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Eunjung Lim, Krupa Gandhi, James Davis, John J Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of chronic conditions and multimorbidities in the geriatric population of a state with diverse races/ethnicities. METHOD: Fifteen chronic conditions and their dyads and triads were investigated using Hawaii Medicare 2012 data. For each condition, a multivariable logistic regression model was used to investigate differences in race/ethnicity, adjusting for subject characteristics...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Aging and Health
Jessica Chen, Adam A Pack, Whitlow W L Au, Alison K Stimpert
Male humpback whales produce loud "songs" on the wintering grounds and some sing while escorting mother-calf pairs, exposing them to near-continuous sounds at close proximity. An Acousonde acoustic and movement recording tag deployed on a calf off Maui, Hawaii captured sounds produced by a singing male escort. Root-mean-square received levels ranged from 126 to 158 dB re 1 μPa. These levels represent rare direct measurements of sound to which a newly born humpback calf may be naturally exposed by a conspecific, and may provide a basis for informed decisions regarding anthropogenic sound levels projected near calves...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Andrew Wey, James Davis, Deborah Taira Juarez, Tetine Sentell
OBJECTIVE: To examine the importance of distinguishing between primary and secondary racial identification in analyzing health disparities in a multiracial population. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 2012 Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (H-BRFSS). As part of the survey, respondents were asked to identify all their races, and then which race they considered to be their primary race. We introduce two analytic approaches to investigate the association between multiracial status and general health: (1) including two separate dichotomous variables for each racial group (primary and secondary race; for example, 'primary Native Hawaiian' and, separately, 'secondary Native Hawaiian'), and (2) including one combined variable for anyone choosing a particular racial group, whether as primary or secondary race ('combined race'; e...
December 1, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Lise L Mahoney, Daniel J Sargent, F Abebe-Akele, Dave J Wood, Judson A Ward, Nahla V Bassil, James F Hancock, Kevin M Folta, Thomas M Davis
Makino is recognized as an ancestor of the octoploid strawberry species, which includes the cultivated strawberry, × Duchesne ex Rozier. Here we report the construction of the first high-density linkage map for . The linkage map (Fii map) is based on two high-throughput techniques of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping: the IStraw90 Array (hereafter "Array"), and genotyping by sequencing (GBS). The F generation mapping population was derived by selfing hybrid F1D, the product of a cross between two divergent accessions collected from Hokkaido, Japan...
July 2016: Plant Genome
Donna L White, Aaron P Thrift, Fasiha Kanwal, Jessica Davila, Hashem B El-Serag
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been reported to be plateauing in the United States (US). The US has large racial, ethnic, and regional variation; we collected data from all 50 states to better analyze changes in incidence of HCC in the entire US. METHODS: We collected data from the US Cancer Statistics registry, which covers 97% of the population, and calculated adjusted incidence rates. We assessed annual trends among socio-demographic and geographic sub-groups using joinpoint analysis...
November 23, 2016: Gastroenterology
Kazuma Nakagawa, Cherisse S Ito, Sage L King
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) with ischemic stroke have younger age of stroke onset compared with whites. However, ethnic differences in stroke subtypes in this population have been inadequately studied. METHODS: Consecutive young adult patients (aged ≤55 years) who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between 2006 and 2012 at a tertiary center in Honolulu were studied. Clinical characteristics and stroke subtypes based on pathophysiological TOAST classification (Trial of Org 10172) of NHOPI and Asians were compared with whites...
November 22, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Patricia Liehr, Janet Sopcheck, Gwyneth Milbrath
: On December 7, 1941, the Sunday-morning quiet of the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, was shattered by dive-bombing Japanese fighter planes. The planes came in two waves-and when it was all over, more than 2,400 were killed and more than 1,100 were injured.Nurses were stationed at U.S. Naval Hospital Pearl Harbor, Tripler General Hospital (now Tripler Army Medical Center), Hickam Field Hospital, Schofield Barracks Station Hospital, and aboard the USS Solace, and witnessed the devastation. But they also did what nurses do in emergencies-they responded and provided care to those in need...
December 2016: American Journal of Nursing
Georgios Tsounis, Peter J Edmunds
Coral reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia, suffered catastrophic coral mortality through predation by Acanthaster planci from 2006 to 2010, and Cyclone Oli in 2010, yet by 2015 some coral populations were approaching pre-disturbance sizes. Using long-term study plots, we quantified population dynamics of spawning Pocillopora spp. along the north shore of Moorea between 2010 and 2014, and considered evidence that population recovery could be supported by self-seeding. Results scaled up from study plots and settlement tiles suggest that the number of Pocillopora spp...
2016: PeerJ
Marc G Kramer, Oliver A Chadwick
Volcanic ash soils retain the largest and most persistent soil carbon pools of any ecosystem. However, the mechanisms governing soil carbon accumulation and weathering during initial phases of ecosystem development are not well understood. We examined soil organic matter dynamics and soil development across a high-altitude (3,560-3,030 m) 20-kyr climate gradient on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Four elevation sites were selected (~250-500 mm rainfall), which range from sparsely vegetated to sites that contain a mix of shrubs and grasses...
