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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199875/examining-the-impacts-of-increased-corn-production-on-groundwater-quality-using-a-coupled-modeling-system
#1
Valerie Garcia, Ellen Cooter, James Crooks, Brian Hinckley, Mark Murphy, Xiangnan Xing
This study demonstrates the value of a coupled chemical transport modeling system for investigating groundwater nitrate contamination responses associated with nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and increased corn production. The coupled Community Multiscale Air Quality Bidirectional and Environmental Policy Integrated Climate modeling system incorporates agricultural management practices and N exchange processes between the soil and atmosphere to estimate levels of N that may volatilize into the atmosphere, re-deposit, and seep or flow into surface and groundwater...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199783/next-generation-transgenic-cotton-pyramiding-rnai-and-bt-counters-insect-resistance
#2
Mi Ni, Wei Ma, Xiaofang Wang, Meijing Gao, Yan Dai, Xiaoli Wei, Lei Zhang, Yonggang Peng, Shuyuan Chen, Lingyun Ding, Yue Tian, Jie Li, Haiping Wang, Xiaolin Wang, Guowang Xu, Wangzhen Guo, Yihua Yang, Yidong Wu, Shannon Heuberger, Bruce E Tabashnik, Tianzhen Zhang, Zhen Zhu
Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are extensively cultivated worldwide. To counter rapidly increasing pest resistance to crops that produce single Bt toxins, transgenic plant "pyramids" producing two or more Bt toxins that kill the same pest have been widely adopted. However, cross-resistance and antagonism between Bt toxins limits the sustainability of this approach. Here we describe development and testing of the first pyramids of cotton combining protection from a Bt toxin and RNA interference (RNAi)...
February 15, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190903/potential-negative-consequences-of-geoengineering-on-crop-production-a-study-of-indian-groundnut
#3
Huiyi Yang, Steven Dobbie, Julian Ramirez-Villegas, Kuishuang Feng, Andrew J Challinor, Bing Chen, Yao Gao, Lindsay Lee, Yan Yin, Laixiang Sun, James Watson, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Tingting Fan, Sat Ghosh
Geoengineering has been proposed to stabilize global temperature, but its impacts on crop production and stability are not fully understood. A few case studies suggest that certain crops are likely to benefit from solar dimming geoengineering, yet we show that geoengineering is projected to have detrimental effects for groundnut. Using an ensemble of crop-climate model simulations, we illustrate that groundnut yields in India undergo a statistically significant decrease of up to 20% as a result of solar dimming geoengineering relative to RCP4...
November 28, 2016: Geophysical Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182757/horticultural-systems-engineering-and-economic-evaluations-of-short-term-plant-storage-techniques-as-a-labor-management-tool-for-vegetable-grafting-nurseries
#4
Chieri Kubota, Chao Meng, Young-Jun Son, Myles Lewis, Hans Spalholz, Russell Tronstad
This transdisciplinary study has a three-fold systems approach in evaluating a horticultural technology: 1) horticultural evaluations, 2) economic and resource analyses, and 3) systems engineering analyses, using low temperature storage as an example technology. Vegetable grafting is a technique to produce value-added seedlings but requires labor intensive nursery operations. Low temperature storage of seedlings for a short period of time can reduce peak production, but has not been evaluated at the extent demonstrated in this paper...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169033/combining-habitat-requirements-of-endemic-bird-species-and-other-ecosystem-services-may-synergistically-enhance-conservation-efforts
#5
Mattia Brambilla, Luca Ilahiane, Giacomo Assandri, Silvia Ronchi, Giuseppe Bogliani
Biodiversity conservation and the optimisation of other ecosystem service delivery as a contribution to human well-being are often tackled as mutually alternative targets. Modern agriculture is a great challenge for the fulfilment of both. Here, we explore the potential benefits of integrating biodiversity conservation and the preservation of wider ecosystem services, considering the conservation of an endemic species (Moltoni's warbler Sylvia subalpina; Aves: Sylvidae) and soil erosion control (a final ecosystem service) in intensive vineyards in Italy...
