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Ethics and mental health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332936/ethical-concerns-about-emerging-treatment-paradigms-for-gender-dysphoria
#1
Stephen B Levin
The increasing incidence of request for medical services to support gender transition for children, adolescents and adults has consequences for society, governmental institutions, schools, families, health care professionals, and, of course, patients. The sociological momentum to recognize and accommodate to trans phenomena has posed ethical dilemmas for endocrinologists, mental health professionals and sexual specialists as they experience within themselves the clash between Respect for Patient Autonomy, Beneficence, Nonmalficience, and Informed Consent...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328372/psychiatric-genomics-and-mental-health-treatment-setting-the-ethical-agenda
#2
Camillia Kong, Michael Dunn, Michael Parker
Realizing the benefits of translating psychiatric genomics research into mental health care is not straightforward. The translation process gives rise to ethical challenges that are distinctive from challenges posed within psychiatric genomics research itself, or that form part of the delivery of clinical psychiatric genetics services. This article outlines and considers three distinct ethical concerns posed by the process of translating genomic research into frontline psychiatric practice and policy making...
April 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323606/when-and-how-should-clinicians-share-details-from-a-health-record-with-patients-with-mental-illness
#3
Robyn P Thom, Helen M Farrell
Stigma associated with mental illness-a public health crisis-is perpetuated by the language used to describe and document it. Psychiatric pathology and how it can be perceived among clinicians contribute to the marginalization of patients, which exacerbates their vulnerability. Clinical documentation of mental illness has long been mired in pejorative language that perpetuates negative assumptions about those with mental illness. Although patients have the legal right to view their health record, sharing mental health notes with patients remains a sensitive issue, largely due to clinicians' fears that review of this content might cause harm, specifically psychiatric destabilization...
March 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320789/-right-home-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-sustained-nurse-home-visiting-from-pregnancy-to-child-age-2%C3%A2-years-versus-usual-care-to-improve-parent-care-parent-responsivity-and-the-home-learning-environment-at-2%C3%A2-years
#4
Sharon Goldfeld, Anna Price, Hannah Bryson, Tracey Bruce, Fiona Mensah, Francesca Orsini, Lisa Gold, Harriet Hiscock, Charlene Smith, Lara Bishop, Dianne Jackson, Lynn Kemp
INTRODUCTION: By the time children start school, inequities in learning, development and health outcomes are already evident. Sustained nurse home visiting (SNHV) offers a potential platform for families experiencing adversity, who often have limited access to services. While SNHV programmes have been growing in popularity in Australia and internationally, it is not known whether they can improve children's learning and development when offered via the Australian service system. The right@home trial aims to investigate the effectiveness of an SNHV programme, offered to women from pregnancy to child age 2 years, in improving parent care of and responsivity to the child, and the home learning environment...
March 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314451/involving-parents-family-in-treatment-during-the-transition-from-late-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-rationale-strategies-ethics-and-legal-issues
#5
REVIEW
Cecilia M W Livesey, Anthony L Rostain
The progression from adolescence to adulthood is a time of tremendous change, characterized by issues of identity formation, autonomy, and shifting relationship dynamics. The family is embedded in all aspects of this transition and serves as both a protective support and a limiting factor, a complicated duality that raises psychological, ethical, and legal issues. This article discusses the influence of familial factors and provides assessment strategies for evaluating the family in relation to treatment of transitional age youth...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292764/adult-and-adolescent-livestock-productive-asset-transfer-programmes-to-improve-mental-health-economic-stability-and-family-and-community-relationships-in-rural-south-kivu-province-democratic-republic-of-congo-a-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Anjalee Kohli, Nancy A Perrin, Mitima Mpanano Remy, Mirindi Bacikenge Alfred, Kajabika Binkurhorhwa Arsene, Mwinja Bufole Nadine, Banyewesize Jean Heri, Mitima Murhula Clovis, Nancy Glass
INTRODUCTION: People living in poverty have limited access to traditional financial institutions. Microfinance programmes are designed to meet this gap and show promise in improving income, economic productivity and health. Our Congolese-US community academic research partnership developed two livestock productive asset transfer programmes, Pigs for Peace (PFP) and Rabbits for Resilience (RFR), to address the interlinked health, social and economic well-being of individuals, their families and communities...
