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Crop simulations

Qiong Zheng, Wenjiang Huang, Ximin Cui, Yue Shi, Linyi Liu
Yellow rust is one of the most destructive diseases for winter wheat and has led to a significant decrease in winter wheat quality and yield. Identifying and monitoring yellow rust is of great importance for guiding agricultural production over large areas. Compared with traditional crop disease discrimination methods, remote sensing technology has proven to be a useful tool for accomplishing such a task at large scale. This study explores the potential of the Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI), a newly launched satellite with refined spatial resolution and three red-edge bands, for discriminating between yellow rust infection severities (i...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
David Thornby, Jeff Werth, James Hereward, Michelle Keenan, Bhagirath S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Because herbicide resistance evolves in very large populations over periods of many years, modelling is an important tool for investigating the dynamics of the problem. The Diversity model tracks the simultaneous evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides, using multiple genetic pathways, in several weed species at once. Tracking multiple species and simultaneous resistances is an important development in resistance modelling. We used the Diversity model to test weed management strategies for new cropping cotton varieties with multiple herbicide tolerances ('triple-stacked' varieties), in an Australian context...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
P Pramanik, Bidisha Chakrabarti, Arti Bhatia, S D Singh, A Maity, P Aggarwal, P Krishnan
An attempt has been made to study the effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and winter wheat growth under simulated warming in temperature gradient tunnel (TGT). Results showed that bulk density (BDs) of 0, 0.9, and 2.5 °C were significantly different whereas BDs of 2.8 and 3.5 °C were not significantly different. Water filled pore space (WFPS) was maximum at 3.5 °C temperature rise and varied between 43.80 and 98.55%. Soil surface temperature (ST) at different dates of sowing increased with rise in sensor temperature and highest ST was observed at S5 sensors (3...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Zhimin Du, Ki Hyung Kim, Juil Kim, Yuseok Moon
Adlay is a cereal crop that has long been used as traditional herbal medicine and as a highly nourishing food. However, deoxynivalenol (DON), the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin worldwide, frequently spoils grains, including adlay, via fungal infection. On the basis of an assumption that the actions of DON in the gut could be modified by adlay consumption, we simulated the impacts of co-exposure in enterocytes and investigated the effectiveness of treatment with adlay for reducing the risk of DON-induced inflammation and epithelia barrier injury...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rajeev K Varshney, Mahendar Thudi, Manish K Pandey, Francois Tardieu, Chris Ojiewo, Vincent Vadez, Anthony M Whitbread, Kadambot H M Siddique, Henry T Nguyen, Peter S Carberry, David Bergvinson
Grain legumes form an important component of the human diet, feed for livestock and replenish soil fertility through biological nitrogen fixation. Globally, the demand for food legumes is increasing as they complement cereals in protein requirements and possess a high percentage of digestible protein. Climate change has enhanced the frequency and intensity of drought stress that is posing serious production constraints, especially in rainfed regions where most legumes are produced. Genetic improvement of legumes, like other crops, is mostly based on pedigree and performance-based selection over the last half century...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Muhammad Awais, Aftab Wajid, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Wajid Nasim, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Usman Bashir, Muhammad Mubeen, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Muhammad Habib Ur Rahman, Umer Saeed, Muhammad Naveed Arshad, Jamshad Hussain
Growth, development, and economic yield of agricultural crops rely on moisture, temperature, light, and carbon dioxide concentration. However, the amount of these parameters is varying with time due to climate change. Climate change is factual and ongoing so, first principle of agronomy should be to identify climate change potential impacts and adaptation measures to manage the susceptibilities of agricultural sector. Crop models have ability to predict the crop's yield under changing climatic conditions. We used OILCROP-SUN model to simulate the influence of elevated temperature and CO2 on crop growth duration, maximum leaf area index (LAI), total dry matter (TDM), and achene yield of sunflower under semi-arid conditions of Pakistan (Faisalabad, Punjab)...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hanseok Jeong, Rabin Bhattarai
It is vital to manage the excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in corn production, the single largest consumer of N fertilizer in the United States, in order to achieve more sustainable agroecosystems. This study comprehensively explored the effects of N fertilization alternatives on nitrate loss and crop yields using the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) in tile-drained fields in central Illinois. The RZWQM was tested for the prediction of tile flow, nitrate loss, and crop yields using eight years (1993-2000) of observed data and showed satisfactory model performances from statistical and graphical evaluations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Seethalakshmi Sakthivel, S K M Habeeb, Chandrasekar Raman
Cotton is an economically important crop and its production is challenged by the diversity of pests and related insecticide resistance. Identification of the conserved target across the cotton pest will help to design broad spectrum insecticide. In this study, we have identified conserved sequences by Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) profiling from three cotton pests namely Aphis gossypii, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua. One target protein Arginine Kinase having a key role in insect physiology and energy metabolism was studied further using homology modeling, virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation to identify potential biopesticide compounds from the Zinc natural database...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Shaoqing Du, Zhaokai Yang, Yaoguo Qin, Shanshan Wang, Hongxia Duan, Xinling Yang
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play an important role as ligand-transfer filters in olfactory recognition in insects. (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the main component of the aphid alarm pheromone and could keep aphids away from crops to prevent damage. Computational insight into the molecular binding mode of EBF analogs containing a heterocycle based on the structure of Megoura viciae OBP 3 (MvicOBP3) was obtained by molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The results showed that high affinity EBF analogs substituted with an aromatic ring present a unique binding conformation in the surface cavity of MvicOBP3...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Wen Fang, Guangxia Qi, Yonghong Wei, David S Kosson, Hans A van der Sloot, Jianguo Liu
A 3-years field test and laboratory leaching test have been conducted to assess the environmental impact of land application of sewage sludge compost in conjunction with wheat and rice crops. Considering the complexity and variability of field conditions, we compared the result of laboratory test with the field test to understand the accuracy and uncertainty associated with using the laboratory test to evaluate the field scenario. The laboratory test with cycling of compost additions and water percolation was a high time-efficient and feasible method to simulate the annually repeated additions of compost in the field application scenario...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Bin Hu, Ann-Mareike Jarosch, Martin Gauder, Simone Graeff-Hönninger, Jörg-Peter Schnitzler, Rüdiger Grote, Heinz Rennenberg, Jürgen Kreuzwieser
Energy crops are an important renewable source for energy production in future. To ensure high yields of crops, N fertilization is a common practice. However, knowledge on environmental impacts of bioenergy plantations, particularly in systems involving trees, and the effects of N fertilization is scarce. We studied the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which negatively affect the environment by contributing to tropospheric ozone and aerosols formation, from Miscanthus and willow plantations. Particularly, we aimed at quantifying the effect of N fertilization on VOC emission...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Majid Fereidoon, Manfred Koch
Agriculture is one of the environmental/economic sectors that may adversely be affected by climate change, especially, in already nowadays water-scarce regions, like the Middle East. One way to cope with future changes in absolute as well as seasonal (irrigation) water amounts can be the adaptation of the agricultural crop pattern in a region, i.e. by planting crops which still provide high yields and so economic benefits to farmers under such varying climate conditions. To do this properly, the whole cascade starting from climate change, effects on hydrology and surface water availability, subsequent effects on crop yield, agricultural areas available, and, finally, economic value of a multi-crop cultivation pattern must be known...
