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Ethics and mental health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229589/the-effect-of-group-support-psychotherapy-delivered-by-trained-lay-health-workers-for-depression-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-uganda-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#1
Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu, Seggane Musisi, Kizito Wamala, James Okello, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Ramin Mojtabai, Jean Nachega, Ofir Harari, Edward Mills
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effectiveness of task shifting of mental health services in populations with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of group support psychotherapy delivered by trained lay health workers to persons living with HIV (PLWH) with depression in primary care. METHODS: Thirty eligible primary care health centers across three districts were randomly allocated to have their lay health workers trained to deliver group support psychotherapy (intervention arm) or group HIV education and treatment as usual (control arm) to PLWH with depression...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216738/perspective-medical-assistance-in-dying-and-mental-health-a-legal-ethical-and-clinical-analysis
#2
Alexander I F Simpson
Medical assistance in dying (MAiD) legislation is now over a year old in Canada, and consideration is turning to whether MAiD should be extended to include serious mental illness as the sole qualifying condition for being eligible for MAiD. This article considers this question from ethical and clinical perspectives. It argues that extending the eligibility for MAiD to include those with a serious mental illness as the sole eligibility criterion is not ethical, necessary, or supported current psychiatric practice or opinion...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209695/cosmetic-surgery-for-children-and-adolescents-deontological-and-bioethical-remarks
#3
A Del Rio, R Rinaldi, S Napoletano, N M di Luca
The only interventions deemed ethically acceptable are those that serve the "objective interest" of the minors involved from the standpoint of and conducive to sound mental health and balance in a patient's teenage years; by the same token, disproportionate interventions (e.g. overly invasive or pointlessly risky), or all those deemed unsuitable with regards to a poor cost-benefit ratio are viewed as unacceptable. In the process of considering the best interest of the minors involved, a wide array of factors come into play, such as: age, maturity, psychological and emotional conditions, motivations put forth by the underage patient, the opportunity to procrastinate the operation: parents, who are naturally entitled to give consent to the surgical procedures, and physicians are primarily liable to safeguard and act in the minor's best interest...
November 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203509/protocol-for-a-feasibility-study-and-randomised-pilot-trial-of-a-low-intensity-psychological-intervention-for-depression-in-adults-with-autism-the-autism-depression-trial-adept
#4
Ailsa Russell, Kate Cooper, Stephen Barton, Ian Ensum, Daisy Gaunt, Jeremy Horwood, Barry Ingham, David Kessler, Chris Metcalfe, Jeremy Parr, Dheeraj Rai, Nicola Wiles
INTRODUCTION: High rates of co-occurring depression are reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by social communication impairments and repetitive behaviours. Cognitive-behavioural interventions adapted for ASD have been effective for anxiety problems. There have been evaluation studies of group cognitive-behavioural therapy for co-occurring depression, but no randomised trials investigating low-intensity psychological interventions as recommended in clinical guidelines for mild-moderate depression...
December 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203503/multicentre-prospective-randomised-single-blind-controlled-study-protocol-of-the-effect-of-an-additional-parent-administered-sensorimotor-stimulation-on-neurological-development-of-preterm-infants-primebrain
#5
Karine Pelc, Irit Daniel, Bernard Wenderickx, Bernard Dan
INTRODUCTION: Preterm and very low birthweight infants are at increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy, sensory impairment and intellectual disability. Several early intervention approaches have been designed in the hope of optimising neurological development in this context. It seems important that the intervention takes into account parental mental health, focuses on parent-child interactions and lasts sufficiently long. This study aims to evaluate the effects of a stimulation programme administered by parents until 6 months post-term on motor and neurophysiological development of infants born preterm...
December 3, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200576/digital-platforms-for-mental-health-care-delivery
#6
Chethan Basavarajappa, Prabhat Kumar Chand
Mental, neurological, and substance abuse disorders cause huge burden. The available resources to tackle the huge burden are insufficient, inequitably distributed, and inefficiently used, which results in a large majority of people with these disorders receiving no care at all. Advances in technology can be used to address the concerns. At present, technology is utilized in online psychological interventions and mobile apps in the United States of America and United Kingdom. In India, technological advances are utilized in telemental health, mobile apps, software aiding psychological assessment and retraining, training for mental health professionals, and information delivery to general public...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200050/a-call-for-compassionate-care
#7
Karen Alexander
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2014) reported that 1.1% of pregnant women used nonprescription opiates (either heroin or prescription pills) in the last 30 days. Methadone and buprenorphine are the most common treatments for opiate addiction in pregnant women. Reasons for seeking opiate maintenance treatment (OMT) include keeping custody of one's children and the hope of developing a healthy parenting relationship. Yet, healthcare organizations and professionals have mixed opinions regarding health promotion within the maternal OMT population...
