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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071048/solvent-free-strategy-yields-size-and-shape-uniform-capsules
#1
Ana M S Costa, João F Mano
Capsules with a liquefied core were fabricated via the assembly of polymeric droplets induced by superamphiphobic surfaces. These highly repellent substrates exhibit distinct features such as (i) an easy and precise control over the particle size and shape, (ii) a high encapsulation efficiency, (iii) mild processing conditions, and (iv) the possibility to include any object in either a water or oil-based liquid core, which are not found on the current available strategies. As proof of concept, a photo-cross-linkable derivative of chitosan was used to produce the polymeric shell while a wealth variety of template cores were tested using a reversible cross-linking mechanism, interfacial gelation process or ice...
January 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068898/integrated-mrna-and-microrna-analysis-identifies-genes-and-small-mirna-molecules-associated-with-transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-level-responses-to-both-drought-stress-and-re-watering-treatment-in-tobacco
#2
Qiansi Chen, Meng Li, Zhongchun Zhang, Weiwei Tie, Xia Chen, Lifeng Jin, Niu Zhai, Qingxia Zheng, Jianfeng Zhang, Ran Wang, Guoyun Xu, Hui Zhang, Pingping Liu, Huina Zhou
BACKGROUND: Drought stress is one of the most severe problem limited agricultural productivity worldwide. It has been reported that plants response to drought-stress by sophisticated mechanisms at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing the responses of tobacco leaves to drought stress and water status are not well understood. To identify genes and miRNAs involved in drought-stress responses in tobacco, we performed both mRNA and small RNA sequencing on tobacco leaf samples from the following three treatments: untreated-control (CL), drought stress (DL), and re-watering (WL)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055134/moving-forward-socio-economically-focused-models-of-deforestation
#3
Camille Dezécache, Jean-Michel Salles, Ghislain Vieilledent, Bruno Hérault
While high resolution spatial variables contribute to a good fit of spatially-explicit deforestation models, socio-economic processes are often beyond the scope of these models. Such a low level of interest in the socio-economic dimension of deforestation limits the relevancy of these models for decision making and may be the cause of their failure to accurately predict observed deforestation trends in the medium term. This study aims to propose a flexible methodology for taking into account multiple drivers of deforestation in tropical forested areas, where the intensity of deforestation is explicitly predicted based on socio-economic variables...
January 5, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050058/sustainable-crop-intensification-through-surface-water-irrigation-in-bangladesh-a-geospatial-assessment-of-landscape-scale-production-potential
#4
Timothy J Krupnik, Urs Schulthess, Zia Uddin Ahmed, Andrew J McDonald
Changing dietary preferences and population growth in South Asia have resulted in increasing demand for wheat and maize, along side high and sustained demand for rice. In the highly productive northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, farmers utilize groundwater irrigation to assure that at least two of these crops are sequenced on the same field within the same year. Such double cropping has had a significant and positive influence on regional agricultural productivity. But in the risk-prone and food insecure lower Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP), cropping is less intensive...
January 2017: Land Use Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042817/think-yellow-and-keep-green-role-of-sulfanes-from-garlic-in-agriculture
#5
REVIEW
Awais Anwar, Emma Gould, Ryan Tinson, Murree Groom, Chris J Hamilton
Reactive sulfur species from garlic have long been renowned for their health benefits and antimicrobial properties. In agriculture the subject matter is now gathering momentum in the search for new bio-pesticides to addressing emerging environmental concerns and tighter restrictions on the use of many conventional chemical pesticides. Although the precise modes of action of these garlic-derived bioactives is complex, recent research has provided a number of new insights that deepen our understanding of garlic-derived products, such as garlic extracts and oils...
December 30, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028591/determination-of-diuron-terbuthylazine-and-terbutryn-in-wastewater-and-soil-by-micellar-liquid-chromatography
#6
Susana Pitarch-Andrés, Pasqual Roca-Genovés, Juan Peris-Vicente, Josep Esteve-Romero
An analytical method for the quantification of the herbicides and algaecides diuron, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn in wastewater and soil by micellar liquid chromatography was developed. The sample preparation was expedited to reduce the number of intermediate steps and the use of chemicals. The analytes in soils were recovered by ultrasonication in the mobile phase. The obtained supernatant and the water samples were directly injected, thus avoiding intermediate steps. The chromatographic behavior of the analytes, depending on the surfactant and alcohol was studied, in order to optimize the chromatographic run, by a chemometrical approach...