March 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290937/depression-and-anxiety-in-greek-male-veterans-after-retirement
#7
Aspa Kypraiou, Pavlos Sarafis, Andreas Tsounis, Georgia Bitsi, Elias Andreanides, Theodoros Constantinidis, Evaggelia Kotrotsiou, Maria Malliarou
INTRODUCTION: Retirement is a turning point in human life, resulting in changes to physical and mental health status. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that are related with depression and anxiety symptoms in Greek male veterans after retirement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 502 veterans participated in a cross-sectional study. Beck Depression Inventory for depression assessment and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory for anxiety assessment were used...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284098/harm-reduction-as-a-strategy-for-supporting-people-who-self-harm-on-mental-health-wards-the-views-and-experiences-of-practitioners
#8
Karen James, Isaac Samuels, Paul Moran, Duncan Stewart
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has had positive outcomes for people using sexual health and substance misuse services. Clinical guidance recommends these approaches may be appropriately adopted by mental health practitioners when managing some people who self-harm. There has, however, been very little research in this area. METHODS: We explored practitioners' views of harm reduction as a strategy for supporting people who self-harm. The Self Harm Antipathy Scale (SHAS) was administered to a random sample of 395 mental health practitioners working on 31 wards in England, semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 18 survey respondents...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281766/lived-experiences-of-parents-of-premature-babies-in-the-intensive-care-unit-in-a-private-hospital-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#9
Erika Steyn, Marie Poggenpoel, Chris Myburgh
BACKGROUND: Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU), and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU...
February 28, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270218/harm-reduction-and-tensions-in-trust-and-distrust-in-a-mental-health-service-a-qualitative-approach
#10
Rozilaine Redi Lago, Elizabeth Peter, Cláudia Maria Bógus
BACKGROUND: People seeking care for substance use (PSCSU) experience deep social and health inequities. Harm reduction can be a moral imperative to approach these persons. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among users, health care providers, relatives, and society regarding harm reduction in mental health care, using a trust approach rooted in feminist ethics. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in a mental health service for PSCSU, and included fifteen participants who were health care providers, users, and their relatives...
March 8, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249850/early-rehabilitation-for-the-prevention-of-postintensive-care-syndrome-in-critically-ill-patients-a-study-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Yutaka Kondo, Ryota Fuke, Toru Hifumi, Junji Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro Takei, Kazuma Yamakawa, Shigeaki Inoue, Osamu Nishida
INTRODUCTION: Postintensive care syndrome (PICS) is defined as a new or worsening impairment in cognition, mental health and physical function after critical illness. There is little evidence regarding treatment of patients with PICS; new directions for effective treatment strategies are urgently needed. Early physiotherapy may prevent or reverse some physical impairments in patients with PICS, but no systematic reviews have investigated the effectiveness of early rehabilitation on PICS-related outcomes...
March 1, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246140/evaluating-process-and-clinical-outcomes-of-a-primary-care-mental-health-integration-project-in-rural-rwanda-a-prospective-mixed-methods-protocol
#12
Stephanie L Smith, Claire Nancy Misago, Robyn A Osrow, Molly F Franke, Jean Damascene Iyamuremye, Jeanne D'Arc Dusabeyezu, Achour A Mohand, Manzi Anatole, Yvonne Kayiteshonga, Giuseppe J Raviola
INTRODUCTION: Integrating mental healthcare into primary care can reduce the global burden of mental disorders. Yet data on the effective implementation of real-world task-shared mental health programmes are limited. In 2012, the Rwandan Ministry of Health and the international healthcare organisation Partners in Health collaboratively adapted the Mentoring and Enhanced Supervision at Health Centers (MESH) programme, a successful programme of supported supervision based on task-sharing for HIV/AIDS care, to include care of neuropsychiatric disorders within primary care settings (MESH Mental Health)...
