impacts; meanwhile, it also can quantify artificial fuzziness (e.g., risk attitude of policymaker) and natural vagueness (e.g., ecological function) in decision-making. The developed LWE model with SFSR method is applied to a practical agroforestry ecosystem in China...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
David Vela-Corcía, Diego Romero, Antonio de Vicente, Alejandro Pérez-García
Methyl benzimidazole carbamate (MBC) fungicides are fungicidal compounds that exert their biological activities by preventing cell division through the inhibition of tubulin polymerization, which is the major component of microtubules. Several mutations in the β-tubulin gene contribute to MBC resistance, the most common and significant of which occur at residues 198 and 200. Despite nearly 50 years of agricultural use, the binding site of MBCs and the precise mechanism by which those mutations affect fungicide efficacy have not been determined...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mingkai Qu, Yan Wang, Biao Huang, Yongcun Zhao
Spatial uncertainty information of the environmental risk of soil heavy metal is crucial for precise environmental management. This study first compared three geostatistical methods for spatial simulation of soil Copper (Cu) in a peri-urban agriculture area of Wuhan city, China, that are sequential Gaussian co-simulation (CoSGS) with auxiliary in-situ portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) data (CoSGS_in-situ), CoSGS with auxiliary ex-situ PXRF data (CoSGS_ex-situ), and sequential Gaussian simulation without auxiliary data (SGS)...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Elisa Polledri, Rosa Mercadante, Silvia Fustinoni
RATIONALE: Tebuconazole (TEB) and penconazole (PEN) are widely applied fungicides and environmental contaminants; their toxicological properties include possible effects to the unborn child, therefore the evaluation of human exposure is relevant to risk assessment. Hair is a non-invasive specimen that incorporates pollutants allowing an extended exposure window to be surveyed. Aim of this work was to develop and validate an assay for the determination of TEB and PEN in human hair. METHODS: Under optimised conditions, analytes were extracted soaking hair in acetonitrile, in the presence of deuterated analogues, under heating and agitation...
May 4, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, Jan E Conn, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
The precise role that deforestation for agricultural settlements and commercial forest products plays in promoting or inhibiting malaria incidence in Amazonian Brazil is controversial. Using publically available databases, we analyzed temporal malaria incidence (2009-2015) in municipalities of nine Amazonian states in relation to ecologically defined variables: (i) deforestation (rate of forest clearing over time); (ii) degraded forest (degree of human disturbance and openness of forest canopy for logging) and (iii) impacted forest (sum of deforested and degraded forest patches)...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chang Chun Li, Peng Chen, Guo Zheng Lu, Chun Yan Ma, Xiao Xiao Ma, Shuang Ting Wang
Nitrogen balance index (NBI) is one of the important indicators for crop growth. The high and low status of nitrogen can be quickly monitored by measuring NBI, which can provide accurate information of agricultural production and management. The relationship between NBI and original spectrum and derivative spectrum of infrared and near infrared wavelength from flowering to maturity stage was analyzed based on high definition digital image and hyperspectral data on unmanned aerial vehicles. Then, the sensitive bands were selected and the vegetation indexes were calculated...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
S Pulley, A L Collins
The mitigation of diffuse sediment pollution requires reliable provenance information so that measures can be targeted. Sediment source fingerprinting represents one approach for supporting these needs, but recent methodological developments have resulted in an increasing complexity of data processing methods rendering the approach less accessible to non-specialists. A comprehensive new software programme (SIFT; SedIment Fingerprinting Tool) has therefore been developed which guides the user through critical data analysis decisions and automates all calculations...
April 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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