December 27, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997273/on-the-mechanism-of-genotoxicity-of-ethephon-on-embryonic-fibroblast-cells
#7
Mahshid Hodjat, Maryam Baeeri, Mohammad Amin Rezvanfar, Mahban Rahimifard, Mahdi Gholami, Mohammad Abdollahi
Ethephon is one of the most widely used plant growth regulator in agriculture that its application has been increased in recent years. Many reports have raised concern over the safety of this organophosphorus compound. The aim of the current study was to assess the potential genotoxic effect of ethephon on murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF)cell line, using two genotoxicity endpoints; γH2AX expression and comet assay. γH2AX served as an early and sensitive biomarker of genotoxic damage. Oxidative stress biomarkers, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity were also examined...
December 20, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994607/multicolor-fluorescence-imaging-as-a-candidate-for-disease-detection-in-plant-phenotyping
#8
María L Pérez-Bueno, Mónica Pineda, Francisco M Cabeza, Matilde Barón
The negative impact of conventional farming on environment and human health make improvements on farming management mandatory. Imaging techniques are implemented in remote sensing for monitoring crop fields and plant phenotyping programs. The increasingly large size and complexity of the data obtained by these techniques, makes the implementation of powerful mathematical tools necessary in order to identify informative parameters and to apply them in precision agriculture. Multicolor fluorescence imaging is a useful approach for the study of plant defense responses to stress factors at bench scale...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990151/genome-editing-technologies-for-enhancing-plant-disease-resistance
#9
REVIEW
Giuseppe Andolfo, Paolo Iovieno, Luigi Frusciante, Maria R Ercolano
One of the greatest challenges for agricultural science in the 21st century is to improve yield stability through the progressive development of superior cultivars. The increasing numbers of infectious plant diseases that are caused by plant-pathogens make it ever more necessary to develop new strategies for plant disease resistance breeding. Targeted genome engineering allows the introduction of precise modifications directly into a commercial variety, offering a viable alternative to traditional breeding methods...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981891/lc-ms-ms-methods-for-albendazole-analysis-in-feed-and-its-metabolite-residues-in-fish-fillet-and-a-leaching-study-in-feed-after-alternative-procedure-for-drug-incorporation
#10
Zenaís Busatto, Agnaldo Fernando Baldo da Silva, Osvaldo de Freitas, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal
This paper describes the development of analytical methods for the quantification of albendazole (ABZ) in fish feed and ABZ and its main known metabolites (albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone and albendazole aminosulfone) in fish fillet employing LC-MS/MS. In order to assess the reliability of the analytical methods, evaluation was undertaken as recommended by related guides proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture for analytical method validation. The calibration curve for ABZ quantification in feed showed adequate linearity (r > 0...
December 16, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973404/crop-phenology-detection-using-high-spatio-temporal-resolution-data-fused-from-spot5-and-modis-products
#11
Yang Zheng, Bingfang Wu, Miao Zhang, Hongwei Zeng
Timely and efficient monitoring of crop phenology at a high spatial resolution are crucial for the precise and effective management of agriculture. Recently, satellite-derived vegetation indices (VIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), have been widely used for the phenology detection of terrestrial ecosystems. In this paper, a framework is proposed to detect crop phenology using high spatio-temporal resolution data fused from Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Tarre5 (SPOT5) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images...
December 10, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941704/node-deployment-with-k-connectivity-in-sensor-networks-for-crop-information-full-coverage-monitoring
#12
Naisen Liu, Weixing Cao, Yan Zhu, Jingchao Zhang, Fangrong Pang, Jun Ni
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are suitable for the continuous monitoring of crop information in large-scale farmland. The information obtained is great for regulation of crop growth and achieving high yields in precision agriculture (PA). In order to realize full coverage and k-connectivity WSN deployment for monitoring crop growth information of farmland on a large scale and to ensure the accuracy of the monitored data, a new WSN deployment method using a genetic algorithm (GA) is here proposed. The fitness function of GA was constructed based on the following WSN deployment criteria: (1) nodes must be located in the corresponding plots; (2) WSN must have k-connectivity; (3) WSN must have no communication silos; (4) the minimum distance between node and plot boundary must be greater than a specific value to prevent each node from being affected by the farmland edge effect...