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198171/caring-for-care-workers
#8
Jennifer R Zelnick, Sara Haviland, Jennifer Craft Morgan
Carework-the paid and unpaid work in healthcare, education, childcare, mental health, elder care, families, and social services-is linked by the social and ethical obligation to care for vulnerable populations and is a major economic sector and important source of employment internationally. This special issue of New Solutions focuses on understanding working conditions and workplace health and safety in carework professions and for seeking solutions to these dilemmas. As members of the Carework Network Steering Committee, we reflect on the importance of the topics raised in this special issue and describe next steps for carework research and scholarship...
January 1, 2017: New Solutions: a Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy: NS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198041/ethical-considerations-on-novel-neuronal-interfaces
#9
Kadircan H Keskinbora, Kader Keskinbora
Wireless powered implants, each smaller than a grain of rice, have the potential to scan and stimulate brain cells. Further research may lead to next-generation brain-machine interfaces for controlling prosthetics, exoskeletons, and robots, as well as "electroceuticals" to treat disorders of the brain and body. In conditions that can be particularly alleviated with brain stimulation, the use of such mini devices may pose certain challenges. Health professionals are becoming increasingly more accountable in decision-making processes that have impacts on the life quality of individuals...
December 2, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186535/analysis-of-last-statements-prior-to-execution-methods-themes-and-future-directions
#10
Brendan D Kelly, Sharon R Foley
Worldwide, over 1,000 people were executed in 2016 and over 3,000 sentenced to death. Death row prisoners have high rates of mental illness, often combined with neurological impairment. Prolonged confinement has further negative effects on psychological function. There is a growing literature examining key themes and psychological constructs in death row prisoners immediately prior to execution. To date, this literature centres largely but not exclusively on last statements from death row in Texas, owing to ease of availability...
November 23, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178596/knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-transgender-health
#11
Jack L Turban, Joel Winer, Susan Boulware, Timothy VanDeusen, John Encandela
BACKGROUND: Hormonal interventions for transgender adolescents have become increasingly common; however, there is a paucity of research on medical student knowledge of, and attitudes toward, these interventions following didactic instruction. Furthermore, no studies have examined whether students can be aware of the literature on the mental health benefits of these treatments yet continue to find them unethical. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was administered to students, from first to fourth year (n = 407), who had received one or two lectures on the treatment of youths with gender dysphoria (GD)...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175885/how-effective-is-community-physical-activity-promotion-in-areas-of-deprivation-for-inactive-adults-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-and-or-mental-health-concerns-study-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-observational-evaluation-of-the-active-herts-physical-activity-programme
#12
Neil Howlett, Andy Jones, Lucy Bain, Angel Chater
INTRODUCTION: There is a high prevalence of inactive adults in the UK, and many suffer from conditions such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) or poor mental health. These coexist more frequently in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. There is a need to test the effectiveness, acceptability and sustainability of physical activity programmes. Active Herts uses novel evidence-based behaviour change techniques to target physical inactivity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Active Herts is a community physical activity programme for inactive adults aged 16+ with one or more risk factors for CVD and/or a mild to moderate mental health condition...
November 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169978/-prevalence-of-neurodevelopmental-behavioural-and-learning-disorders-in-pediatric-primary-care
#13
Marta Carballal Mariño, Ana Gago Ageitos, Josefa Ares Alvarez, Mercedes Del Rio Garma, Clara García Cendón, Ana Goicoechea Castaño, Josefina Pena Nieto
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in primary care pediatrics in Atlantic Galicia. METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study was carried out in 9 outpatient clinics in A Coruña and Pontevedra with a population of 8293 children between September and November 2015. A total of 1286 randomly selected patients from 0 to 14 years of age were included. From the medical history was registered: age, sex, psychiatric diagnosis established by DSM-IV-TR criteria in its five axes, professionals who participated in the diagnosis and treatment of the process and what type of treatment was received...
