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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#1
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144438/bioactive-components-in-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protect-against-chronic-disease
#2
REVIEW
Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Manal Mused Almatrafi, Maria Luz Fernandez
Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation...
November 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142024/a-model-of-leaf-coordination-to-scale-up-leaf-expansion-from-the-organ-to-the-canopy
#3
Pierre Martre, Anaelle Dambreville
Process-based crop growth models are popular tools to analyze and understand the impact of crop management, genotype by environment interactions, or climate change. The ability to predict leaf area development is critical to predict crop growth, particularly under conditions of limited resources. Here, we aimed at deciphering growth coordination rules between wheat plant organs, i.e. between leaves within a stem, between laminae and sheaths, and between the mainstem and axillary tillers, to model the dynamics of canopy development...
November 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139077/spatiotemporal-patterns-and-source-attribution-of-nitrogen-pollution-in-a-typical-headwater-agricultural-watershed-in-southeastern-china
#4
Wenjun Chen, Bin He, Daniel Nover, Weili Duan, Chuan Luo, Kaiyan Zhao, Wen Chen
Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138387/strategies-for-feeding-the-world-more-sustainably-with-organic-agriculture
#5
Adrian Muller, Christian Schader, Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Judith Brüggemann, Anne Isensee, Karl-Heinz Erb, Pete Smith, Peter Klocke, Florian Leiber, Matthias Stolze, Urs Niggli
Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Here we show that a 100% conversion to organic agriculture needs more land than conventional agriculture but reduces N-surplus and pesticide use. However, in combination with reductions of food wastage and food-competing feed from arable land, with correspondingly reduced production and consumption of animal products, land use under organic agriculture remains below the reference scenario...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137937/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-3-arylidene-azetidin-2-ones-as-potential-antifungal-agents-against-alternaria-solani-sorauer
#6
Wang Delong, Wu Yongling, Wang Lanying, Feng Juntao, Zhang Xing
A new concise and facile method was explored to synthesize a collection of new 3-arylidene azetidin-2-ones, which could be regarded as the derivatives of the hybrid scaffold of bioactive natural cinnamamide and heterocycle azetidi-2-one. The structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H, (13)C NMR, and MS; and their antifungal activity were evaluated against Alternaria solani Sorauer. These antifungal data were subjected to a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis using Codessa software on the basis of the results from B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) quantum calculations...
November 4, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136323/increasing-canopy-photosynthesis-in-rice-can-be-achieved-without-a-large-increase-in-water-use-a-model-based-on-free-air-co2-enrichment
#7
Hiroki Ikawa, Charles P Chen, Martin Sikma, Mayumi Yoshimoto, Hidemitsu Sakai, Takeshi Tokida, Yasuhiro Usui, Hirofumi Nakamura, Keisuke Ono, Atsushi Maruyama, Tsutomu Watanabe, Tsuneo Kuwagata, Toshihiro Hasegawa
Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]). Here we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L...
November 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134790/soybean-mosaic-virus-a-successful-potyvirus-with-a-wide-distribution-but-restricted-natural-host-range
#8
M R Hajimorad, L L Domier, S A Tolin, S A Whitham, M A Saghai Maroof
Taxonomy. Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a species within the genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae that includes almost a quarter of all known plant RNA viruses affecting agriculturally important plants. The Potyvirus genus is the largest of all genera of plant RNA viruses with 160 species. Particle. The filamentous particles of SMV, typical of potyviruses, are about 7,500 Å long and 120 Å in diameter with a central hole of about 15 Å in diameter. Coat protein residues are arranged in helice of about 34 Å pitch having slightly less than 9 subunits per turn...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132315/comprehensive-genomic-analysis-of-the-cngc-gene-family-in-brassica-oleracea-novel-insights-into-synteny-structures-and-transcript-profiles
#9
Kaleem U Kakar, Zarqa Nawaz, Khadija Kakar, Essa Ali, Abdulwareth A Almoneafy, Raqeeb Ullah, Xue-Liang Ren, Qing-Yao Shu