February 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225700/seeking-legitimacy-for-dsm-5-the-bereavement-exception-as-an-example-of-failed-process
#13
James E Sabin, Norman Daniels
In 2013 the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Even before publication, DSM-5 received a torrent of criticism, most prominently over removal of the "bereavement exclusion" for the diagnosis of major depression. We argue that while the APA can claim legitimate authority for deciding scientific questions, it does not have legitimacy for resolving what is ultimately a question of ethics and public policy. We show how the "accountability for reasonableness" framework for seeking legitimacy in health policy could have been used to achieve a better resolution of the conflict than actually occurred...
February 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221067/ethical-concerns-for-telemental-health-therapy-amidst-governmental-surveillance
#14
Samuel D Lustgarten, Alexander J Colbow
Technology, infrastructure, governmental support, and interest in mental health accessibility have led to a burgeoning field of telemental health therapy (TMHT). Psychologists can now provide therapy via computers at great distances and little cost for parties involved. Growth of TMHT within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and among psychologists surveyed by the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests optimism in this provision of services (Godleski, Darkins, & Peters, 2012; Jacobsen & Kohout, 2010)...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219376/cooperate-a-paradigm-shift-for-health-equity
#15
REVIEW
Wei-Ching Chang, Joy H Fraser
The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219283/defining-the-relationship-between-health-and-well-being-in-bioethics
#16
David Elliot
Doctors and psychologists often use 'well-being' and 'quality of life' interchangeably, with quality of health overdetermining both. Insights from virtue ethics and St. Thomas Aquinas challenge this. Well-being has a primary 'eudaimonic' dimension, and an accompanying 'subjective' dimension. The 'eudaimonic' consists in a virtuous way of life in which our affective, cognitive, and other capacities are developed in pursuit of worthwhile aims. The 'subjective' consists in attaining and enjoying the goods necessary and fitting to a full human life...
April 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209604/birth-size-risk-factors-across-life-and-cognition-in-late-life-protocol-of-prospective-longitudinal-follow-up-of-the-mynah-mysore-studies-of-natal-effects-on-ageing-and-health-cohort
#17
Murali Krishna, G Mohan Kumar, S R Veena, G V Krishnaveni, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Samuel Christaprasad Karat, Patsy Coakley, Clive Osmond, John R M Copeland, Giriraj Chandak, Dattatray Bhat, Mathew Varghese, Martin Prince, Caroline Fall
INTRODUCTION: For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205146/binge-drinking-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-issues
#18
Benjamin Rolland, Mickaël Naassila
The concept of binge drinking (BD) refers to patterns of heavy episodic alcohol consumption, with BD primarily occurring among adolescents and young adults. Several official definitions of BD have been proposed, in particular by the World Health Organization, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Nevertheless, none of these definitions address the psychosocial and medical consequences of the type of alcohol use seen in BD. In practice, BD can thus correspond to either hazardous or harmful use of alcohol (HUA), while the episodic nature of heavy drinking in BD means that it does not meet the criteria for 'alcohol dependence'...
February 15, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187698/availability-of-mental-health-services-for-individuals-who-are-deaf-or-deaf-blind
#19
Michele C McDonnall, Adele Crudden, B J LeJeune, Anne Carter Steverson
A survey of state mental health agencies found that a majority have no specific policy or procedure regarding how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf or who are deaf-blind. Agency representatives report that staff lack knowledge of how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf-blind and the agencies lack qualified interpreters. They recommend training for social workers and counselors to address best practices in working with people who are deaf-blind concerning communication methods and strategies, physical interaction, cultural issues, everyday life, sensory deprivation, ethics, use of an interpreter, and other general issues...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186934/protocol-for-the-mindful-student-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-provision-of-a-mindfulness-intervention-to-support-university-students-well-being-and-resilience-to-stress
#20
Julieta Galante, Geraldine Dufour, Alice Benton, Emma Howarth, Maris Vainre, Timothy J Croudace, Adam P Wagner, Jan Stochl, Peter B Jones
INTRODUCTION: Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance...
November 9, 2016: BMJ Open
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