February 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Emily Vebrosky, Parichehr Saranjampour, Donald G Crosby, Kevin Armbrust
Dicloran appears to be a model pesticide to investigate photodegradation processes in surface waters. Photodegradation processes are particularly relevant to this compound as it is applied to crops grown in proximity to freshwater and marine ecosystems. The photodegradation of dicloran under simulated sunlight was measured in distilled water, artificial seawater, phosphate buffer, and filter-sterilized estuarine water to determine the half-life, degradation rate, and photodegradation products. The half-life was approximately 7...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jonathan P Lynch
I propose that reduced root development would be advantageous for drought resistance in high-input agroecosystems. Selection regimes for crop ancestors and landraces include multiple stresses, intense competition, and variable resource distribution, which favored prolific root production, developmental plasticity in response to resource availability, and maintenance of unspecialized root tissues. High-input agroecosystems have removed many of these constraints to root function. Therefore, root phenotypes that focus on water capture at the expense of ancestral adaptations would be better suited to high-input agroecosystems...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Bindu Madhuri Cavuturu, Vishwambar Vishnu Bhandare, Amutha Ramaswamy, Neelakantan Arumugam
By virtue of their regulatory role in the biological process, certain protein-protein complexes form potential targets for designing and discovery of drugs. Alteration set in the controlled formation of such complexes results in dysregulation of several metabolic processes, leading to diseased condition. β-catenin/Tcf4 complex is one such protein-protein complex found altered in colorectal epithelial cells resulting in activation of target genes leading to cancer. Recently certain lignans from seeds of the oil crop sesame were found inhibiting initiation and progression of this type of cancer...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Yuntao Ma, Youjia Chen, Jinyu Zhu, Lei Meng, Yan Guo, Baoguo Li, Gerrit Hoogenboom
Background and Aims: Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). Methods: The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Botany
Mohammad Ammad Uddin, Ali Mansour, Denis Le Jeune, Mohammad Ayaz, El-Hadi M Aggoune
In this study, a crop health monitoring system is developed by using state of the art technologies including wireless sensors and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Conventionally data is collected from sensor nodes either by fixed base stations or mobile sinks. Mobile sinks are considered a better choice nowadays due to their improved network coverage and energy utilization. Usually, the mobile sink is used in two ways: either it goes for random walk to find the scattered nodes and collect data, or follows a pre-defined path established by the ground network/clusters...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
P V Femeena, K P Sudheer, R Cibin, I Chaubey
Biofuel has emerged as a substantial source of energy in many countries. In order to avoid the 'food versus fuel competition', arising from grain-based ethanol production, the United States has passed regulations that require second generation or cellulosic biofeedstocks to be used for majority of the biofuel production by 2022. Agricultural residue, such as corn stover, is currently the largest source of cellulosic feedstock. However, increased harvesting of crops residue may lead to increased application of fertilizers in order to recover the soil nutrients lost from the residue removal...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Luxi Zhou, Kirk R Baker, Sergey L Napelenok, George Pouliot, Robert Elleman, Susan M O'Neill, Shawn P Urbanski, David C Wong
Crop residue burning is a common land management practice that results in emissions of a variety of pollutants with negative health impacts. Modeling systems are used to estimate air quality impacts of crop residue burning to support retrospective regulatory assessments and also for forecasting purposes. Ground and airborne measurements from a recent field experiment in the Pacific Northwest focused on cropland residue burning was used to evaluate model performance in capturing surface and aloft impacts from the burning events...
January 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Nuria Pardo, M Luisa Sánchez, Zhongbo Su, Isidro A Pérez, M Angeles García
The integrated SCOPE (Soil, Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy balance) model, coupling radiative transfer theory and biochemistry, was applied to a biodiesel crop grown in a Spanish agricultural area. Energy fluxes and CO2 exchange were simulated with this model for the period spanning January 2008 to October 2008. Results were compared to experimental measurements performed using eddy covariance and meteorological instrumentation. The reliability of the model was proven by simulating latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat fluxes, soil heat flux (G), and CO2 exchanges (NEE and GPP)...
January 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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