February 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161271/soil-thresholds-and-a-decision-tool-to-manage-food-safety-of-crops-grown-in-chlordecone-polluted-soil-in-the-french-west-indies
#6
Florence Clostre, Philippe Letourmy, Magalie Lesueur-Jannoyer
Due to the persistent pollution of soils by an organochlorine, chlordecone (CLD also known as Kepone (©)) in the French West Indies, some crops may be contaminated beyond the European regulatory threshold, the maximum residue limit (MRL). Farmers need to be able to foresee the risk of not complying with the regulatory threshold in each field and for each crop, if not, farmers whose fields are contaminated would have to stop cultivating certain crops in the fields concerned. To help farmers make the right choices, we studied the relationship between contamination of the soil and contamination of crops...
February 1, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160645/climate-change-and-the-economics-of-biomass-energy-feedstocks-in-semi-arid-agricultural-landscapes-a-spatially-explicit-real-options-analysis
#7
Courtney M Regan, Jeffery D Connor, Ramesh Raja Segaran, Wayne S Meyer, Brett A Bryan, Bertram Ostendorf
The economics of establishing perennial species as renewable energy feedstocks has been widely investigated as a climate change adapted diversification option for landholders, primarily using net present value (NPV) analysis. NPV does not account for key uncertainties likely to influence relevant landholder decision making. While real options analysis (ROA) is an alternative method that accounts for the uncertainty over future conditions and the large upfront irreversible investment involved in establishing perennials, there have been limited applications of ROA to evaluating land use change decision economics and even fewer applications considering climate change risks...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155860/designing-a-new-cropping-system-for-high-productivity-and-sustainable-water-usage-under-climate-change
#8
Qingfeng Meng, Hongfei Wang, Peng Yan, Junxiao Pan, Dianjun Lu, Zhenling Cui, Fusuo Zhang, Xinping Chen
The food supply is being increasingly challenged by climate change and water scarcity. However, incremental changes in traditional cropping systems have achieved only limited success in meeting these multiple challenges. In this study, we applied a systematic approach, using model simulation and data from two groups of field studies conducted in the North China Plain, to develop a new cropping system that improves yield and uses water in a sustainable manner. Due to significant warming, we identified a double-maize (M-M; Zea mays L...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153401/the-influence-of-straw-returning-on-n2o-emissions-from-a-maize-wheat-field-in-the-north-china-plain
#9
Yizhen Zhou, Yuanyuan Zhang, Di Tian, Yujing Mu
Crop straw returning has become a prevailing cultivation practice in the vast area of the North China Plain (NCP), while few investigations about its influence on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission have been conducted. In this study, N2O emissions from an agricultural field in the NCP with and without straw returning were comparably investigated by using static chambers in two consecutive maize-wheat growing seasons from June 2010 to June 2012. Compared with the NP treatment (compound nitrogen fertilizer only), the cumulative N2O emission from the SP treatment (compound nitrogen fertilizer plus straw) increased about 150% during the maize season in 2010, but decreased by about 35% during the maize season in 2011...
January 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145106/non-linear-response-of-nitric-oxide-fluxes-to-fertilizer-inputs-and-the-impacts-of-agricultural-intensification-on-tropospheric-ozone-pollution-in-kenya
#10
Jonathan E Hickman, Yaoxian Huang, Shiliang Wu, Willy Diru, Peter M Groffman, Katherine L Tully, Cheryl A Palm
Crop yields in sub-Saharan Africa remain stagnant at 1 ton ha(-1) , and 260 million people lack access to adequate food resources. Order-of-magnitude increases in fertilizer use are seen as a critical step in attaining food security. This increase represents an unprecedented input of nitrogen (N) to African ecosystems and will likely be accompanied by increased soil emissions of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a precursor to tropospheric ozone, an air pollutant and greenhouse gas. Emissions of NO from soils occur primarily during denitrification and nitrification, and N input rates are a key determinant of emission rates...