September 2016: Ecology
Rachel L Vannette, Devin R Leopold, Tadashi Fukami
Habitat fragmentation is well known to affect plant and animal diversity as a result of reduced habitat area and connectivity, but its effects on microorganisms are poorly understood. Using high-throughput sequencing of two regions of the rRNA gene, we studied the effects of forest area and connectivity on the diversity and composition of fungi associated with the roots of the dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, in a lava-fragmented landscape on the Island of Hawaii. We found that local fungal diversity increased with forest area, whereas fungal species composition was correlated with fragment connectivity...
September 2016: Ecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Inga Vesper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: Science
B Branchiccela, D Arredondo, M Higes, C Invernizzi, R Martín-Hernández, I Tomasco, P Zunino, K Antúnez
In recent years, large-scale colony losses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been reported and the infection with the microsporidia Nosema ceranae has been involved. However, the effect of N. ceranae at the colony level and its role in colony losses vary in different geographic areas. This difference may be related to the presence of multiple N. ceranae genetic variants resulting in different biological consequences. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 75 N. ceranae samples obtained from 13 countries and Hawaii through inter-sequence single repetition (ISSR) and evaluated if two of these genetic variants triggered different immune responses when infecting Apis mellifera iberiensis...
November 12, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Jonathan W Lawley, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Bastian Bentlage, Angel Yanagihara, Roger Goodwill, Ehsan Kayal, Kikiana Hurwitz, Allen G Collins
Species of the box jellyfish (Cubozoa) genus Alatina are notorious for their sting along the beaches of several localities of the Atlantic and Pacific. These species include Alatina alata on the Caribbean Island of Bonaire (the Netherlands), A. moseri in Hawaii, and A. mordens in Australia. Most cubozoans inhabit coastal waters, but Alatina is unusual in that specimens have also been collected in the open ocean at great depths. Alatina is notable in that populations form monthly aggregations for spermcast mating in conjunction with the lunar cycle...
October 2016: Biological Bulletin
Jihua Xu, Karen K Tanino, Kyla N Horner, Stephen J Robinson
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic variation is determined by a combination of genotype, environment and their interactions. The realization that allelic diversity can be both genetic and epigenetic allows the environmental component to be further separated. Partitioning phenotypic variation observed among inbred lines with an altered epigenome can allow the epigenetic component controlling quantitative traits to be estimated. To assess the contribution of epialleles on phenotypic variation and determine the fidelity with which epialleles are inherited, we have developed a novel hypomethylated population of strawberry (2n = 2x = 14) using 5-azacytidine from which individuals with altered phenotypes can be identified, selected and characterized...
November 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
M Capello, J L Deneubourg, M Robert, K N Holland, K M Schaefer, L Dagorn
Estimating the abundance of pelagic fish species is a challenging task, due to their vast and remote habitat. Despite the development of satellite, archival and acoustic tagging techniques that allow the tracking of marine animals in their natural environments, these technologies have so far been underutilized in developing abundance estimations. We developed a new method for estimating the abundance of tropical tuna that employs these technologies and exploits the aggregative behavior of tuna around floating objects (FADs)...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Chris N Niebuhr, Robert Poulin, Daniel M Tompkins
The mosquito-borne disease avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) has impacted both captive populations and wild individuals of native New Zealand bird species. However, whether or not it is a cause of concern to their wild populations is still unclear. In Hawaii, the disease has been a major factor in the population declines of some native forest bird species, often limiting their elevational distribution due to an inverse relationship between force of infection and elevation. While studies have investigated latitudinal patterns of infection in New Zealand, elevational patterns are unexplored...
2016: PloS One
Bruce Shiramizu, Vicki Shambaugh, Helen Petrovich, Todd B Seto, Tammy Ho, Noreen Mokuau, Jerris R Hedges
Building research infrastructure capacity to address clinical and translational gaps has been a focus of funding agencies and foundations. Clinical and Translational Sciences Awards, Research Centers in Minority Institutions Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research (RCTR), and the Institutional Development Award Infrastructure for Clinical and Translational Research funded by the US government to fund clinical translational research programs have existed for over a decade to address racial and ethnic health disparities across the USA...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Giacomo Giorli, Anna Neuheimer, Adrienne Copeland, Whitlow W L Au
Beaked and sperm whales are top predators living in the waters off the Kona coast of Hawai'i. Temporal and spatial analyses of the foraging activity of these two species were studied with passive acoustics techniques. Three passive acoustics recorders moored to the ocean floor were used to monitor the foraging activity of these whales in three locations along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. Data were analyzed using automatic detector/classification systems: M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges), and custom-designed Matlab programs...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Kate Bunton, Brad H Story
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Arizona Child Acoustic Database project was to obtain a large set of acoustic recordings, primarily vowels, collected from a cohort of children over a critical period of growth and development. METHOD: Data was recorded longitudinally from 63 children between the ages of 2;0 and 7;0 at 3-month intervals. The protocol included individual American English vowels and diphthongs, nonsense multi-vowel transitions, word level multi-vowel sequences (e...
October 27, 2016: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
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