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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732398/simulation-of-targeted-pollutant-mitigation-strategies-to-reduce-nitrate-and-sediment-hotspots-in-agricultural-watershed
#1
Awoke Dagnew Teshager, Philip W Gassman, Silvia Secchi, Justin T Schoof
About 50% of U.S. water pollution problems are caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution, primarily sediment and nutrients from agricultural areas, despite the widespread implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs). However, the effectiveness of implementation strategies and type of BMPs at watershed scale are still not well understood. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ecohydrological model was used to assess the effectiveness of pollutant mitigation strategies in the Raccoon River watershed (RRW) in west-central Iowa, USA...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731563/improving-fructose-utilization-and-butanol-production-by-clostridium-acetobutylicum-via-extracellular-redox-potential-regulation-and-intracellular-metabolite-analysis
#2
Li-Jie Chen, You-Duo Wu, Chuang Xue, Feng-Wu Bai
Jerusalem artichoke (JA) can grow well in marginal lands with high biomass yield, and thus is a potential energy crop for biorefinery. The major biomass of JA is from tubers, which contain inulin that can be easily hydrolyzed into a mixture of fructose and glucose, but fructose utilization for producing butanol as an advanced biofuel is poor compared to glucose-based ABE fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In this article, the impact of extracellular redox potential (ORP) on the process was studied using a mixture of fructose and glucose to simulate the hydrolysate of JA tubers...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715855/assessing-long-term-impact-of-land-use-change-on-hydrological-ecosystem-functions-in-a-mediterranean-upland-agro-forestry-catchment
#3
Paolo Nasta, Mario Palladino, Nadia Ursino, Antonio Saracino, Angelo Sommella, Nunzio Romano
During the second half of the 20th century farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe were progressively abandoned and the forest cover subsequently re-expanded. This paper investigates the environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on hydrological ecosystem functions (HEFs) in the Upper Alento River Catchment (UARC) in southern Italy. We document the human-driven post-war landscape in 1955 with its maximum expansion of pasture and crops. By 1998 forest cover had doubled and cropland had roughly halved due to decades of land abandonment and reduction in human pressure...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714956/the-uncertainty-of-crop-yield-projections-is-reduced-by-improved-temperature-response-functions
#4
Enli Wang, Pierre Martre, Zhigan Zhao, Frank Ewert, Andrea Maiorano, Reimund P Rötter, Bruce A Kimball, Michael J Ottman, Gerard W Wall, Jeffrey W White, Matthew P Reynolds, Phillip D Alderman, Pramod K Aggarwal, Jakarat Anothai, Bruno Basso, Christian Biernath, Davide Cammarano, Andrew J Challinor, Giacomo De Sanctis, Jordi Doltra, Elias Fereres, Margarita Garcia-Vila, Sebastian Gayler, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Leslie A Hunt, Roberto C Izaurralde, Mohamed Jabloun, Curtis D Jones, Kurt C Kersebaum, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Leilei Liu, Christoph Müller, Soora Naresh Kumar, Claas Nendel, Garry O'Leary, Jørgen E Olesen, Taru Palosuo, Eckart Priesack, Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Dominique Ripoche, Alex C Ruane, Mikhail A Semenov, Iurii Shcherbak, Claudio Stöckle, Pierre Stratonovitch, Thilo Streck, Iwan Supit, Fulu Tao, Peter Thorburn, Katharina Waha, Daniel Wallach, Zhimin Wang, Joost Wolf, Yan Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Increasing the accuracy of crop productivity estimates is a key element in planning adaptation strategies to ensure global food security under climate change. Process-based crop models are effective means to project climate impact on crop yield, but have large uncertainty in yield simulations. Here, we show that variations in the mathematical functions currently used to simulate temperature responses of physiological processes in 29 wheat models account for >50% of uncertainty in simulated grain yields for mean growing season temperatures from 14 °C to 33 °C...
July 17, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710999/recent-changes-in-county-level-corn-yield-variability-in-the-united-states-from-observations-and-crop-models
#5
Guoyong Leng
The United States is responsible for 35% and 60% of global corn supply and exports. Enhanced supply stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability of US corn yield would greatly benefit global food security. Important in this regard is to understand how corn yield variability has evolved geographically in the history and how it relates to climatic and non-climatic factors. Results showed that year-to-year variation of US corn yield has decreased significantly during 1980-2010, mainly in Midwest Corn Belt, Nebraska and western arid regions...