February 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134461/responses-to-atmospheric-co2-concentrations-in-crop-simulation-models-a-review-of-current-simple-and-semicomplex-representations-and-options-for-model-development
#11
REVIEW
Eline Vanuytrecht, Peter J Thorburn
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) cause direct changes in crop physiological processes (e.g. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance). To represent these CO2 responses, commonly used crop simulation models have been amended, using simple and semicomplex representations of the processes involved. Yet, there is no standard approach to and often poor documentation of these developments. This study used a bottom-up approach (starting with the APSIM framework as case study) to evaluate modelled responses in a consortium of commonly used crop models and illuminate whether variation in responses reflects true uncertainty in our understanding compared to arbitrary choices of model developers...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131012/uniqueness-of-the-anterior-dentition-three-dimensionally-assessed-for-forensic-bitemark-analysis
#12
A Franco, G Willems, Phc Souza, W Coucke, P Thevissen
The uniqueness of the human dentition (UHD) is an important concept in the comparative process in bitemark analysis. During this analysis, the incisal edges of the suspects' teeth are matched with the bitemarks collected from the victim's body or crime scenes. Despite playing an essential part to exclude suspects, the UHD contained in the involved incisal tooth edges remains an assumption on bitemark level. The present study was aimed, first, to investigate three-dimensionally (3D) the UHD within different quantities of dental material from the incisal edges; second, to test these outcomes in a bidimensional (2D) simulation...
February 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122824/the-predicted-cross-value-for-genetic-introgression-of-multiple-alleles
#13
Ye Han, John N Cameron, Lizhi Wang, William D Beavis
We consider the plant genetic improvement challenge of introgressing multiple alleles from a homozygous donor to a recipient. First, we frame the project as an algorithmic process that can be mathematically formulated. We then introduce a novel metric for selecting breeding parents that we refer to as the Predicted Cross Value (PCV). Unlike estimated breeding values, which represent predictions of general combining ability, the PCV predicts specific combining ability. The PCV takes estimates of recombination frequencies as an input vector and calculates the probability that a pair of parents will produce a gamete with desirable alleles at all specified loci...
January 25, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102202/consistent-negative-response-of-us-crops-to-high-temperatures-in-observations-and-crop-models
#14
Bernhard Schauberger, Sotirios Archontoulis, Almut Arneth, Juraj Balkovic, Philippe Ciais, Delphine Deryng, Joshua Elliott, Christian Folberth, Nikolay Khabarov, Christoph Müller, Thomas A M Pugh, Susanne Rolinski, Sibyll Schaphoff, Erwin Schmid, Xuhui Wang, Wolfram Schlenker, Katja Frieler
High temperatures are detrimental to crop yields and could lead to global warming-driven reductions in agricultural productivity. To assess future threats, the majority of studies used process-based crop models, but their ability to represent effects of high temperature has been questioned. Here we show that an ensemble of nine crop models reproduces the observed average temperature responses of US maize, soybean and wheat yields. Each day >30 °C diminishes maize and soybean yields by up to 6% under rainfed conditions...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091574/an-inert-pesticide-adjuvant-synergizes-viral-pathogenicity-and-mortality-in-honey-bee-larvae
#15
Julia D Fine, Diana L Cox-Foster, Christopher A Mullin
Honey bees are highly valued for their pollination services in agricultural settings, and recent declines in managed populations have caused concern. Colony losses following a major pollination event in the United States, almond pollination, have been characterized by brood mortality with specific symptoms, followed by eventual colony loss weeks later. In this study, we demonstrate that these symptoms can be produced by chronically exposing brood to both an organosilicone surfactant adjuvant (OSS) commonly used on many agricultural crops including wine grapes, tree nuts and tree fruits and exogenous viral pathogens by simulating a horizontal transmission event...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079366/the-neonicotinoid-insecticide-thiacloprid-impacts-upon-bumblebee-colony-development-under-field-conditions
#16
Ciaran Ellis, Kirsty J Park, Penelope Whitehorn, Arthur David, Dave Goulson
The impacts of pesticides, and in particular of neonicotinoids, on bee health remain much debated. Many studies describing negative effects have been criticized as the experimental protocol did not perfectly simulate real-life field scenarios. Here, we placed free-flying bumblebee colonies next to raspberry crops that were either untreated or treated with the neonicotinoid thiacloprid as part of normal farming practice. Colonies were exposed to the raspberry crops for a two week period before being relocated to either a flower-rich or flower-poor site...
