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Precision agriculture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886091/a-testbed-to-evaluate-the-fiware-based-iot-platform-in-the-domain-of-precision-agriculture
#1
Ramón Martínez, Juan Ángel Pastor, Bárbara Álvarez, Andrés Iborra
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent one of the most promising technologies for precision farming. Over the next few years, a significant increase in the use of such systems on commercial farms is expected. WSNs present a number of problems, regarding scalability, interoperability, communications, connectivity with databases and data processing. Different Internet of Things middleware is appearing to overcome these challenges. This paper checks whether one of these middleware, FIWARE, is suitable for the development of agricultural applications...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871132/aspergillus-penicillioides-differentiation-and-cell-division-at-0-585-water-activity
#2
Andrew Stevenson, Philip G Hamill, Callum J O'Kane, Gerhard Kminek, John D Rummel, Mary A Voytek, Jan Dijksterhuis, John E Hallsworth
Water availability acts as the most-stringent constraint for life on Earth. Thus, understanding the water relations of microbial extremophiles is imperative to our ability to increase agricultural productivity (e.g., by enhancing the processing and turnover of dead organic matter in soils of arid regions); reduce human exposure to mycotoxins in buildings and our food-supply chain; prevent the spoilage of foods/animal feeds, books, museum specimens and artworks; and better control microbiology of industrial fermentations...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867311/spatial-variation-in-soil-properties-and-diffuse-losses-between-and-within-grassland-fields-with-similar-short-term-management
#3
S Peukert, B A Griffith, P J Murray, C J A Macleod, R E Brazier
: One of the major challenges for agriculture is to understand the effects of agricultural practices on soil properties and diffuse pollution, to support practical farm-scale land management. Three conventionally managed grassland fields with similar short-term management, but different ploughing histories, were studied on a long-term research platform: the North Wyke Farm Platform. The aims were to (i) quantify the between-field and within-field spatial variation in soil properties by geostatistical analysis, (ii) understand the effects of soil condition (in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon contents) on the quality of discharge water and (iii) establish robust baseline data before the implementation of various grassland management scenarios...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857214/laser-controlled-atom-source-for-optical-clocks
#4
Ole Kock, Wei He, Dariusz Świerad, Lyndsie Smith, Joshua Hughes, Kai Bongs, Yeshpal Singh
Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851833/deciphering-the-soybean-molecular-stress-response-via-high-throughput-approaches
#5
Agata Tyczewska, Joanna Gracz, Jakub Kuczyński, Tomasz Twardowski
As a result of thousands of years of agriculture, humans had created many crop varieties that became the basis of our daily diet, animal feed and also carry industrial application. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide and because of its high economic value the demand for soybean products is constantly growing. In Europe, due to unfavorable climate conditions, soybean cultivation is restricted and we are forced to rely on imported plant material. The development of agriculture requires continuous improvements in quality and yield of crop varieties under changing or adverse conditions, namely stresses...
November 17, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837361/analytical-evaluation-of-the-protection-offered-by-sealed-tractor-cabins-during-crop-pulverization-with-fenitrothion
#6
Michelle Barcellos, Milena Michele Faletti, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos Madureira, Fernando Cesar Bauer
The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion...
December 0: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827971/multi-domain-sdn-survivability-for-agricultural-wireless-sensor-networks
#7
Tao Huang, Siyu Yan, Fan Yang, Jiang Liu
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely applied in agriculture field; meanwhile, the advent of multi-domain software-defined networks (SDNs) have improved the wireless resource utilization rate and strengthened network management. In recent times, multi-domain SDNs have been applied to agricultural sensor networks, namely multi-domain software-defined wireless sensor networks (SDWSNs). However, when the SDNs controlling agriculture networks suddenly become unavailable, whether intra-domain or inter-domain, sensor network communication is abnormal because of the loss of control...