December 9, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920782/acclimation-of-biochemical-and-diffusive-components-of-photosynthesis-in-rice-wheat-and-maize-to-heat-and-water-deficit-implications-for-modeling-photosynthesis
#13
Juan A Perdomo, Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Carmen Hermida-Carrera, Jaume Flexas, Jeroni Galmés
The impact of the combined effects of heat stress, increased vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and water deficit on the physiology of major crops needs to be better understood to help identifying the expected negative consequences of climate change and heat waves on global agricultural productivity. To address this issue, rice, wheat, and maize plants were grown under control temperature (CT, 25°C, VPD 1.8 kPa), and a high temperature (HT, 38°C, VPD 3.5 kPa), both under well-watered (WW) and water deficit (WD) conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915582/lc-ms-ms-methods-for-sulfadimethoxine-and-ormetoprim-analysis-in-feed-and-fish-fillet-and-a-leaching-study-for-feed-after-alternative-procedures-for-the-incorporation-of-drugs
#14
Ana Paula Fais, Rodolfo Scarpino Barboza Franco, Agnaldo Fernando Baldo da Silva, Osvaldo de Freitas, Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal
This paper describes the method development for sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and ormetoprim (OMP) quantitation in fish feed and fish fillet employing LC-MS/MS. In order to assess the reliability of the analytical method, valuation was undertaken as recommended by guidelines proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. The calibration curve for the quantification of both drugs in feed showed adequate linearity (r > 0.99), precision (CV < 12%) and trueness ranging from 97% to 100%. The method for the determination of SDM and OMP residues in fish fillet involved a simple sample preparation procedure that had adequate linearity (r > 0...
December 16, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886091/a-testbed-to-evaluate-the-fiware-based-iot-platform-in-the-domain-of-precision-agriculture
#15
Ramón Martínez, Juan Ángel Pastor, Bárbara Álvarez, Andrés Iborra
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent one of the most promising technologies for precision farming. Over the next few years, a significant increase in the use of such systems on commercial farms is expected. WSNs present a number of problems, regarding scalability, interoperability, communications, connectivity with databases and data processing. Different Internet of Things middleware is appearing to overcome these challenges. This paper checks whether one of these middleware, FIWARE, is suitable for the development of agricultural applications...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871132/aspergillus-penicillioides-differentiation-and-cell-division-at-0-585-water-activity
#16
Andrew Stevenson, Philip G Hamill, Callum J O'Kane, Gerhard Kminek, John D Rummel, Mary A Voytek, Jan Dijksterhuis, John E Hallsworth
Water availability acts as the most-stringent constraint for life on Earth. Thus, understanding the water relations of microbial extremophiles is imperative to our ability to increase agricultural productivity (e.g., by enhancing the processing and turnover of dead organic matter in soils of arid regions); reduce human exposure to mycotoxins in buildings and our food-supply chain; prevent the spoilage of foods/animal feeds, books, museum specimens and artworks; and better control microbiology of industrial fermentations...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867311/spatial-variation-in-soil-properties-and-diffuse-losses-between-and-within-grassland-fields-with-similar-short-term-management
#17
S Peukert, B A Griffith, P J Murray, C J A Macleod, R E Brazier
: One of the major challenges for agriculture is to understand the effects of agricultural practices on soil properties and diffuse pollution, to support practical farm-scale land management. Three conventionally managed grassland fields with similar short-term management, but different ploughing histories, were studied on a long-term research platform: the North Wyke Farm Platform. The aims were to (i) quantify the between-field and within-field spatial variation in soil properties by geostatistical analysis, (ii) understand the effects of soil condition (in terms of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon contents) on the quality of discharge water and (iii) establish robust baseline data before the implementation of various grassland management scenarios...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857214/laser-controlled-atom-source-for-optical-clocks
#18
Ole Kock, Wei He, Dariusz Świerad, Lyndsie Smith, Joshua Hughes, Kai Bongs, Yeshpal Singh
Precision timekeeping has been a driving force in innovation, from defining agricultural seasons to atomic clocks enabling satellite navigation, broadband communication and high-speed trading. We are on the verge of a revolution in atomic timekeeping, where optical clocks promise an over thousand-fold improvement in stability and accuracy. However, complex setups and sensitivity to thermal radiation pose limitations to progress. Here we report on an atom source for a strontium optical lattice clock which circumvents these limitations...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851833/deciphering-the-soybean-molecular-stress-response-via-high-throughput-approaches
#19
Agata Tyczewska, Joanna Gracz, Jakub Kuczyński, Tomasz Twardowski
As a result of thousands of years of agriculture, humans had created many crop varieties that became the basis of our daily diet, animal feed and also carry industrial application. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide and because of its high economic value the demand for soybean products is constantly growing. In Europe, due to unfavorable climate conditions, soybean cultivation is restricted and we are forced to rely on imported plant material. The development of agriculture requires continuous improvements in quality and yield of crop varieties under changing or adverse conditions, namely stresses...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837361/analytical-evaluation-of-the-protection-offered-by-sealed-tractor-cabins-during-crop-pulverization-with-fenitrothion
#20
Michelle Barcellos, Milena Michele Faletti, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos Madureira, Fernando Cesar Bauer
The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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