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Precision agriculture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228873/dehydroacetic-acid-in-cheese-and-cheese-coating-results-of-official-control-in-italy
#1
Monica Scordino, Francesco Lazzaro, Marco A Borzì, Leonardo Sabatino, Pasqualino Traulo, Giacomo Gagliano
This paper reports the occurrence of dehydroacetic acid in cheese and cheese coatings collected in Italy during Agricultural Ministry Official control. Dehydroacetic acid is an antimicrobial substance not allowed to be used in EU countries as a food additive, with unknown effects on human health. Dehydroacetic acid was measured by a validated HPLC method according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria in terms of specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy, limit of detection and limit of quantification...
December 11, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228505/a-spatio-temporal-exposure-hazard-model-for-assessing-biological-risk-and-impact
#2
Emily Walker, Melen Leclerc, Jean-François Rey, Rémy Beaudouin, Samuel Soubeyrand, Antoine Messéan
We developed a simulation model for quantifying the spatio-temporal distribution of contaminants (e.g., xenobiotics) and assessing the risk of exposed populations at the landscape level. The model is a spatio-temporal exposure-hazard model based on (i) tools of stochastic geometry (marked polygon and point processes) for structuring the landscape and describing the exposed individuals, (ii) a dispersal kernel describing the dissemination of contaminants from polygon sources, and (iii) an (eco)toxicological equation describing the toxicokinetics and dynamics of contaminants in affected individuals...
December 11, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228298/seedstor-a-germplasm-information-management-system-and-public-database
#3
R S P Horler, A Turner, P Fretter, M Ambrose
SeedStor (https://www.seedstor.ac.uk) acts as the publicly available database for the seed collections held by the Germplasm Resources Unit (GRU) based at the John Inness Centre, Norwich, UK. The GRU is a national capability supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The GRU curates' germplasm collections of a range of temperate cereal, legume and Brassica crops and their associated wild relatives as well as precise genetic stocks, near-isogenic lines and mapping populations...
December 8, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220827/exploring-divers-of-forest-degradation-and-fragmentation-in-sudan-the-case-of-erawashda-forest-and-its-surrounding-community
#4
Hussein M Sulieman
Sudan is a hot spot for forest degradation. Efforts to maintain what remains of its forests should be of the highest priority. However, precise information on its forests' current state is very limited. Therefore, in order to effectively intervene in support of existing resources, it is important to have a better understanding of processes taking place in the country and impacting those resources. The objectives of this study are to quantify the consequences of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on forest degradation and fragmentation and to analyze the anthropogenic factors causing it, taking Erawashda Forest, eastern Sudan, as an example...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207510/a-combined-approach-of-sensor-data-fusion-and-multivariate-geostatistics-for-delineation-of-homogeneous-zones-in-an-agricultural-field
#5
Annamaria Castrignanò, Gabriele Buttafuoco, Ruggiero Quarto, Carolina Vitti, Giuliano Langella, Fabio Terribile, Accursio Venezia
To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management...
December 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207485/study-on-the-ingredient-proportions-and-after-treatment-of-laser-sintering-walnut-shell-composites
#6
Yueqiang Yu, Yanling Guo, Ting Jiang, Jian Li, Kaiyi Jiang, Hui Zhang
To alleviate resource shortage, reduce the cost of materials consumption and the pollution of agricultural and forestry waste, walnut shell composites (WSPC) consisting of walnut shell as additive and copolyester hot melt adhesive (Co-PES) as binder was developed as the feedstock of selective laser sintering (SLS). WSPC parts with different ingredient proportions were fabricated by SLS and processed through after-treatment technology. The density, mechanical properties and surface quality of WSPC parts before and after post processing were analyzed via formula method, mechanical test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively...
December 2, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191256/determination-of-monensin-in-bovine-tissues-a-bridging-study-comparing-the-bioautographic-method-fsis-clg-mon-with-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-oma-2011-24
#7
Kemmy M Mizinga, Thomas J Burnett, Sharon L Brunelle, Michael A Wallace, Mark R Coleman
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety Inspection Service regulatory method for monensin, Chemistry Laboratory Guidebook CLG-MON, is a semiquantitative bioautographic method adopted in 1991. Official Method of AnalysisSM (OMA) 2011.24, a modern quantitative and confirmatory LC-tandem MS method, uses no chlorinated solvents and has several advantages, including ease of use, ready availability of reagents and materials, shorter run-time, and higher throughput than CLG-MON. Therefore, a bridging study was conducted to support the replacement of method CLG-MON with OMA 2011...
