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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525996/cancer-risks-in-a-population-based-study-of-70-570-agricultural-workers-results-from-the-canadian-census-health-and-environment-cohort-canchec
#1
Linda Kachuri, M Anne Harris, Jill S MacLeod, Michael Tjepkema, Paul A Peters, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers may be exposed to potential carcinogens including pesticides, sensitizing agents and solar radiation. Previous studies indicate increased risks of hematopoietic cancers and decreased risks at other sites, possibly due to differences in lifestyle or risk behaviours. We present findings from CanCHEC (Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort), the largest national population-based cohort of agricultural workers. METHODS: Statistics Canada created the cohort using deterministic and probabilistic linkage of the 1991 Canadian Long Form Census to National Cancer Registry records for 1992-2010...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524697/emerging-functions-of-multi-protein-complex-mediator-with-special-emphasis-on-plants
#2
Naveen Malik, Pinky Agarwal, Akhilesh Tyagi
Mediator is a multi-subunit protein complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation in yeast and other eukaryotes. As a co-activator, it connects information from transcriptional activators/repressors to transcriptional machinery including RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors. It is not only involved in transcription initiation but also has important roles to play in transcription elongation and termination. Functional attributes of different Mediator subunits have been largely defined in yeast and mammalian systems earlier, while such studies in plants have gained momentum recently...
May 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522839/fast-diffusion-of-domesticated-maize-to-temperate-zones
#3
Xiaolong Li, Yinqiao Jian, Chuanxiao Xie, Jun Wu, Yunbi Xu, Cheng Zou
Adaptation to a temperate climate was a prerequisite for the spread of maize across a broad geographical range. To explicitly explore the demographic process underlying maize adaptation, we used a diffusion-based method to model the differentiation between temperate and tropical populations using the Non-Stiff Stalk group as a proxy for temperate maize. Based on multiple sequential Markovian coalescent approaches, we estimate that tropical and temperate maize diverged approximately 3'000 to 5'000 years ago and the population size shrank after the split...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522547/a-regulatory-hierarchy-of-the-arabidopsis-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolic-network
#4
Anqi Xing, Robert L Last
The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) Ile, Val and Leu are essential nutrients that humans and other animals obtain from plants. However, total and relative amounts of plant BCAAs rarely match animal nutritional needs, and improvement requires a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for BCAA homeostasis. We present an in vivo regulatory model of BCAA homeostasis derived from analysis of feedback-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants for the three allosteric committed enzymes in the biosynthetic network: threonine deaminase (also named L-O-methylthreonine resistant 1, OMR1), acetohydroxyacid synthase small subunit 2 (AHASS2) and isopropylmalate synthase 1 (IPMS1)...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521948/genomics-of-interaction-between-the-brown-planthopper-and-rice
#5
REVIEW
Shengli Jing, Yan Zhao, Bo Du, Rongzhi Chen, Lili Zhu, Guangcun He
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) form a model system for dissection of the mechanism of interaction between insect pest and crop. In this review, we focus on the genomics of BPH-rice interaction. On the side of rice, a number of BPH-resistance genes have been identified genetically. Thirteen of these genes have been cloned which shed a light on the molecular basis of the interaction. On the aspect of BPH, a lot of salivary proteins have been identified using transcriptome and proteome techniques...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521191/assessing-human-health-risks-from-pesticide-use-in-conventional-and-innovative-cropping-systems-with-the-browse-model
#6
Sabine-Karen Lammoglia, Marc C Kennedy, Enrique Barriuso, Lionel Alletto, Eric Justes, Nicolas Munier-Jolain, Laure Mamy
BACKGROUND: Reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and on the environment is one of the objectives of the European Commission Directive 2009/128/EC in the quest for a sustainable use of pesticides. This Directive, developed through European national plans such as Ecophyto plan in France, promotes the introduction of innovative cropping systems relying, for example, on integrated pest management. Risk assessment for human health of the overall pesticide use in these innovative systems is required before the introduction of those systems to avoid that an innovation becomes a new problem...
May 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517959/pomics-a-simulation-disease-model-for-timing-fungicide-applications-in-management-of-powdery-mildew-of-cucurbits
#7
Zaiton Sapak, Moin U Salam, Elizabeth J Minchinton, Garry P V MacManus, Daryl Joyce, Victor Joseph Galea
A weather-based simulation model, called POMICS, was constructed to predict fungicide application scheduling to manage powdery mildew of cucurbits. The model was developed on the principle that conditions favorable for Podosphaera xanthii, a causal pathogen of this crop disease, generate a number of infection cycles in a single growing season. The model consists of two components that: (i) simulate the disease progression of P. xanthii in secondary infection cycles under natural conditions and (ii) predict the disease severity with application of fungicides at any recurrent disease cycles...
