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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342190/potential-of-vegetation-indices-combined-with-laser-induced-fluorescence-parameters-for-monitoring-leaf-nitrogen-content-in-paddy-rice
#1
Jian Yang, Lin Du, Wei Gong, Shuo Shi, Jia Sun, Biwu Chen
Nitrogen (N) is important for the growth of crops. Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) serves as a crucial indicator of the growth status of crops and can help determine the dose of N fertilizer. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology and the reflectance spectra of crops are widely used to detect the biochemical content of leaves. Many vegetation indices (VIs) and fluorescence parameters have been developed to estimate LNC. However, the comparison among VIs and between fluorescence parameters and VIs has been rarely studied in the estimation of LNC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342101/a-novel-methodology-for-improving-plant-pest-surveillance-in-vineyards-and-crops-using-uav-based-hyperspectral-and-spatial-data
#2
Fernando Vanegas, Dmitry Bratanov, Kevin Powell, John Weiss, Felipe Gonzalez
Recent advances in remote sensed imagery and geospatial image processing using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enabled the rapid and ongoing development of monitoring tools for crop management and the detection/surveillance of insect pests. This paper describes a (UAV) remote sensing-based methodology to increase the efficiency of existing surveillance practices (human inspectors and insect traps) for detecting pest infestations (e.g., grape phylloxera in vineyards). The methodology uses a UAV integrated with advanced digital hyperspectral, multispectral, and RGB sensors...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333696/the-plantain-proteome-a-focus-on-allele-specific-proteins-obtained-from-plantain-fruits
#3
Nádia A Campos, Rony Swennen, Sebastien C Carpentier
Proteomics has been applied with great potential to elucidate molecular mechanisms in plants. This is especially valid in the case of non-model crops of which their genome has not been sequenced yet, or is not well annotated. Plantains are a kind of cooking bananas that are economically very important in Africa, India and Latin America. The aim of this work was to characterize the fruit proteome of common dessert bananas and plantains and to identify proteins that are only encoded by the plantain genome. We present the first plantain fruit proteome...
January 15, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332296/plant-cell-cultures-as-model-systems-to-study-programmed-cell-death
#4
Sara Cimini, Maria Beatrice Ronci, Elisabetta Barizza, Maria Concetta de Pinto, Vittoria Locato, Fiorella Lo Schiavo, Laura De Gara
The study of programmed cell death (PCD) activated in a certain group of cells is complex when analyzed in the whole plant. Plant cell suspension cultures are useful when investigating PCD triggered by environmental and developmental stimuli. Due to their homogeneity and the possibility to synchronize their responses induced by external stimuli, these cultures are used for studying the signaling pathways leading to PCD. The first problem in the analysis of PCD in cell cultures is the quantification of cell viability/death over time...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332191/genome-wide-characterization-of-differentially-expressed-genes-provides-insights-into-regulatory-network-of-heat-stress-response-in-radish-raphanus-sativus-l
#5
Ronghua Wang, Yi Mei, Liang Xu, Xianwen Zhu, Yan Wang, Jun Guo, Liwang Liu
Heat stress (HS) causes detrimental effects on plant morphology, physiology, and biochemistry that lead to drastic reduction in plant biomass production and economic yield worldwide. To date, little is known about HS-responsive genes involved in thermotolerance mechanism in radish. In this study, a total of 6600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the control and Heat24 cDNA libraries of radish were isolated by high-throughput sequencing. With Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, some genes including MAPK, DREB, ERF, AP2, GST, Hsf, and Hsp were predominantly assigned in signal transductions, metabolic pathways, and biosynthesis and abiotic stress-responsive pathways...
January 13, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332168/efficient-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-in-carrot-cells
#6
Magdalena Klimek-Chodacka, Tomasz Oleszkiewicz, Levi G Lowder, Yiping Qi, Rafal Baranski
The first report presenting successful and efficient carrot genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas9) is a powerful genome editing tool that has been widely adopted in model organisms recently, but has not been used in carrot-a model species for in vitro culture studies and an important health-promoting crop grown worldwide. In this study, for the first time, we report application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system for efficient targeted mutagenesis of the carrot genome...
January 13, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331062/benefits-of-increasing-transpiration-efficiency-in-wheat-under-elevated-co2-for-rainfed-regions
#7
Brendan Christy, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Michael Tausz, Richard Richards, Greg Rebetzke, Anthony Condon, Terry Mclean, Glenn Fitzgerald, Maryse Bourgault, Garry O'Leary
Higher transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a mechanism to increase crop yields in dry environments where water availability usually limits yield. The application of a coupled radiation and transpiration efficiency simulation model shows wheat yield advantage of a high TE cultivar (cv. Drysdale) over its almost identical low TE parent line (Hartog), from about -7 to 558 kg ha-1 (mean 187 kg ha-1 ) over the rainfed cropping region in Australia (221 to 1351 mm annual rainfall), under the present-day climate...