November 20, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162571/classroom-promotion-of-oral-language-cpol-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-school-based-intervention-to-improve-children-s-literacy-outcomes-at-grade-3-oral-language-and-mental-health
#14
Sharon Goldfeld, Pamela Snow, Patricia Eadie, John Munro, Lisa Gold, Ha N D Le, Francesca Orsini, Beth Shingles, Katherine Lee, Judy Connell, Amy Watts
INTRODUCTION: Oral language and literacy competence are major influences on children's developmental pathways and life success. Children who do not develop the necessary language and literacy skills in the early years of school then go on to face long-term difficulties. Improving teacher effectiveness may be a critical step in lifting oral language and literacy outcomes. The Classroom Promotion of Oral Language trial aims to determine whether a specifically designed teacher professional learning programme focusing on promoting oral language can lead to improved teacher knowledge and practice, and advance outcomes in oral language and literacy for early years school children, compared with usual practice...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157221/the-failure-of-suicide-prevention-in-primary-care-family-and-gp-perspectives-a-qualitative-study
#15
Gerard Leavey, Sharon Mallon, Janeet Rondon-Sulbaran, Karen Galway, Michael Rosato, Lynette Hughes
BACKGROUND: Although Primary care is crucial for suicide prevention, clinicians tend to report completed suicides in their care as non-preventable. We aimed to examine systemic inadequacies in suicide prevention from the perspectives of bereaved family members and GPs. METHODS: Qualitative study of 72 relatives or close friends bereaved by suicide and 19 General Practitioners who have experienced the suicide of patients. RESULTS: Relatives highlight failures in detecting symptoms and behavioral changes and the inability of GPs to understand the needs of patients and their social contexts...
November 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154398/community-data-collection-with-children-of-mothers-living-with-hiv-boundaries-of-the-researcher-role
#16
Rebecca Hill LeCroix, Nada M Goodrum, Schell Hufstetler, Lisa P Armistead
The TRACK-II program is a multi-site, community-based randomized controlled trial evaluating an intervention to assist mothers living with HIV (MLH) in disclosing their HIV status to their young children. Many participants-both mothers and children-reported significant depression and/or suicidal ideation, a phenomenon that presented ethical challenges. This article focuses on participants at one site (Atlanta). Through the vignette of "Jordan," we describe ethical challenges that may arise when faced with the responsibility of maximizing participants' safety while maintaining the boundaries of the researcher role...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146648/economic-evaluation-of-an-e-mental-health-intervention-for-patients-with-retinal-exudative-diseases-who-receive-intraocular-anti-vegf-injections-e-pseye-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Hilde P A van der Aa, Ger H M B van Rens, Frank D Verbraak, Machteld Bosscha, Marc A Koopmanschap, Hannie C Comijs, Pim Cuijpers, Ruth M A van Nispen
INTRODUCTION: Because of the great potential of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (anti-VEGF) for retinal exudative diseases, an increased number of patients receives this treatment. However, during this treatment, patients are subjected to frequent invasive intravitreal injections, and the effects on reversing the process of vision loss are uncertain, which may have negative consequences for patients' mental health. One in three patients experience at least mild symptoms of depression/anxiety...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138206/monitor-ic-study-a-mixed-methods-prospective-multicentre-controlled-cohort-study-assessing-5-year-outcomes-of-icu-survivors-and-related-healthcare-costs-a-study-protocol
#18
Wytske Geense, Marieke Zegers, Hester Vermeulen, Mark van den Boogaard, Johannes van der Hoeven
INTRODUCTION: Due to advances in critical care medicine, more patients survive their critical illness. However, intensive care unit (ICU) survivors often experience long-term physical, cognitive and mental problems, summarised as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), impacting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In what frequency PICS occurs, and to what extent this influences ICU survivors' HRQoL, is mostly unknown. The aims of this study are therefore to study the: (1) 5-year patient outcomes, (2) predictors for PICS, (3) ratio between HRQoL of ICU survivors and healthcare-related costs, and (4) care and support needs...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138200/assessing-the-consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-on-offspring-s-cardiovascular-health-mysweetheart-cohort-study-protocol-switzerland
#19
Stefano Di Bernardo, Yvan Mivelaz, Adina Mihaela Epure, Yvan Vial, Umberto Simeoni, Pascal Bovet, Sandrine Estoppey Younes, Arnaud Chiolero, Nicole Sekarski
INTRODUCTION: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a state of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy. GDM carries prenatal and perinatal risks as well as long-term risks for the mother and her child. GDM may be involved in the foetal programming of long-term cardiovascular health. However, evidence is sparse and the effect of GDM on cardiovascular health is unknown. To address these issues, we will conduct MySweetHeart Cohort study. The objectives are to assess the effect of GDM on offspring's cardiovascular health early in life by using surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133324/effects-of-falls-prevention-interventions-on-falls-outcomes-for-hospitalised-adults-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#20
Susan C Slade, David L Carey, Anne-Marie Hill, Meg E Morris
INTRODUCTION: Falls are a major global public health problem and leading cause of accidental or unintentional injury and hospitalisation. Falls in hospital are associated with longer length of stay, readmissions and poor outcomes. Falls prevention is informed by knowledge of reversible falls risk factors and accurate risk identification. The extent to which hospital falls are prevented by evidence-based practice, patient self-management initiatives, environmental modifications and optimisation of falls prevention systems awaits confirmation...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
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