May 18, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516984/cadmium-transfer-from-contaminated-soils-to-the-human-body-through-rice-consumption-in-southern-jiangsu-province-china
#8
Tianyuan Li, Qing Chang, Xuyin Yuan, Jizhou Li, Godwin A Ayoko, Ray L Frost, Hongyan Chen, Xinjian Zhang, Yinxian Song, Wenzhi Song
Consumption of crops grown in cadmium-contaminated soils is an important Cd exposure route to humans. The present study utilizes statistical analysis and in vitro digestion experiments to uncover the transfer processes of Cd from soils to the human body through rice consumption. Here, a model was created to predict the levels of bioaccessible Cd in rice grains using phytoavailable Cd quantities in the soil. During the in vitro digestion, a relatively constant ratio between the total and bioaccessible Cd in rice was observed...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515732/osmotic-stress-induced-cell-death-in-wheat-is-alleviated-by-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-and-involves-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-gene-expression
#9
Liting Zhang, Zeyu Xin, Xing Yu, Chao Ma, Weiwei Liang, Meichen Zhu, Qiwei Cheng, Zongzhen Li, Yanan Niu, Yongzhe Ren, Zhiqiang Wang, Tongbao Lin
Although, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) has been widely studied in mammalian cells because of its role in inhibiting apoptosis, its effects on plants remain almost unknown, especially in the case of crops such as wheat. In this study, we conducted a series of experiments to explore the effects and mechanisms of action of TUDCA on wheat growth and cell death induced by osmotic stress. Our results show that TUDCA: (1) ameliorates the impact of osmotic stress on wheat height, fresh weight, and water content; (2) alleviates the decrease in chlorophyll content as well as membrane damage caused by osmotic stress; (3) decreases the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes under osmotic stress; and (4) to some extent alleviates osmotic stress-induced cell death probably by regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related gene expression, for example expression of the basic leucine zipper genes bZIP60B and bZIP60D, the binding proteins BiP1 and BiP2, the protein disulfide isomerase PDIL8-1, and the glucose-regulated protein GRP94...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515146/transcriptome-of-wheat-inflorescence-development-from-spikelet-initiation-to-floral-patterning
#10
Nan Feng, Gaoyuan Song, Jiantao Guan, Kai Chen, Meiling Jia, Dehua Huang, Jiajie Wu, Lichao Zhang, Xiuying Kong, Shuaifeng Geng, Jun Liu, Aili Li, Long Mao
Early reproductive development in cereals is crucial for final grain number per spike, and hence the yield potential of the crop. To date, however, no systematic analyses of gene expression profiles during this important process have been conducted for common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Here, we studied the transcriptome profiles at four stages of early wheat reproductive development, from spikelet initiation to floral organ differentiation. K-means clustering and stage-specific transcript identification detected dynamically expressed homoeologs of important transcription regulators in spikelet and floral meristems that may be involved in spikelet initiation, floret meristem specification, and floral organ patterning, as inferred from their homologs in model plants...
May 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514941/effects-of-marker-density-and-population-structure-on-the-genomic-prediction-accuracy-for-growth-trait-in-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#11
Quanchao Wang, Yang Yu, Jianbo Yuan, Xiaojun Zhang, Hao Huang, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
BACKGROUND: Due to the great advantages in selection accuracy and efficiency, genomic selection (GS) has been widely studied in livestock, crop and aquatic animals. Our previous study based on one full-sib family of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) showed that GS was feasible in penaeid shrimp. However, the applicability of GS might be influenced by many factors including heritability, marker density and population structure etc. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate the major factors affecting the prediction ability of GS in shrimp...
May 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513920/moisture-induced-greening-of-the-south-asia-over-the-past-three-decades
#12
Xiaoyi Wang, Tao Wang, Dan Liu, Hui Guo, Huabing Huang, Yutong Zhao
South Asia experienced a weakening of summer monsoon circulation in the past several decades, resulting in rainfall decline in wet regions. In comparison to other tropical ecosystems, quantitative assessments of the extent and triggers of vegetation change are lacking in assessing climate-change impacts over South Asia dominated by crops. Here we use satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to quantify spatial-temporal changes in vegetation greenness, and find a widespread annual greening trend that stands in contrast to the weakening of summer monsoon circulation particularly over the last decade...