December 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186057/development-of-spectral-disease-indices-for-flavescence-dor%C3%A3-e-grapevine-disease-identification
#8
Hania Al-Saddik, Jean-Claude Simon, Frederic Cointault
Spectral measurements are employed in many precision agriculture applications, due to their ability to monitor the vegetation's health state. Spectral vegetation indices are one of the main techniques currently used in remote sensing activities, since they are related to biophysical and biochemical crop variables. Moreover, they have been evaluated in some studies as potentially beneficial for detecting or differentiating crop diseases. Flavescence Dorée (FD) is an infectious, incurable disease of the grapevine that can produce severe yield losses and, hence, compromise the stability of the vineyards...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170393/an-in-vivo-biosensing-biomimetic-electrochemical-transistor-with-applications-in-plant-science-and-precision-farming
#9
Nicola Coppedè, Michela Janni, Manuele Bettelli, Calogero Leandro Maida, Francesco Gentile, Marco Villani, Roberta Ruotolo, Salvatore Iannotta, Nelson Marmiroli, Marta Marmiroli, Andrea Zappettini
The in vivo monitoring of key plant physiology parameters will be a key enabler of precision farming. Here, a biomimetic textile-based biosensor, which can be inserted directly into plant tissue is presented: the device is able to monitor, in vivo and in real time, variations in the solute content of the plant sap. The biosensor has no detectable effect on the plant's morphology even after six weeks of continuous operation. The continuous monitoring of the sap electrolyte concentration in a growing tomato plant revealed a circadian pattern of variation...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167680/gene-editing-and-crop-improvement-using-crispr-cas9-system
#10
REVIEW
Leena Arora, Alka Narula
Advancements in Genome editing technologies have revolutionized the fields of functional genomics and crop improvement. CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 is a multipurpose technology for genetic engineering that relies on the complementarity of the guideRNA (gRNA) to a specific sequence and the Cas9 endonuclease activity. It has broadened the agricultural research area, bringing in new opportunities to develop novel plant varieties with deletion of detrimental traits or addition of significant characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152237/analysis-of-recipes-of-home-prepared-diets-for-dogs-and-cats-published-in-portuguese
#11
Vivian Pedrinelli, Márcia de O S Gomes, Aulus C Carciofi
The present study evaluated recipes of home-prepared diets for dogs and cats published in Portuguese. A total of 106 diets were evaluated: eighty for dogs, twenty-four for cats and two intended for both species. A commercial software package was used to analyse the diets, and an ingredient chemical composition database was built based on the Brazilian Tables of Food Composition and United States Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database. The estimated chemical composition of each recipe was compared with the Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs (Fédération Européenne de L'industrie des Aliments Pour Animaux Familiers; FEDIAF, 2014) recommendations for maintenance (as units/MJ)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141979/measurement-errors-in-dietary-assessment-using-self-reported-24-hour-recalls-in-low-income-countries-and-strategies-for-their-prevention
#12
Rosalind S Gibson, U Ruth Charrondiere, Winnie Bell
Securing accurate measurements of dietary intake across populations is challenging. Of the methods, self-reported 24-h recalls are often used in low-income countries (LICs) because they are quick, culturally sensitive, do not require high cognitive ability, and provide quantitative data on both foods and nutrients. Measuring intakes via 24-h recalls involves 1) collecting data on food intakes, 2) the appropriate use of relevant food-composition data for calculating nutrient intakes, and 3) statistically converting observed intakes to "usual intakes" for evaluating nutrient adequacy or relations between foods and nutrients and health outcomes...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139074/excessive-use-of-nitrogenous-fertilizers-an-unawareness-causing-serious-threats-to-environment-and-human-health
#13
Moddassir Ahmed, Muhammad Rauf, Zahid Mukhtar, Nasir Ahmad Saeed
Farmers occasionally need to add nitrogen fertilizer to their farms and gardens to make available just the precise nutrients for their plants' growth. The applications of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers to various crops have been continuously increasing since last many decades globally. Although nitrogen fertilizer contributes substantially to yield enhancement, but excessive use of this manure has posed serious threats to environment and human health. Rate of nitrogen fertilizers application has a close relationship with nitrate accumulation in surrounding environment, groundwater, as well as leafy and root vegetables...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130159/the-future-of-crispr-applications-in-the-lab-the-clinic-and-society
#14
Soren H Hough, Ayokunmi Ajetunmobi
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) has emerged as one of the premiere biological tools of the century. Even more so than older genome editing techniques such as TALENs and ZFNs, CRISPR provides speed and ease-of-use heretofore unheard of in agriculture, the environment and human health. The ability to map the function of virtually every component of the genome in a scalable, multiplexed manner is unprecedented. Once those regions have been explored, CRISPR also presents an opportunity to take advantage of endogenous cellular repair pathways to change and precisely edit the genome [1-3]...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126820/blend-design-tools-for-medium-combustion-plants-mcp-firing-biomass-wastes
#15
I Ibarra, G Aragón, I Gómez, I Múgica, J González, J Rodríguez Maroto, E Rojas, D Sanz, R Ramos, R Escalada, E Borjabad, C Gutiérrez-Canas
A feasible alternative for agricultural or forestry waste management is the operation of a distributed network of sustainable Medium Combustion Plants (MCPs). However, one of the main factors that hinder its development is the propensity to operational problems derived from corrosion, slagging and fouling characteristics of both bottom and fly ashes. Therefore, a cost-effective approach for these multi-product MCP could be based on predictive tools for an optimal formulation of a fuel blend. This work focuses on the assessment of the ability of these methods to provide guidance for preventing ash-related operational problems and to provide fuel-blending rules...
