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Crop simulations

Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Sang Gyu Lee, Sung Kyeom Kim, Hee Ju Lee, Hee Su Lee, Jin Hyoung Lee
Horticultural crop production and changes in physiological aspects during the growing season may be affected by climate change factors (CC), which include increased temperature and the associated doubling or tripling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the potential effects are complex and many parameters might impact on the observed effects. To evaluate the effects of CC, the growth, yield, fruit characteristics, photosynthetic traits, and morphological characteristics of hot peppers were investigated...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Magalie Poirier-Pocovi, Jérémy Lothier, Gerhard Buck-Sorlin
Background and Aims: Several studies have found seasonal and temporal variability in leaf photosynthesis parameters in different crops. This variability depends upon the environment, the developmental stage of the plant and the presence or absence of sinks. Girdling involves the removal of the bark and phloem down to the youngest xylem all around the stem and prevents export of photoassimilates out of the stem. The load of developing fruits has often been reported to influence the individual net leaf photosynthesis rate (Pn) in tree crops...
January 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
Chrysantus Mbi Tanga, Fathiya Mbarak Khamis, Henri E Z Tonnang, Ivan Rwomushana, Gladys Mosomtai, Samira A Mohamed, Sunday Ekesi
Integrative taxonomy has resolved the species status of the potentially invasive Ceratitis rosa Karsch into two separate species with distinct ecological requirements: C. rosa "lowland type" and the newly described species Ceratitis quilicii De Meyer, Mwatawala & Virgilio sp. nov. "highland type". Both species are tephritid pests threatening the production of horticultural crops in Africa and beyond. Studies were carried out by constructing thermal reaction norms for each life stage of both species at constant and fluctuating temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Romain Frelat, Mark T van Wijk, Diego Valbuena, Timothy J Krupnik, M L Jat
One of the great challenges in agricultural development and sustainable intensification is the assurance of social equity in food security oriented interventions. Development practitioners, researchers, and policy makers alike could benefit from prior insight into what interventions or environmental shocks might differentially affect farmers' food security status, in order to move towards more informed and equitable development. We examined the food security status and livelihood activities of 269 smallholder farm households (HHs) in Bihar, India...
January 2018: Agricultural Systems
Guillaume Garin, Christophe Pradal, Christian Fournier, David Claessen, Vianney Houlès, Corinne Robert
Background and Aims: Disease models can improve our understanding of dynamic interactions in pathosystems and thus support the design of innovative and sustainable strategies of crop protections. However, most epidemiological models focus on a single type of pathogen, ignoring the interactions between different parasites competing on the same host and how they are impacted by properties of the canopy. This study presents a new model of a disease complex coupling two wheat fungal diseases, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (septoria) and Puccinia triticina (brown rust), respectively, combined with a functional-structural plant model of wheat...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
Dae Ho Jung, Joon Woo Lee, Woo Hyun Kang, In Ha Hwang, Jung Eek Son
Photosynthesis is an important physiological response for determination of CO₂ fertilization in greenhouses and estimation of crop growth. In order to estimate the whole plant photosynthetic rate, it is necessary to investigate how light interception by crops changes with environmental and morphological factors. The objectives of this study were to analyze plant light interception using a three-dimensional (3D) plant model and ray-tracing, determine the spatial distribution of the photosynthetic rate, and estimate the whole plant photosynthetic rate of Irwin mango (Mangifera indica L...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabatabaie, John P Bolte, Ganti S Murthy
The goal of this study was to integrate a crop model, DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition), with life cycle assessment (LCA) and economic analysis models using a GIS-based integrated platform, ENVISION. The integrated model enables LCA practitioners to conduct integrated economic analysis and LCA on a regional scale while capturing the variability of soil emissions due to variation in regional factors during production of crops and biofuel feedstocks. In order to evaluate the integrated model, the corn-soybean cropping system in Eagle Creek Watershed, Indiana was studied and the integrated model was used to first model the soil emissions and then conduct the LCA as well as economic analysis...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Qinghai Wang, Cui Li, Chao Chen, Jie Chen, Ruilun Zheng, Xiaoe Que
Atrazine is frequently detected in surface runoff and poses a potential threat to the environment. Grass hedges may minimize runoff loss of atrazine from crop fields. Therefore, the effectiveness of two grass hedges (Melilotus albus and Pennisetum alopecuroides) in controlling atrazine runoff was investigated using simulated rainfall on lands at different slope gradients (15 and 20%) in northern China. Results showed that a storm (40 mm in 1 h), occurring 4 h after atrazine application, caused a loss of 3% of the applied amount...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Richard K Gaillard, Curtis D Jones, Pete Ingraham, Sarah Collier, Roberto Cesar Izaurralde, William Jokela, William Osterholz, William Salas, Peter Vadas, Matthew Ruark
Process-based models are increasingly used to study agroecosystem interactions and N2 O emissions from agricultural fields. The widespread use of these models to conduct research and inform policy benefits from periodic model comparisons that assess the state of agroecosystem modeling and indicate areas for model improvement. This work provides an evaluation of simulated N2 O flux from three process-based models: DayCent, DNDC, and EPIC. The models were calibrated and validated using data collected from two research sites over five years that represent cropping systems and nitrogen fertilizer management strategies common to dairy cropping systems...