July 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702039/ceres-maize-model-for-determining-the-optimum-planting-dates-of-early-maturing-maize-varieties-in-northern-nigeria
#6
Adnan A Adnan, Jibrin M Jibrin, Alpha Y Kamara, Bassam L Abdulrahman, Abdulwahab S Shaibu, Ismail I Garba
Field trials were carried out in the Sudan Savannah of Nigeria to assess the usefulness of CERES-maize crop model as a decision support tool for optimizing maize production through manipulation of plant dates. The calibration experiments comprised of 20 maize varieties planted during the dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Bayero University Kano and Audu Bako College of Agriculture Dambatta. The trials for model evaluation were conducted in 16 different farmer fields across the Sudan (Bunkure and Garun-Mallam) and Northern Guinea (Tudun-Wada and Lere) Savannas using two of the calibrated varieties under four different sowing dates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701816/brief-history-of-agricultural-systems-modeling
#7
James W Jones, John M Antle, Bruno Basso, Kenneth J Boote, Richard T Conant, Ian Foster, H Charles J Godfray, Mario Herrero, Richard E Howitt, Sander Janssen, Brian A Keating, Rafael Munoz-Carpena, Cheryl H Porter, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Tim R Wheeler
Agricultural systems science generates knowledge that allows researchers to consider complex problems or take informed agricultural decisions. The rich history of this science exemplifies the diversity of systems and scales over which they operate and have been studied. Modeling, an essential tool in agricultural systems science, has been accomplished by scientists from a wide range of disciplines, who have contributed concepts and tools over more than six decades. As agricultural scientists now consider the "next generation" models, data, and knowledge products needed to meet the increasingly complex systems problems faced by society, it is important to take stock of this history and its lessons to ensure that we avoid re-invention and strive to consider all dimensions of associated challenges...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701815/next-generation-crop-models-a-modular-approach-to-model-early-vegetative-and-reproductive-development-of-the-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l
#8
C Hwang, M J Correll, S A Gezan, L Zhang, M S Bhakta, C E Vallejos, K J Boote, J A Clavijo-Michelangeli, J W Jones
The next generation of gene-based crop models offers the potential of predicting crop vegetative and reproductive development based on genotype and weather data as inputs. Here, we illustrate an approach for developing a dynamic modular gene-based model to simulate changes in main stem node numbers, time to first anthesis, and final node number on the main stem of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). In the modules, these crop characteristics are functions of relevant genes (quantitative trait loci (QTL)), the environment (E), and QTL × E interactions...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701814/modelling-the-impacts-of-pests-and-diseases-on-agricultural-systems
#9
M Donatelli, R D Magarey, S Bregaglio, L Willocquet, J P M Whish, S Savary
The improvement and application of pest and disease models to analyse and predict yield losses including those due to climate change is still a challenge for the scientific community. Applied modelling of crop diseases and pests has mostly targeted the development of support capabilities to schedule scouting or pesticide applications. There is a need for research to both broaden the scope and evaluate the capabilities of pest and disease models. Key research questions not only involve the assessment of the potential effects of climate change on known pathosystems, but also on new pathogens which could alter the (still incompletely documented) impacts of pests and diseases on agricultural systems...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701809/yield-gap-analyses-to-estimate-attainable-bovine-milk-yields-and-evaluate-options-to-increase-production-in-ethiopia-and-india
#10
Dianne Mayberry, Andrew Ash, Di Prestwidge, Cécile M Godde, Ben Henderson, Alan Duncan, Michael Blummel, Y Ramana Reddy, Mario Herrero
Livestock provides an important source of income and nourishment for around one billion rural households worldwide. Demand for livestock food products is increasing, especially in developing countries, and there are opportunities to increase production to meet local demand and increase farm incomes. Estimating the scale of livestock yield gaps and better understanding factors limiting current production will help to define the technological and investment needs in each livestock sector. The aim of this paper is to quantify livestock yield gaps and evaluate opportunities to increase dairy production in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, using case studies from Ethiopia and India...
July 2017: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698464/leaf-area-index-estimation-using-chinese-gf-1-wide-field-view-data-in-an-agriculture-region
#11
Xiangqin Wei, Xingfa Gu, Qingyan Meng, Tao Yu, Xiang Zhou, Zheng Wei, Kun Jia, Chunmei Wang
Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type...
