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Chathura Siriwardhana, Eunjung Lim, Lovedhi Aggarwal, James Davis, Allen Hixon, John J Chen
We investigated racial/ethnic and county-level disparities in inpatient utilization for 15 clinical conditions among Hawaii's Medicaid population. The study was conducted using inpatient claims data from more than 200,000 Hawai'i Medicaid beneficiaries, reported in the year 2010. The analysis was performed by stratifying the Medicaid population into three age groups: children and adolescent group (1-20 years), adult group (21-64 years), and elderly group (65 years and above). Among the differences found, Asians had a low probability of inpatient admissions compared to Whites for many disease categories, while Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders had higher probabilities than Whites, across all age groups...
May 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Vanina Guernier, Cyrille Goarant, Jackie Benschop, Colleen L Lau
BACKGROUND: The Pacific Islands have environmental conditions highly favourable for transmission of leptospirosis, a neglected zoonosis with highest incidence in the tropics, and Oceania in particular. Recent reports confirm the emergence and outbreaks of leptospirosis in the Pacific Islands, but the epidemiology and drivers of transmission of human and animal leptospirosis are poorly documented, especially in the more isolated and less developed islands. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review of human and animal leptospirosis within 25 Pacific Islands (PIs) in Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, as well as Easter Island and Hawaii...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nairana Santos Fraga, Agnaldo Silva Martins, Derek R Faust, Haruya Sakai, Adalto Bianchini, Cinthia Carneiro da Silva, A Alonso Aguirre
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal of toxicological interest because of its potential high toxicity to organisms and ability to biomagnify. Evaluating concentrations of Cd in organisms on a large spatial scale can provide insights to its global distribution. This study examined Cd concentrations in kidney and liver tissues of 137 specimens of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) collected in Australia, Brazil, Hawaii, Japan, and the continental United States (Gulf of Mexico). We used comparative analyses of kidney and liver of 35 individuals, of which seven turtles from each locality belong to the same size class for comparison purposes between their ocean of origin...
May 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Minji Kang, Song-Yi Park, Carol J Boushey, Lynne R Wilkens, Kristine R Monroe, Loïc Le Marchand, Laurence N Kolonel, Suzanne P Murphy, Hee-Young Paik
BACKGROUND: Accounting for sex differences in food portions may improve dietary measurement; however, this factor has not been well examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in reported food portions from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) among those who selected the same portion size category on a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). DESIGN: This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
E T Nguyen, T Posas-Mendoza, A M Siu, H J Ahn, S Y Choi, S Y Lim
We evaluated osteoporosis treatment and DEXA utilization rates of patients who were admitted for hip fracture in a single healthcare system in Hawaii from 2015 to 2016. We found that osteoporosis treatment and DEXA utilization rates were low, highlighting a critical gap in osteoporosis care after admission for hip fracture. INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate osteoporosis care after an admission for hip fracture at three community hospitals within a single healthcare system in Hawaii...
May 9, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Peter A Follett
Coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most serious insect pest of coffee worldwide. Green coffee used in blending and roasting is traded between countries and may be subjected to fumigation for disinfestation of CBB. For example, green coffee shipped to Hawaii from the U.S. mainland must be treated with methyl bromide. Irradiation is an alternative disinfestation treatment option. Dose-response tests were conducted with adult beetles to identify a sterilizing dose, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests with adults infesting coffee berries at 100 Gy (measured doses 84-102 Gy)...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Moritz Muschick, Walter Salzburger
Adaptive radiations, in which repeated bouts of diversification lead to phenotypically similar species, highlight the power of natural selection and predictability in evolution. A newly discovered radiation of stick spiders on Hawaii helps shed new light on this phenomenon.
May 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Geraldine J Liao, Joshua M Liao, Tessa S Cook
PURPOSE: To provide a nationwide description of radiology referral patterns for Medicare beneficiaries and network-based measures that can describe and monitor shifts in referral patterns. METHODS: We linked publicly available Medicare data with the National Plan and Provider Enumeration System data set to analyze 3,925,366 encounters representing referrals from nonradiology referrers to diagnostic radiology providers in 2015. We assessed per-state referral volume as well as in-state and in-region referrals and the correlation between state referral volume and in-state referrals...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
Nikolai Maximenko, Jan Hafner, Masafumi Kamachi, Amy MacFadyen
A suite of five ocean models is used to simulate the movement of floating debris generated by the Great Japan Tsunami of 2011. This debris was subject to differential wind and wave-induced motion relative to the ambient current (often termed "windage") which is a function of the shape, size, and buoyancy of the individual debris items. Model solutions suggest that during the eastward drift across the North Pacific the debris became "stratified" by the wind so that objects with different windages took different paths: high windage items reached North America in large numbers the first year, medium windage items recirculated southwest toward Hawaii and Asia, and low windage items collected in the Subtropical Gyre, primarily in the so-called "garbage patch" area located northeast of Hawaii and known for high concentrations of microplastics...