November 6, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795388/biotic-interactions-shape-the-ecological-distributions-of-staphylococcus-species
#8
Erik K Kastman, Noelani Kamelamela, Josh W Norville, Casey M Cosetta, Rachel J Dutton, Benjamin E Wolfe
: Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms...
October 18, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783243/management-of-agricultural-waste-for-removal-of-heavy-metals-from-aqueous-solution-adsorption-behaviors-adsorption-mechanisms-environmental-protection-and-techno-economic-analysis
#9
S E Abd Elhafez, H A Hamad, A A Zaatout, G F Malash
In the last decades, Egypt has been suffering from the phenomenon of black cloud resulting from burning rice husk and increasing the demand for water leading to the water crisis. An alternative, low-value and surplus agricultural byproduct (rice husk, RH) has an enormous potential for the removal of Cu(II) ions from water. The present study focuses on the chance of the use of rice husk as a bio-adsorbent without any chemical treatment instead of burning it and soiling the environment. The elemental, structural, morphological, surface functional, thermal, and textural characteristics of RH are determined by XRF, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA, and BET surface area, respectively, and contributed to the understanding of the adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782076/a-portable-farmland-information-collection-system-with-multiple-sensors
#10
Jianfeng Zhang, Jinyang Hu, Lvwen Huang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yimian Ma
Precision agriculture is the trend of modern agriculture, and it is also one of the important ways to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. In order to meet the production requirements of precision agriculture-efficient use of agricultural resources, and improving the crop yields and quality-some necessary field information in crop growth environment needs to be collected and monitored. In this paper, a farmland information collection system is developed, which includes a portable farmland information collection device based on STM32 (a 32-bit comprehensive range of microcontrollers based on ARM Crotex-M3), a remote server and a mobile phone APP...
October 22, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780257/looking-for-rhizobacterial-ecological-indicators-in-agricultural-soils-using-16s-rrna-metagenomic-amplicon-data
#11
José R Valverde, Sonia Gullón, Rafael Pérez Mellado
INTRODUCTION: Biological communities present in soil are essential to sustainable and productive agricultural practices; however, an accurate determination of the ecological status of agricultural soils remains to date an elusive task. An ideal indicator should be pervasive, play a relevant role in the ecosystem, show a rapid and proportional answer to external perturbations and be easily and economically measurable. Rhizobacteria play a major role in determining soil properties, becoming an attractive candidate for the detection of ecological indicators...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755602/disruption-of-fgf5-in-cashmere-goats-using-crispr-cas9-results-in-more-secondary-hair-follicles-and-longer-fibers
#12
Xiaolong Wang, Bei Cai, Jiankui Zhou, Haijing Zhu, Yiyuan Niu, Baohua Ma, Honghao Yu, Anmin Lei, Hailong Yan, Qiaoyan Shen, Lei Shi, Xiaoe Zhao, Jinlian Hua, Xingxu Huang, Lei Qu, Yulin Chen
Precision genetic engineering accelerates the genetic improvement of livestock for agriculture and biomedicine. We have recently reported our success in producing gene-modified goats using the CRISPR/Cas9 system through microinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs targeting the MSTN and FGF5 genes in goat embryos. By investigating the influence of gene modification on the phenotypes of Cas9-mediated goats, we herein demonstrate that the utility of this approach involving the disruption of FGF5 results in increased number of second hair follicles and enhanced fiber length in Cas9-mediated goats, suggesting more cashmere will be produced...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745927/on-line-solid-phase-extraction-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-determination-of-avermectins-and-milbemycin-in-soils
#13
Fabrício de Oliveira Ferreira, Caio Rodrigues-Silva, Susanne Rath
Avermectins and milbemycin are widely used as veterinary drugs and as agricultural pesticides, and their residues have been detected in soil. This study reports a simple and high-throughput method for determining ivermectin (IVER), abamectin (ABA), doramectin (DORA), eprinomectin (EPRI), and moxidectin (MOXI) residues in soils, employing an on-line solid-phase extraction technique coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS). The method was validated and applied for the determination of ABA in soils from an orange plantation treated with this pesticide...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736674/determination-of-as-cr-mo-sb-se-and-v-in-agricultural-soil-samples-by-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectrometry-after-simple-and-rapid-solvent-extraction-using-choline-chloride-oxalic-acid-deep-eutectic-solvent
#14
Joseph M Matong, Luthando Nyaba, Philiswa N Nomngongo
A rapid, simple and green ultrasound-assisted extraction method using deep eutectic solvents (DES) for extraction of As, Cr, Mo, Sb, Se and V in soil samples, has been developed. Choline chloride-oxalic acid based DES was used as a solvent. The target analytes were subsequently quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP OES). The parameters that affect the extraction of the target analytes was optimized using standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). In the optimization step, a two-level full factorial experimental design was used...