BACKGROUND: The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) family affects the uptake of cations, growth, pathogen defence, and thermotolerance in plants. However, the systematic identification, origin and function of this gene family has not been performed in Brassica oleracea, an important vegetable crop and genomic model organism. RESULTS: In present study, we identified 26 CNGC genes in B. oleracea genome, which are non-randomly localized on eight chromosomes, and classified into four major (I-IV) and two sub-groups (i...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131977/source-apportionment-of-heavy-metals-in-agricultural-soil-based-on-pmf-a-case-study-in-hexi-corridor-northwest-china
#10
Qingyu Guan, Feifei Wang, Chuanqi Xu, Ninghui Pan, Jinkuo Lin, Rui Zhao, Yanyan Yang, Haiping Luo
Hexi Corridor is the most important base of commodity grain and producing area for cash crops. However, the rapid development of agriculture and industry has inevitably led to heavy metal contamination in the soils. Multivariate statistical analysis, GIS-based geostatistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modeling techniques were used to understand the levels of heavy metals and their source apportionment for agricultural soil in Hexi Corridor. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were lower than the secondary standard of soil environmental quality; however, the concentrations of eight metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) were higher than background values, and their corresponding enrichment factor values were significantly greater than 1...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129139/effect-of-using-an-internal-teat-sealant-at-drying-off-in-cows-wintered-on-forage-crops-in-new-zealand-on-culling-in-the-dry-period-and-early-lactation
#11
A J Bates, B Saldias
AIMS: To determine the impact of treatment with internal teat sealant (ITS) compared to no treatment at drying-off on culling during the dry period and 90 days after calving, for cows wintered on forage crops. METHODS: In four dairy herds in the South Island of New Zealand, cows with no history of clinical mastitis or somatic cell counts >100,000 cells/mL during the 2015-16 season were randomly assigned to treatment with ITS in each quarter (ITS group) or no treatment (Control group)...
November 12, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127804/impact-of-rainfall-patterns-and-frequency-on-the-export-of-pesticides-and-heavy-metals-from-agricultural-soils
#12
Fatima Meite, Pablo Alvarez-Zaldívar, Alexandre Crochet, Charline Wiegert, Sylvain Payraudeau, Gwenaël Imfeld
The combined influence of soil characteristics, pollutant aging and rainfall patterns on the export of pollutants from topsoils is poorly understood. We used laboratory experiments and parsimonious modeling to evaluate the impact of rainfall characteristics on the ponding and the leaching of a pollutant mixture from topsoils. The mixture included the fungicide metalaxyl, the herbicide S-metolachlor, as well as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Four rainfall patterns, which differed in their durations and intensities, were applied twice successively with a 7days interval on each soil type...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126242/differential-manipulation-of-leaf-angle-throughout-the-canopy-current-status-and-prospects
#13
Maria Betsabe Mantilla-Perez, Maria G Salas Fernandez
Leaf angle is defined as the inclination between the midrib of the leaf blade and the vertical stem of a plant. This trait has been identified as a key component in the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal species, particularly maize, rice, wheat, and sorghum. The effect of leaf angle on light interception efficiency, photosynthetic rate, and yield has been investigated since the 1960s, yet, significant knowledge gaps remain in understanding the genetic control of this complex trait. Recent advances in physiology and modeling have proposed a plant ideotype with varying leaf angles throughout the canopy...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124814/validation-of-an-updated-associative-transcriptomics-platform-for-the-polyploid-crop-species-brassica-napus-by-dissection-of-the-genetic-architecture-of-erucic-acid-and-tocopherol-isoform-variation-in-seeds
#14
Lenka Havlickova, Zhesi He, Lihong Wang, Swen Langer, Andrea L Harper, Harjeevan Kaur, Martin R Broadley, Vasilis Gegas, Ian Bancroft
An updated platform was developed to underpin association genetics studies in the polyploid crop species Brassica napus. Based on 1.92 x 10(12) bases of leaf mRNAseq data, functional genotypes, comprising 355,536 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and transcript abundance were scored across a 383-accession genetic diversity panel using a transcriptome reference comprising 116,098 ordered CDS gene models. The use of the platform for Associative Transcriptomics was first tested by analysing the genetic architecture of variation for seed erucic acid content, as high erucic rapeseed oil is highly valued for a variety of applications in industry...