July 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696316/light-mediated-self-organization-of-sunflower-stands-increases-oil-yield-in-the-field
#12
Mónica López Pereira, Victor O Sadras, William Batista, Jorge J Casal, Antonio J Hall
Here, we show a unique crop response to intraspecific interference, whereby neighboring sunflower plants in a row avoid each other by growing toward a more favorable light environment and collectively increase production per unit land area. In high-density stands, a given plant inclined toward one side of the interrow space, and the immediate neighbors inclined in the opposite direction. This process started early as an incipient inclination of pioneer plants, and the arrangement propagated gradually as a "wave" of alternate inclination that persisted until maturity...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680684/an-indirect-watermark-hiding-in-discrete-cosine-transform-singular-value-decomposition-domain-for-copyright-protection
#13
Soumitra Roy, Arup Kumar Pal
Digital image watermarking has emerged as a promising solution for copyright protection. In this paper, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) based hybrid robust image watermarking method using Arnold scrambling is proposed and simulated to protect the copyright of natural images. In this proposed scheme, before embedding, watermark is scrambled with Arnold scrambling. Then, the greyscale cover image and encrypted watermark logo are decomposed into non-overlapping blocks and subsequently some selected image blocks are transformed into the DCT domain for inserting the watermark blocks permanently...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679078/structural-modelling-and-molecular-dynamics-of-a-multi-stress-responsive-wrky-tf-dna-complex-towards-elucidating-its-role-in-stress-signalling-mechanisms-in-chickpea
#14
Aravind Kumar Konda, Rohit Farmer, Khela Ram Soren, P S Shanmugavadivel, Aravind Setti
Chickpea is a premier food legume crop with high nutritional quality and attains prime importance in the current era of 795 million people being undernourished worldwide. Chickpea production encounters setbacks due to various stresses and understanding the role of key transcription factors involved in multiple stresses becomes inevitable. We have recently identified a multi-stress responsive WRKY transcription factor (TF) in chickpea. The present study was conducted to predict the structure of WRKY TF to identify the DNA interacting residues and decipher DNA-protein interactions...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677479/testing-differences-between-pathogen-compositions-with-small-samples-and-sparse-data
#15
Samuel Soubeyrand, Vincent Garetta, Caroline Monteil, Frederic Suffert, Henriette Goyeau, Julie Berder, Jacques Moinard, Elisabeth Fournier, Didier Bs Tharreau, Cindy Morris, Ivan Sache
The structure of pathogen populations is an important driver of epidemics affecting crops and natural plant communities. Comparing the composition of two pathogen populations consisting of assemblages of genotypes or phenotypes is a crucial, recurrent question encountered in many studies in plant disease epidemiology. Determining if there is a significant difference between two sets of proportions is also a generic question for numerous biological fields. When samples are small and data are sparse, it is not straightforward to provide an accurate answer to this simple question because routine statistical tests may not be exactly calibrated...
July 5, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675875/predictive-quality-of-26-pesticide-risk-indicators-and-one-flow-model-a-multisite-assessment-for-water-contamination
#16
Frédéric Pierlot, Jonathan Marks-Perreau, Benoît Réal, Nadia Carluer, Thibaut Constant, Abdeljalil Lioeddine, Paul van Dijk, Jean Villerd, Olivier Keichinger, Richard Cherrier, Christian Bockstaller
Stakeholders need operational tools to assess crop protection strategies in regard to environmental impact. The need to assess and report on the impacts of pesticide use on the environment has led to the development of numerous indicators. However, only a few studies have addressed the predictive quality of these indicators. This is mainly due to the limited number of datasets adapted to the comparison of indicator outputs with pesticide measurement. To our knowledge, evaluation of the predictive quality of pesticide indicators in comparison to the quality of water as presented in this article is unprecedented in terms of the number of tested indicators (26 indicators and the MACRO model) and in terms of the size of datasets used (data collected for 4 transfer pathways, 20 active ingredients (a...
July 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663503/chronic-exposure-to-neonicotinoids-reduces-honey-bee-health-near-corn-crops
#17
N Tsvetkov, O Samson-Robert, K Sood, H S Patel, D A Malena, P H Gajiwala, P Maciukiewicz, V Fournier, A Zayed
Experiments linking neonicotinoids and declining bee health have been criticized for not simulating realistic exposure. Here we quantified the duration and magnitude of neonicotinoid exposure in Canada's corn-growing regions and used these data to design realistic experiments to investigate the effect of such insecticides on honey bees. Colonies near corn were naturally exposed to neonicotinoids for up to 4 months-the majority of the honey bee's active season. Realistic experiments showed that neonicotinoids increased worker mortality and were associated with declines in social immunity and increased queenlessness over time...
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653341/opensimroot-widening-the-scope-and-application-of-root-architectural-models
#18
Johannes A Postma, Christian Kuppe, Markus R Owen, Nathan Mellor, Marcus Griffiths, Malcolm J Bennett, Jonathan P Lynch, Michelle Watt
OpenSimRoot is an open-source, functional-structural plant model and mathematical description of root growth and function. We describe OpenSimRoot and its functionality to broaden the benefits of root modeling to the plant science community. OpenSimRoot is an extended version of SimRoot, established to simulate root system architecture, nutrient acquisition and plant growth. OpenSimRoot has a plugin, modular infrastructure, coupling single plant and crop stands to soil nutrient and water transport models. It estimates the value of root traits for water and nutrient acquisition in environments and plant species...
June 27, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648177/species-specific-substrates-and-products-choices-of-4-o-acetyltransferase-from-trichoderma-brevicompactum
#19
Shikha Sharma, Indu Kumari, Razak Hussain, Mushtaq Ahmed, Yusuf Akhter
Antagonistic species of Trichoderma such as T. harzianum, T. viride, T. virens and T. koningii are well-known biocontrol agents that have been reported to suppress pathogenic soil microbes and enhance the growth of crop plants. Secondary metabolites (SMs) including trichothecenes are responsible for its biocontrol activities. The trichothecenes, trichodermin and harzianum A (HA) are produced in species dependent manner respectively, by Trichoderma brevicompactum (TB) and Trichoderma arundinaceum (TA). The last step in the pathway involves the conversion of trichodermol into trichodermin or HA alternatively, which is catalyzed by 4-O-acetyltransferase (encoded by tri3 gene)...
September 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#20
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
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