May 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512463/allometric-models-for-predicting-aboveground-biomass-and-carbon-stock-of-tropical-perennial-c4-grasses-in-hawaii
#13
Adel H Youkhana, Richard M Ogoshi, James R Kiniry, Manyowa N Meki, Mae H Nakahata, Susan E Crow
Biomass is a promising renewable energy option that provides a more environmentally sustainable alternative to fossil resources by reducing the net flux of greenhouse gasses to the atmosphere. Yet, allometric models that allow the prediction of aboveground biomass (AGB), biomass carbon (C) stock non-destructively have not yet been developed for tropical perennial C4 grasses currently under consideration as potential bioenergy feedstock in Hawaii and other subtropical and tropical locations. The objectives of this study were to develop optimal allometric relationships and site-specific models to predict AGB, biomass C stock of napiergrass, energycane, and sugarcane under cultivation practices for renewable energy and validate these site-specific models against independent data sets generated from sites with widely different environments...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510484/ethylene-signalling-is-important-for-isoflavonoid-mediated-resistance-to-rhizoctonia-solani-in-roots-of-medicago-truncatula
#14
Yao Liu, Samira Hassan, Brendan N Kidd, Gagan Garg, Ulrike Mathesius, Karam B Singh, Jonathan Anderson
The root-infecting necrotrophic fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani causes significant disease to all the world's major food crops. As a model for pathogenesis of legumes, we have examined the interaction of R. solani AG8 with Medicago truncatula. RNAseq analysis of the moderately resistant M. truncatula accession A17 and highly susceptible sickle (skl) mutant (defective in ethylene sensing) identified major early transcriptional reprogramming in A17. Responses specific to A17 included components of ethylene signalling, reactive oxygen species metabolism and consistent up-regulation of the isoflavonoid biosynthesis pathway...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507551/deciphering-genomic-regions-for-high-grain-iron-and-zinc-content-using-association-mapping-in-pearl-millet
#15
N Anuradha, C Tara Satyavathi, C Bharadwaj, T Nepolean, S Mukesh Sankar, Sumer P Singh, Mahesh C Meena, Tripti Singhal, Rakesh K Srivastava
Micronutrient malnutrition, especially deficiency of two mineral elements, iron [Fe] and zinc [Zn] in the developing world needs urgent attention. Pearl millet is one of the best crops with many nutritional properties and is accessible to the poor. We report findings of the first attempt to mine favorable alleles for grain iron and zinc content through association mapping in pearl millet. An association mapping panel of 130 diverse lines was evaluated at Delhi, Jodhpur and Dharwad, representing all the three pearl millet growing agro-climatic zones of India, during 2014 and 2015...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505583/immunity-and-starvation-new-opportunities-to-elevate-disease-resistance-in-crops
#16
REVIEW
Ricardo Oliva, Ian Lorenzo Quibod
Plants use multiple mechanisms to defend themselves against invading microbes. Besides using their immune system to surveil and eliminate pathogens, plants actively block the pathogens' access to nutrients as an alternative way to prevent colonization. In this review, we focus on immunity and starvation as major obstacles for pathogens' adaptation. We summarize the key mechanisms employed by pathogens to modulate host immunity and to guarantee sugar uptake. In contrast to genes that deal with the immune system and show high levels of plasticity, pathogen genes involved in sugar acquisition are highly conserved, and may not have adapted to co-evolving interactions with the host...
May 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505203/cytological-and-morphological-analysis-of-hybrids-between-brassicoraphanus-and-brassica-napus-for-introgression-of-clubroot-resistant-trait-into-brassica-napus-l
#17
Zongxiang Zhan, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Zhaoke Hou, Jianfang Gong, Bin Zhu, Yingfen Jiang, Yongming Zhou, Jiangsheng Wu, Zhongyun Piao, Yue Tong, Chao Liu, Chunyu Zhang
Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500402/identification-and-characterization-of-a-grain-micronutrient-related-osfro2-rice-gene-ortholog-from-micronutrient-rich-little-millet-panicum-sumatrense
#18
Girish Chandel, Mahima Dubey, Saurabh Gupta, Arun H Patil, A R Rao
Minor millets are considered as nutrient-rich cereals having significant effect in improving human health. In this study, a rice ortholog of Ferric Chelate Reductase (FRO2) gene involved in plant metal uptake has been identified in iron-rich Little millet (LM) using PCR and next generation sequencing-based strategy. FRO2 gene-specific primers designed from rice genome amplified 2.7 Kb fragment in LM genotype RLM-37. Computational genomics analyses of the sequenced amplicon showed high level sequence similarity with rice OsFRO2 gene...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497373/morphological-histobiochemical-and-molecular-characterisation-of-low-lignin-phloem-fibre-llpf-mutant-of-dark-jute-corchorus-olitorius-l
#19
S B Choudhary, I Chowdhury, R K Singh, S P Pandey, H K Sharma, A Anil Kumar, P G Karmakar, N Kumari, J Souframanien, S J Jambhulkar
Lignin is a versatile plant metabolite challenging high-end industrial applications of several plant products including jute. Application of developmental mutant in regulation of lignification in jute may open up door for much awaited jute based diversified products. In the present study, a novel dark jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) mutant with low lignin (7.23%) in phloem fibre being compared to wild-type JRO 204 (13.7%) was identified and characterised. Unique morphological features including undulated stem, petiole and leaf vein distinguished the mutant in gamma ray irradiated mutant population...
May 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494759/time-resolved-dual-transcriptomics-reveal-early-induced-nicotiana-benthamiana-root-genes-and-conserved-infection-promoting-phytophthora-palmivora-effectors
#20
Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch, Sebastian Schornack
BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection...
May 11, 2017: BMC Biology
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