November 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123188/spatio-temporal-trends-in-crop-damage-inform-recent-climate-mediated-expansion-of-a-large-boreal-herbivore-into-an-agro-ecosystem
#15
Michel P Laforge, Nicole L Michel, Ryan K Brook
Large-scale climatic fluctuations have caused species range shifts. Moose (Alces alces) have expanded their range southward into agricultural areas previously not considered moose habitat. We found that moose expansion into agro-ecosystems is mediated by broad-scale climatic factors and access to high-quality forage (i.e., crops). We used crop damage records to quantify moose presence across the Canadian Prairies. We regressed latitude of crop damage against North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and crop area to test the hypotheses that NAO-mediated wetland recharge and occurrence of more nutritious crop types would result in more frequent occurrences of crop damage by moose at southerly latitudes...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121579/a-process-oriented-hydro-biogeochemical-model-enabling-simulation-of-gaseous-carbon-and-nitrogen-emissions-and-hydrologic-nitrogen-losses-from-a-subtropical-catchment
#16
Wei Zhang, Yong Li, Bo Zhu, Xunhua Zheng, Chunyan Liu, Jialiang Tang, Fang Su, Chong Zhang, Xiaotang Ju, Jia Deng
Quantification of nitrogen losses and net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from catchments is essential for evaluating the sustainability of ecosystems. However, the hydrologic processes without lateral flows hinder the application of biogeochemical models to this challenging task. To solve this issue, we developed a coupled hydrological and biogeochemical model, Catchment Nutrients Management Model - DeNitrification-DeComposition Model (CNMM-DNDC), to include both vertical and lateral mass flows. By incorporating the core biogeochemical processes (including decomposition, nitrification, denitrification and fermentation) of the DNDC into the spatially distributed hydrologic framework of the CNMM, the simulation of lateral water flows and their influences on nitrogen transportation can be realized...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121206/effects-of-temperatures-on-immature-development-and-survival-of-the-invasive-stink-bug-hemiptera-pentatomidae
#17
Darcy A Reed, Fatemeh Ganjisaffar, John C Palumbo, Thomas M Perring
Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a non-native stink bug that feeds primarily on cole crops and wild mustards. Its invasion into desert agriculture in California and Arizona presents a conundrum between rapid pest development at warm temperatures and severe damage to cool season crops. In this study, the development and survival of B. hilaris were determined at nine constant temperatures (ranging from 20-42°C) when reared on organically grown broccoli florets. Egg hatching was greatly delayed at 20°C, and first instar nymphs did not survive at this temperature...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120798/a-comparison-of-the-kinetics-of-in-vitro-starch-digestion-in-smooth-and-wrinkled-peas-by-porcine-pancreatic-alpha-amylase
#18
Cathrina H Edwards, Marie Maillot, Roger Parker, Frederick J Warren
This study describes the impact of crop genetics and processing in two pea lines (Pisum sativum L.) on starch digestion kinetics. Mutation at the rugosus (r) locus leads to wrinkled pea seeds, a reduction in starch content and a lower extent of in vitro starch digestibility. The Logarithm of Slope (LOS) kinetic model was used to analyse digestion curves obtained using porcine pancreatic α-amylase for a range of particle size fractions. Changes in starch structure induced by the r mutation led to clear differences in starch digestion kinetics for purified starches and pea flours...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117479/effect-of-treatment-with-an-internal-teat-sealant-at-drying-off-in-cows-wintered-on-forage-crops-in-new-zealand-on-clinical-mastitis-and-somatic-cell-counts
#19
A J Bates, B Saldias
AIMS: To determine the impact of treatment with internal teat sealant (ITS) compared to no treatment at drying-off on the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) during the dry period and 84 days after calving, and the prevalence of cows with somatic cell counts (SCC) ≥200,000 cells/mL at the first lactation herd test, for cows wintered on forage crops. METHODS: In four dairy herds in the South Island of New Zealand, cows with no history of CM or individual SCC >100,000 cells/mL during the 2015-16 season were randomly assigned to treatment with ITS in each quarter (ITS group) at drying-off or no treatment (Control group)...
November 8, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116534/on-the-interactions-among-tropospheric-ozone-levels-and-typical-environmental-stresses-challenging-mediterranean-crops
#20
Massimo Fagnano, Albino Maggio
The main environmental stresses of Italian croplands are discussed in relation to their interactions with ozone effects on crops. Water deficit and salinization are frequent in Mediterranean environments during spring-summer causing a decrease of soil water potential and water uptake by roots and consequently stomatal closure. These stresses also stimulate secondary metabolism and antioxidant accumulation, which also serves as a stress protection mechanism. High concentrations of tropospheric ozone are common all over Italy during the spring-summer season...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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