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Harsimran K Gill, Iqbal S Aujla, Luigi De Bellis, Andrea Luvisi
Plant protection represents one of the strategies to fill the yield gap and to achieve food security, a key topic for India development. Analysis of climate risks for crops indicates that South Asia is one of the regions most exposed to the adverse impact on many plants that are relevant to inhabitants exposed to food safety risks. Furthermore, accumulation of pesticide residues in the aquatic and other ecosystems is becoming a significant threat in India. These perspectives require to develop programs of crop protection that can be feasible according to Indian rural development and pollution policy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Douglas McPhie, Hannah J Burrack
Female strawberry bud weevils (Anthonomus signatus Say) oviposit in developing flower buds of strawberries (Fragaria spp.), caneberries (Rubus spp.), and red bud (Cercis canadensis). After laying a single egg, weevils will girdle or "clip" the buds at the pedicel, killing the bud and preventing fruit development. This injury is of concern to commercial strawberry growers, who typically assume the loss of one clipped bud is the loss of one average sized fruit, causing the economic threshold to be set extremely low...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
E Castro-Aguirre, F Iñiguez-Franco, H Samsudin, X Fang, R Auras
Global awareness of material sustainability has increased the demand for bio-based polymers like poly(lactic acid) (PLA), which are seen as a desirable alternative to fossil-based polymers because they have less environmental impact. PLA is an aliphatic polyester, primarily produced by industrial polycondensation of lactic acid and/or ring-opening polymerization of lactide. Melt processing is the main technique used for mass production of PLA products for the medical, textile, plasticulture, and packaging industries...
December 15, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
M T Lewis, S J Fleischer, D C Roberts
Commercial cucurbit production typically involves agriculturally intensive practices, with fields prepared using conventional tillage, plasticulture, and chemically based pest management. Conservation-based management options are limited. In this study, we consider two alternative strategies, strip tillage and the use of row covers. We compare their impact on the beneficial carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) community in melons and squash, following conventional or organic systems, over two years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that soil management system (strip tillage versus plasticulture) was the primary variable influencing carabid distribution; row cover was a less important factor...
March 18, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Jianqiang Sun, Xiaoqin Wu, Jay Gan
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are large-volume chemicals and are found ubiquitously in soil as a result of widespread plasticulture and waste disposal. Food plants such as vegetables may take up and accumulate PAEs from soil, potentially imposing human health risks through dietary intake. In this study, we carried out a cultivation study using lettuce, strawberry, and carrot plants to determine the potential of plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their primary metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP)...
July 21, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Dan O Chellemi, Husein A Ajwa, David A Sullivan, Rocco Alessandro, James P Gilreath, Scott R Yates
Soil concentrations and degradation rates of methyl isothio-cyanate (MITC), chloropicrin (CP), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) were determined under fumigant application scenarios representative of commercial raised bed, plastic mulched vegetable production systems. Five days after application, 1,3-D, MITC, and CP were detected at concentrations up to 3.52, 0.72, and 2.45 μg cm, respectively, in the soil atmosphere when applications were made in uniformly compacted soils with a water content >200% of field capacity and covered by a virtually impermeable or metalized film...
July 2011: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ezio Riggi, Gabriella Santagata, Mario Malinconico
The production and management of crops uses plastics for many applications (e.g., low tunnels, high tunnels, greenhouses, mulching, silage bags, hay bales, pheromone traps, coatings of fertilizers or pesticides or hormones or seeds, and nursery pots and containers for growing transplants). All these applications have led some authors to adopt the term "plasticulture" when discussing the use of plastic materials in agriculture and related industries. Unfortunately, the sustainability of this use of plastics is low, and renewability and degradability have become key words in the debate over sustainable production and utilization of plastic...
January 2011: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
J A Desaeger, A S Csinos
Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D +/- chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffered much greater root-knot nematode (RKN) pressure than first crops, and almost-total yield loss occurred when second crops received no nematicide treatment...
March 2006: Journal of Nematology
Johan A Desaeger, Kenneth W Seebold, Alex S Csinos
BACKGROUND: Metam-sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin are widely used soil fumigants. Combined application of metam-sodium and 1,3-D + chloropicrin is intended to improve efficacy and broaden spectrum of control, but little is known about the effect on crop safety. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of application timing of fumigant combinations on soilborne pest and disease control (nematodes, soil fungi and weeds) and growth of squash. Two separate tests with chisel-injected and drip-applied fumigant combinations and plant-back times ranging from 1 to 4 weeks were conducted in Tifton, GA, USA, in spring and fall 2002...
March 2008: Pest Management Science
Shiow Y Wang, Chi-Tsun Chen, Chien Y Wang, Pei Chen
This study investigated the occurrence of resveratrol in Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and the effect of preharvest conditions on resveratrol content. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol were detected in strawberry achenes (seeds) and pulp (receptacle tissue). Resveratrol was found to be higher in achenes than in fruit pulp. The levels of resveratrol were affected by genotype variations, fruit maturation, cultural practices, and environmental conditions. High growing temperature (25 and 30 degrees C) or enriched CO 2 in the atmosphere significantly enhanced resveratrol content of strawberries...
October 3, 2007: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shiow Y Wang, Wei Zheng, Gene J Galletta
Cultural system [hill plasticulture (HC) versus matted row (MR)] and genotype interactions affected strawberry fruit quality. In general, fruit soluble solids content, total sugar, fructose, glucose, ascorbic acid, titratable acid, and citric acid contents were increased in the HC system. Fruit from HC also had higher flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities. Strawberry fruit contains flavonols as well as other phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins and phenolic acids. Pelargonidin-based anthocyanins such as pelargonidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside-succinate were the predominant anthocyanins in strawberry fruit...
October 23, 2002: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
D L Gallagher, K M Johnston, A M Dietrich
The fate and distribution of copper-based crop protectants, applied to plasticulture tomato fields to protect against disease, were investigated in a greenhouse-scale simulation of farming conditions in a coastal environment. Following rainfall, 99% of the applied copper was found to remain on the fields sorbed to the soil and plants; most of the soil-bound copper was found sorbed to the top 2.5 cm of soil between the plasticulture rows. Of the copper leaving the agricultural fields, 82% was found in the runoff with the majority, 74%...
August 2001: Water Research
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