January 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329405/solanaceous-exocyst-subunits-are-involved-in-immunity-to-diverse-plant-pathogens
#8
Yu Du, Elysa J R Overdijk, Jeroen A Berg, Francine Govers, Klaas Bouwmeester
The exocyst, a multiprotein complex consisting of eight subunits, plays an essential role in many biological processes by mediating secretion of post-Golgi-derived vesicles towards the plasma membrane. In recent years, roles for plant exocyst subunits in pathogen defence have been uncovered, largely based on studies in the model plant Arabidopsis. Only a few studies have been undertaken to assign the role of exocyst subunits in plant defence in other plants species, including crops. In this study, predicted protein sequences from exocyst subunits were retrieved by mining databases from the Solanaceous plants Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, and potato...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329353/estimating-the-responses-of-winter-wheat-yields-to-moisture-variations-in-the-past-35-years-in-jiangsu-province-of-china
#9
Xiangying Xu, Ping Gao, Xinkai Zhu, Wenshan Guo, Jinfeng Ding, Chunyan Li
Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324707/evaluation-of-controlled-release-urea-on-the-dynamics-of-nitrate-ammonium-and-its-nitrogen-release-in-black-soils-of-northeast-china
#10
Xin Tong, Xueqin He, Hongwei Duan, Lujia Han, Guangqun Huang
Controlled release urea (CRU) is considered to enhance crop yields while alleviating negative environmental problems caused by the hazardous gas emissions that are associated with high concentrations of ammonium (NH₄⁺) and nitrate (NO₃-) in black soils. Short-term effects of sulfur-coated urea (SCU) and polyurethane-coated urea (PCU), compared with conventional urea, on NO₃- and NH₄⁺ in black soils were studied through the buried bag experiment conducted in an artificial climate chamber. We also investigated nitrogen (N) release kinetics of CRU and correlations between the cumulative N release rate and concentrations of NO₃- and NH₄⁺...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323243/expression-of-cry2ah1-and-two-domain-ii-mutants-in-transgenic-tobacco-confers-high-resistance-to-susceptible-and-cry1ac-resistant-cotton-bollworm
#11
Shengyan Li, Zeyu Wang, Yiyao Zhou, Changhui Li, Guiping Wang, Hai Wang, Jie Zhang, Gemei Liang, Zhihong Lang
To improve the novel Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal gene cry2Ah1 toxicity, two mutants cry2Ah1-vp (V354VP) and cry2Ah1-sp (V354SP) were performed. SWISS-MODEL analysis showed two mutants had a longer loop located between β-4 and β-5 of domain II, resulting in higher binding affinity with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of Helicoverpa armigera comparing with Cry2Ah1. The cry2Ah1, cry2Ah1-vp, and cry2Ah1-sp were optimized codon usage according to plant codon bias, and named mcry2Ah1, mcry2Ah1-vp, and mcry2Ah1-sp...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322303/salt-tolerance-of-two-perennial-grass-brachypodium-sylvaticum-accessions
#12
Nir Sade, Maria Del Mar Rubio Wilhelmi, Xiaojuan Ke, Yariv Brotman, Matthew Wright, Imran Khan, Wagner De Souza, Elias Bassil, Christian M Tobias, Roger Thilmony, John P Vogel, Eduardo Blumwald
We studied the salt stress tolerance of two accessions isolated from different areas of the world (Norway and Tunisia) and characterized the mechanism(s) regulating salt stress in Brachypodium sylvaticum Osl1 and Ain1. Perennial grasses are widely grown in different parts of the world as an important feedstock for renewable energy. Their perennial nature that reduces management practices and use of energy and agrochemicals give these biomass crops advantages when dealing with modern agriculture challenges such as soil erosion, increase in salinized marginal lands and the runoff of nutrients...