November 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120383/fieldsafe-dataset-for-obstacle-detection-in-agriculture
#16
Mikkel Fly Kragh, Peter Christiansen, Morten Stigaard Laursen, Morten Larsen, Kim Arild Steen, Ole Green, Henrik Karstoft, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen
In this paper, we present a multi-modal dataset for obstacle detection in agriculture. The dataset comprises approximately 2 h of raw sensor data from a tractor-mounted sensor system in a grass mowing scenario in Denmark, October 2016. Sensing modalities include stereo camera, thermal camera, web camera, 360 ∘ camera, LiDAR and radar, while precise localization is available from fused IMU and GNSS. Both static and moving obstacles are present, including humans, mannequin dolls, rocks, barrels, buildings, vehicles and vegetation...
November 9, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092037/antibiotic-stewardship-a-european-perspective
#17
Céline Pulcini
Antibiotic stewardship programmes, which are a set of interventions aiming at prescribing antibiotics appropriately and responsibly, are one of the key strategies to tackle the current worldwide bacterial resistance crisis. We will present here some examples of international and national initiatives, with a focus on Europe, discuss the role of clinical microbiologists, and present some perspectives and future developments.Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) is one of the key strategies to tackle the current worldwide bacterial resistance crisis (https://ec...
October 30, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091958/retention-and-promotion-of-women-and-underrepresented-minority-faculty-in-science-and-engineering-at-four-large-land-grant-institutions
#18
Marcia Gumpertz, Raifu Durodoye, Emily Griffith, Alyson Wilson
RESULTS BY GENDER: In the most recent cohort, 2002-2015, the experiences of men and women differed substantially among STEM disciplines. Female assistant professors were more likely than men to leave the institution and to leave without tenure in engineering, but not in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources or physical and mathematical sciences. In contrast, the median times to promotion from associate to full professor were similar for women and men in engineering and the physical and mathematical sciences, but one to two years longer for women than men in the agricultural, biological and biomedical sciences and natural resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080499/visible-and-near-infrared-spectroscopy-coupled-to-random-forest-to-quantify-some-soil-quality-parameters
#19
Felipe Bachion de Santana, André Marcelo de Souza, Ronei Jesus Poppi
This study evaluates the use of visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) combined with multivariate regression based on random forest to quantify some quality soil parameters. The parameters analyzed were soil cation exchange capacity (CEC), sum of exchange bases (SB), organic matter (OM), clay and sand present in the soils of several regions of Brazil. Current methods for evaluating these parameters are laborious, timely and require various wet analytical methods that are not adequate for use in precision agriculture, where faster and automatic responses are required...
October 19, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074943/evaluating-different-approaches-to-non-destructive-nitrogen-status-diagnosis-of-rice-using-portable-rapidscan-active-canopy-sensor
#20
Junjun Lu, Yuxin Miao, Wei Shi, Jingxin Li, Fei Yuan
RapidSCAN is a new portable active crop canopy sensor with three wavebands in red, red-edge, and near infrared spectral regions. The objective of this study was to determine the potential and practical approaches of using this sensor for non-destructive diagnosis of rice nitrogen (N) status. Sixteen plot experiments and ten on-farm experiments were conducted from 2014 to 2016 in Jiansanjiang Experiment Station of the China Agricultural University and Qixing Farm in Northeast China. Two mechanistic and three semi-empirical approaches using the sensor's default vegetation indices, normalized difference vegetation index and normalized difference red edge, were evaluated in comparison with the top performing vegetation indices selected from 51 tested indices...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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