December 28, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Rafael D Santos, Kenneth J Boote, Lynn E Sollenberger, Andre L A Neves, Luiz G R Pereira, Carolina B Scherer, Lucio C Gonçalves
Forage production is primarily limited by weather conditions under dryland production systems in Brazilian semi-arid regions, therefore sowing at the appropriate time is critical. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the CSM-CERES-Pearl Millet model from the DSSAT software suite for its ability to simulate growth, development, and forage accumulation of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.] at three Brazilian semi-arid locations, and to use the model to study the impact of different sowing dates on pearl millet performance for forage...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dan Chen, Cong Wang, Jianlin Shen, Yong Li, Jinshui Wu
Paddy soil plays an essential role in contributing to the emission of methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of straw incorporation and straw-derived biochar amendment on CH4 emissions from double-rice cropping fields and to explore their potential mechanisms based on in-situ field measurements conducted for a period of three years (2012-2014) and model analysis. The results showed that the improved soil aeration due to biochar amendment resulted in low CH4 emissions and that sufficient substrate carbon availability in straw amendment treatments caused high CH4 emissions...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Archana Singh, Chetna Tyagi, Onkar Nath, Indrakant K Singh
Thioredoxins are small and universal proteins, which are involved in the cell redox regulation. In plants, they participate in a broad range of biochemical processes like self-incompatibility, seed germination, pathogen & pest defense and oxidative stress tolerance. The h-type of thioredoxin (Trx-h) protein represents the largest Trx family. Herein, we characterized the Helicoverpa - inducible Trx h from an important legume, Cicer arietinum, CaHaTrx-h, 'CGFS' type Trxs, which encodes for a 113 amino acids long protein and possess characteristic motifs "FLKVDVDE" and "VVDFTASWCGPCRFIAPIL" and 73% sequence identity with AtTrx-h...
December 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ajmal Hinas, Jonathan M Roberts, Felipe Gonzalez
In this paper, a system that uses an algorithm for target detection and navigation and a multirotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for finding a ground target and inspecting it closely is presented. The system can also be used for accurate and safe delivery of payloads or spot spraying applications in site-specific crop management. A downward-looking camera attached to a multirotor is used to find the target on the ground. The UAV descends to the target and hovers above the target for a few seconds to inspect the target...
December 17, 2017: Sensors
Christine M F Miller, James G Fadel, Jennifer M Heguy, Betsy M Karle, Patricia L Price, Deanne Meyer
Farmers around the world must precisely manage nutrients applied to and removed from crop fields to maintain production and without causing nutrient pollution. This study is the first to quantify the baseline accuracy of current industry measurement protocols and achievable accuracy from intensifying protocols for measuring dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) yields from forage crops harvested for silage. The 'true' DM and nutrient yields of three fields each of corn, sorghum, and small grain were intensively measured by weighing and sampling every truckload of harvested forage...
December 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fulu Tao, Reimund P Rötter, Taru Palosuo, C G H Díaz-Ambrona, M Inés Mínguez, Mikhail A Semenov, Kurt Christian Kersebaum, Claas Nendel, Xenia Specka, Holger Hoffmann, Frank Ewert, Anaelle Dambreville, Pierre Martre, Lucía Rodríguez, Margarita Ruiz-Ramos, Thomas Gaiser, Jukka G Höhn, Tapio Salo, Roberto Ferrise, Marco Bindi, Davide Cammarano, Alan H Schulman
Climate change impact assessments are plagued with uncertainties from many sources, such as climate projections or the inadequacies in structure and parameters of the impact model. Previous studies tried to account for the uncertainty from one or two of these. Here, we developed a triple-ensemble probabilistic assessment using seven crop models, multiple sets of model parameters, and eight contrasting climate projections together to comprehensively account for uncertainties from these three important sources...
December 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
Devin A Rippner, Peter G Green, Thomas M Young, Sanjai J Parikh
With increasing demand for recycled wastewater for irrigation purposes, there is a need to evaluate the potential for manufactured nanomaterials in waste water to impact crop production and agroecosystems. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) have previously been shown to negatively impact the growth of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) a model aquatic plant consumed by water fowl and widely found in agricultural runoff ditches in temperate climates. However, prior studies involving CuO NP toxicity to duckweed have focused on systems without the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xueli Zhang, Congwei Sun, Zheng Zhang, Zhijun Dai, Yuan Chen, Xiong Yuan, Zheming Yuan, Wenbang Tang, Lanzhi Li, Zhongli Hu
The use of heterosis has considerably increased the productivity of many crops; however, the biological mechanism underpinning the technique remains elusive. The North Carolina design III (NCIII) and the triple test cross (TTC) are powerful and popular genetic mating design that can be used to decipher the genetic basis of heterosis. However, when using the NCIII design with the present quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method, if epistasis exists, the estimated additive or dominant effects are confounded with epistatic effects...
2017: PloS One
Laure Nitschelm, Virginie Parnaudeau, Francoise Vertès, Hayo M G van der Werf, Michael S Corson, Valerie Viaud, Joel Aubin, Christian Walter
In life cycle assessment (LCA), simple models are currently used to estimate cropping system nitrogen (N) emissions on farms. At large spatial scales (e.g., countries), these models are valid. At a smaller spatial scale (e.g., territories), these models may be less accurate, since they completely or partially ignore local conditions such as management practices, soil or climate. The purpose of this study was to consider the variability of those factors when estimating N emissions in LCA at the watershed scale...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Harihar Jaishree Subrahmaniam, Cyril Libourel, Etienne-Pascal Journet, Jean-Benoît Morel, Stéphane Muños, Andreas Niebel, Sylvain Raffaele, Fabrice Roux
Despite the importance of plant-plant interactions on crop yield and plant community dynamics, our understanding of the genetic and molecular bases underlying natural variation of plant-plant interactions is largely limited in comparison to other types of biotic interactions. By listing 63 QTL mapping and global gene expression studies based on plants directly challenged by other plants, we explored whether the genetic architecture and the function of the candidate genes underlying natural plant-plant interactions depend on the type of interactions between two plants (competition vs commensalism vs reciprocal helping vs asymmetry)...
December 12, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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