January 10, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319784/the-effect-of-isabelin-a-sesquiterpene-lactone-from-ambrosiaartemisiifolia-on-soil-microorganisms-and-human-pathogens
#13
Francesco Molinaro, Olaf Tyc, Jules Beekwilder, Katarina Cankar, Cinzia Margherita Bertea, Michèle Negre, Paolina Garbeva
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive weed, well-known for the strong allergenic effect of its pollen, as well as for its invasiveness and impact in crop fields (e.g. causing yield losses). This species produces a broad range of sesquiterpenoids. In recent years, new bioactive molecules have been discovered in this plant, e.g. isabelin, a sesquiterpene dilactone. The bioactivity of isabelin has been already demonstrated on allergy-related receptors and its inhibitory effect on seeds of various plant species...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315591/suppression-of-a-single-bahd-gene-in-setaria-viridis-causes-large-stable-decreases-in-cell-wall-feruloylation-and-increases-biomass-digestibility
#14
Wagner R de Souza, Polyana K Martins, Jackie Freeman, Till K Pellny, Louise V Michaelson, Bruno L Sampaio, Felipe Vinecky, Ana P Ribeiro, Barbara A D B da Cunha, Adilson K Kobayashi, Patricia A de Oliveira, Raquel B Campanha, Thályta F Pacheco, Danielly C I Martarello, Rogério Marchiosi, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho, Wanderley D Dos Santos, Robson Tramontina, Fabio M Squina, Danilo C Centeno, Marília Gaspar, Marcia R Braga, Marco A S Tiné, John Ralph, Rowan A C Mitchell, Hugo B C Molinari
Feruloylation of arabinoxylan (AX) in grass cell walls is a key determinant of recalcitrance to enzyme attack, making it a target for improvement of grass crops, and of interest in grass evolution. Definitive evidence on the genes responsible is lacking so we studied a candidate gene that we identified within the BAHD acyl-CoA transferase family. We used RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of orthologs in the model grasses Setaria viridis (SvBAHD01) and Brachypodium distachyon (BdBAHD01) and determined effects on AX feruloylation...
January 8, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314053/developmental-responses-of-bread-wheat-to-changes-in-ambient-temperature-following-deletion-of-a-locus-that-includes-flowering-locus-t1
#15
Laura E Dixon, Alba Farré, E Jean Finnegan, Simon Orford, Simon Griffiths, Scott A Boden
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a central integrator of environmental signals that regulates the timing of vegetative to reproductive transition in flowering plants. In model plants, these environmental signals have been shown to include photoperiod, vernalization and ambient temperature pathways, whilst in crop species the integration of the ambient temperature pathway remains less well understood. In hexaploid wheat, at least 5 FT-like genes have been identified, each with a copy on the A, B and D genomes. Here we report the characterization of FT-B1 through analysis of FT-B1 null and over-expression genotypes under different ambient temperature conditions...
January 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313544/dietary-supplementation-of-defatted-kenaf-hibiscus-cannabinus-l-seed-meal-and-its-phenolics-saponins-rich-extract-effectively-attenuates-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-in-rats
#16
Kim Wei Chan, Maznah Ismail, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Mustapha Umar Imam, Der Jiun Ooi, Nicholas M H Khong
Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model...
January 9, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313201/water-and-nitrate-dynamics-in-safflower-field-lysimeters-under-different-irrigation-strategies-planting-methods-and-nitrogen-fertilization-and-application-of-hydrus-1d-model
#17
Mohammad Hossein Shahrokhnia, Ali Reza Sepaskhah
World recent concerns about the shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater supplies have motivated scientists seeking for more efficient techniques in irrigation and fertilization of farms while taking the advantage of models. The objective of this study is to address how water and nitrogen (N) dynamics are affected by efficient management strategies and to evaluate the application of HYDRUS-1D model in these conditions. In terms of using management policies, different irrigation strategies, planting methods, and different N fertilization rates applied on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311604/effects-of-urban-sprawl-on-arthropod-communities-in-peri-urban-farmed-landscape-in-shenbei-new-district-shenyang-liaoning-province-china
#18
Zhen-Xing Bian, Shuai Wang, Qiu-Bing Wang, Miao Yu, Feng-Kui Qian
Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311435/preparative-separation-of-high-purity-dihydroartemisinic-acid-from-artemisinin-production-waste-by-combined-chromatography
#19
Shuoqian Liu, Jorge Freire da Silva Ferreira, Dongming Tian, Yuwei Tang, Liping Liu, Wei Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Na Tian
In order to make full use of artemisinin production waste and thus to reduce the production cost of artemisinin, we developed an efficient and scalable method to isolate high-purity dihydroartemisinic acid from artemisinin production waste by combining anion-exchange resin with silica-gel column chromatography. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of dihydroartemisinic acid on 10 types of anion-exchange resin were investigated, and the results showed that the 717 anion-exchange resin exhibited the highest capacity of adsorption and desorption to dihydroartemisinic acid...
December 28, 2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310289/an-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-immunosensor-for-cry1ab-based-on-phage-displayed-peptides
#20
Xin Lu, Dong-Jian Jiang, Jia-Xiang Yan, Zhen-E Ma, Xiu-Er Luo, Tai-Long Wei, Yang Xu, Qing-Hua He
The rapid and widespread adoption of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about the impact of GM crops on environment and food safety. A sensitive and specific method for detecting Bt proteins in GM crops is of great significance for environment and food risk assessment. In this study, using Cry1Ab as a model Bt protein, an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for Cry1Ab protein has been developed based on phage displayed peptide. Phage displayed peptides against Cry1Ab protein were obtained from a phage displayed peptide library without animal immunization process through biopanning-elution strategy...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
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