January 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069301/future-water-availability-in-the-largest-freshwater-mediterranean-lake-is-at-great-risk-as-evidenced-from-simulations-with-the-swat-model
#17
Tuba Bucak, Dennis Trolle, Hans Estrup Andersen, Hans Thodsen, Şeyda Erdoğan, Eti E Levi, Nur Filiz, Erik Jeppesen, Meryem Beklioğlu
Inter- and intra-annual water level fluctuations and changes in water flow regime are intrinsic characteristics of Mediterranean lakes. Additionally, considering climate change projections for the water-limited Mediterranean region, increased air temperatures and decreased precipitation are anticipated, leading to dramatic declines in lake water levels as well as severe water scarcity problems. The study site, Lake Beyşehir, the largest freshwater lake in the Mediterranean basin, is - like other Mediterranean lakes - threatened by climatic changes and over-abstraction of water for irrigated crop farming...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067005/phosphorus-in-agricultural-soils-drivers-of-its-distribution-at-the-global-scale
#18
Bruno Ringeval, Laurent Augusto, Hervé Monod, Dirk van Apeldoorn, Lex Bouwman, Xiaojuan Yang, David L Achat, Louise P Chini, Kristof Van Oost, Bertrand Guenet, Rong Wang, Bertrand Decharme, Thomas Nesme, Sylvain Pellerin
Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the world, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we combined several global datasets describing these drivers with a soil P dynamics model to simulate the distribution of P in agricultural soils and to assess the contributions of the different drivers at the global scale...
January 9, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063186/the-combined-and-separate-impacts-of-climate-extremes-on-the-current-and-future-us-rainfed-maize-and-soybean-production-under-elevated-co2
#19
Zhenong Jin, Qianlai Zhuang, Jiali Wang, Sotirios V Archontoulis, Zachary Zobel, Veerabhadra R Kotamarthi
Heat and drought are two emerging climatic threats to the US maize and soybean production, yet their impacts on yields are collectively determined by the magnitude of climate change and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This study quantifies the combined and separate impacts of high temperature, heat and drought stresses on the current and future US rainfed maize and soybean production, and for the first time characterizes spatial shifts in the relative importance of individual stress. Crop yields are simulated using the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM), driven by high-resolution (12 km) dynamically downscaled climate projections for 1995-2004 and 2085-2094...
January 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056056/par-interception-and-utilization-in-different-maize-and-soybean-intercropping-patterns
#20
Xin Liu, Tanzeelur Rahman, Feng Yang, Chun Song, Taiwen Yong, Jiang Liu, Cuiying Zhang, Wenyu Yang
The crop intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) vary markedly in different intercropping systems. The HHLA (horizontally homogeneous leaf area) and ERCRT (extended row crop radiation transmission) models have been established to calculate the intercepted PAR for intercrops. However, there is still a lack of study on the intercepted PAR and RUE under different intercropping configurations using different models. To evaluate the intercepted PAR and RUE in maize and soybean under different intercropping systems, we tested different strip intercropping configurations (SI1, SI2, and SI3 based on ERCRT model) and a row intercropping configurations (RI based on HHLA model) in comparison to monoculture...
2017: PloS One
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