May 2, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Grant T McQuate, Jane E Royer, Charmaine D Sylva
Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest fruit fly species native to Oriental Asia which has invaded and established in Hawaii and Tanzania and has been recovered in detection trapping in California. It is largely non-responsive to the male lures cuelure and methyl eugenol. Alpha-ionol + cade oil is a moderately effective male B. latifrons attractant, but is not as attractive as cuelure or methyl eugenol are to other fruit fly species. An improved attractant is therefore desired. With the recent success in finding other non-responsive fruit fly species attracted to isoeugenol, methyl-isoeugenol, or dihydroeugenol in Australia and other countries, we wanted to assess whether B...
May 1, 2018: Insects
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Cristina Palacios, Maribel Campos, Cheryl Gibby, Marytere Meléndez, Jae Eun Lee, Jinan Banna
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of weekly SMS for improving infant feeding practices and infant weight. METHODS: This was a multi-site randomized clinical trial in a convenience sample of 202 caregivers of healthy term infants 0-2 months participating in the WIC program in Puerto Rico and Hawaii. Participants were randomized to receive SMS about infant's general health issues (control) or SMS for improving feeding practices (intervention) for four months. Weight, length and infant feeding practices were assessed at baseline and four months later...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Daniel Tush, Megan M Maksimowicz, Michael T Meyer
The environmental fate of polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA), an additive in glyphosate herbicide formulations, has not been studied. This study examined the dissipation of POEA; glyphosate; and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a degradation product of glyphosate, in the top 45 cm of soil from an agricultural field where glyphosate was applied. The concentration of these compounds was also analyzed in bed sediment samples from watersheds in agricultural and urban areas from six states (Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina)...
April 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mali'o Kodis, Peter Galante, Eleanor J Sterling, Mary E Blair
Under the threat of ongoing and projected climate change, communities in the Pacific Islands face challenges of adapting culture and lifestyle to accommodate a changing landscape. Few models can effectively predict how biocultural livelihoods might be impacted. Here, we examine how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence an ecological niche model (ENM) for the realized niche of cultivated taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Hawaii. We created and tuned two sets of ENMs: one using only environmental variables, and one using both environmental and cultural characteristics of Hawaii...
April 26, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, Carolyn Rando, Ruth M Morgan, David O Carter
In the context of increased scrutiny of the methods in forensic sciences, it is essential to ensure that the approaches used in forensic taphonomy to measure decomposition and estimate the postmortem interval are underpinned by robust evidence-based data. Digital photographs are an important source of documentation in forensic taphonomic investigations but the suitability of the current approaches for photographs, rather than real-time remains, is poorly studied which can undermine accurate forensic conclusions...
May 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Maha J Cziesielski, Yi Jin Liew, Guoxin Cui, Sebastian Schmidt-Roach, Sara Campana, Claudius Marondedze, Manuel Aranda
Corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium have a fragile relationship that breaks down under heat stress, an event known as bleaching. However, many coral species have adapted to high temperature environments such as the Red Sea (RS). To investigate mechanisms underlying temperature adaptation in zooxanthellate cnidarians we compared transcriptome- and proteome-wide heat stress response (24 h at 32°C) of three strains of the model organism Aiptasia pallida from regions with differing temperature profiles; North Carolina (CC7), Hawaii (H2) and the RS...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Dorene Day Waubanewquay, Dane Kaohelani Silva, Amshatar Ololodi Monroe
The wisdom of indigenous peoples is manifest in ways of knowing, seeing, and thinking that are passed down orally from generation to generation. This article takes the reader on a journey through three distinct ways of knowing, specifically as they relate to healing and health. The authors are a Midewanniquay, or Water Woman, of the Ojibway-Anishinabe people of the upper Midwest in the United States and Canada; a lomilomi healer from Hawaii; and an initiated Priest in the Yoruba tradition of West Africa. The philosophies of all three cultures emphasize the importance of spirituality to health and well-being (or healing process), but each has unique ways in which it nurtures relationship with the Creator, the earth, and humankind through sacred rituals and healing practices...
April 1, 2018: Creative Nursing
Alissa Koski, Jody Heymann
CONTEXT: Marriage before the age of 18, commonly referred to as child marriage, is legal under varying conditions across the United States. The prevalence of child marriage among recent cohorts is unknown. METHODS: American Community Survey data for 2010-2014 were used to estimate the average national and state-level proportions of children who had ever been married. Prevalence was calculated by gender, race and ethnicity, and birthplace, and the living arrangements of currently married children were examined...
April 17, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Roger I Vargas, Jaime C Piñero, Neil W Miller
Foraging behavior of wild female melon fly, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae Coquillett, a worldwide pest of economically important cucurbit crops, was examined through mark and recapture studies in both wild (Kona: dominated by the invasive weed ivy gourd, Coccinea grandis [L.] Voigt [Cucurbitaceae]), and cultivated (Kapoho: dominated by papaya, Carica papaya L. [Caricaceae] orchards) habitats on Hawaii Island. In particular, the extent to which wild melon flies and color-marked F2 females responded to cucumber odor and Solulys yeast hydrolysate laced with ammonium acetate (1%, wt/vol) according to sexual maturity stage and degree of protein hunger was documented...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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