October 10, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707774/nitrogen-remobilisation-during-leaf-senescence-lessons-from-arabidopsis-to-crops
#15
Marien Havé, Anne Marmagne, Fabien Chardon, Céline Masclaux-Daubresse
As a result of climate changes, land use and agriculture have to adapt to new demands. Agriculture is responsible for a large part of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that have to be urgently reduced in order to protect the environment. At the same time, agriculture has to cope with the challenges of sustainably feeding a growing world population. Reducing the use of the ammonia-nitrate fertilizers that are responsible for a large part of the GHGs released and that have a negative impact on carbon balance is one of the objectives of precision agriculture...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695815/analytical-methods-for-quantifying-greenhouse-gas-flux-in-animal-production-systems
#16
W Powers, M Capelari
Given increased interest by all stakeholders to better understand the contribution of animal agriculture to climate change, it is important that appropriate methodologies be used when measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal agriculture. Similarly, a fundamental understanding of the differences between methods is necessary to appropriately compare data collected using different approaches and design meaningful experiments. Sources of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in animal production systems includes the animals, feed storage areas, manure deposition and storage areas, and feed and forage production fields...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684589/measuring-spray-droplet-size-from-agricultural-nozzles-using-laser-diffraction
#17
Bradley K Fritz, W Clint Hoffmann
When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668731/reducing-the-use-of-pesticides-with-site-specific-application-the-chemical-control-of-rhizoctonia-solani-as-a-case-of-study-for-the-management-of-soil-borne-diseases
#18
Ronan Le Cointe, Thomas E Simon, Patrick Delarue, Maxime Hervé, Melen Leclerc, Sylvain Poggi
Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664679/a-precise-and-efficient-detection-of-beta-cyfluthrin-via-fluorescent-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-with-ally-fluorescein-as-functional-monomer-in-agricultural-products
#19
Hao Qiu, Lin Gao, Jixiang Wang, Jianming Pan, Yongsheng Yan, Xifeng Zhang
In this study, an effective and precise fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers (FMIPs) for the determination of Beta-Cyfluthrin (BC) was synthesized via precipitation polymerization with SiO2 as the carrier, BC as the target molecule, ally fluorescein as the functional monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker. Moreover, the characteristic of material has been measured by FTIR, TEM, SEM, TGA, LSCM and fluorescence spectrophotometer. Average diameter and shell thickness of as-synthesized microspheres were 300nm and 50nm, respectively...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634523/plant-metabolism-the-diverse-chemistry-set-of-the-future
#20
REVIEW
Eleanore T Wurtzel, Toni M Kutchan
New technologies are redefining how plant biology will meet societal challenges in health, nutrition, agriculture, and energy. Rapid and inexpensive genome and transcriptome sequencing is being exploited to discover biochemical pathways that provide tools needed for synthetic biology in both plant and microbial systems. Metabolite detection at the cellular and subcellular levels is complementing gene sequencing for pathway discovery and metabolic engineering. The crafting of plant and microbial metabolism for the synthetic biology platforms of tomorrow will require precise gene editing and delivery of entire complex pathways...
September 16, 2016: Science
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