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Ethics and mental health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209604/birth-size-risk-factors-across-life-and-cognition-in-late-life-protocol-of-prospective-longitudinal-follow-up-of-the-mynah-mysore-studies-of-natal-effects-on-ageing-and-health-cohort
#1
Murali Krishna, G Mohan Kumar, S R Veena, G V Krishnaveni, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Samuel Christaprasad Karat, Patsy Coakley, Clive Osmond, John R M Copeland, Giriraj Chandak, Dattatray Bhat, Mathew Varghese, Martin Prince, Caroline Fall
INTRODUCTION: For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205146/binge-drinking-current-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-issues
#2
Benjamin Rolland, Mickaël Naassila
The concept of binge drinking (BD) refers to patterns of heavy episodic alcohol consumption, with BD primarily occurring among adolescents and young adults. Several official definitions of BD have been proposed, in particular by the World Health Organization, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Nevertheless, none of these definitions address the psychosocial and medical consequences of the type of alcohol use seen in BD. In practice, BD can thus correspond to either hazardous or harmful use of alcohol (HUA), while the episodic nature of heavy drinking in BD means that it does not meet the criteria for 'alcohol dependence'...
February 15, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187698/availability-of-mental-health-services-for-individuals-who-are-deaf-or-deaf-blind
#3
Michele C McDonnall, Adele Crudden, B J LeJeune, Anne Carter Steverson
A survey of state mental health agencies found that a majority have no specific policy or procedure regarding how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf or who are deaf-blind. Agency representatives report that staff lack knowledge of how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf-blind and the agencies lack qualified interpreters. They recommend training for social workers and counselors to address best practices in working with people who are deaf-blind concerning communication methods and strategies, physical interaction, cultural issues, everyday life, sensory deprivation, ethics, use of an interpreter, and other general issues...
January 2017: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186934/protocol-for-the-mindful-student-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-provision-of-a-mindfulness-intervention-to-support-university-students-well-being-and-resilience-to-stress
#4
Julieta Galante, Geraldine Dufour, Alice Benton, Emma Howarth, Maris Vainre, Timothy J Croudace, Adam P Wagner, Jan Stochl, Peter B Jones
INTRODUCTION: Levels of stress in UK university students are high, with an increase in the proportion of students seeking help in recent years. Academic pressure is reported as a major trigger. Mindfulness training has been shown to reduce stress and is popular among students, but its effectiveness in this context needs to be ascertained. In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial, we hypothesise that the provision of a preventative mindfulness intervention in universities could reduce students' psychological distress during the examination period (primary outcome), improve their resilience to stress up to at least 1 year later, reduce their use of mental health support services and improve academic performance...
November 9, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178981/ethical-standards-for-mental-health-and-psychosocial-support-research-in-emergencies-review-of-literature-and-current-debates
#5
Anna Chiumento, Atif Rahman, Lucy Frith, Leslie Snider, Wietse A Tol
BACKGROUND: Research in emergencies is needed to understand the prevalence of mental health and psychosocial problems and strengthen the evidence base for interventions. All research - including operational needs assessments, programme monitoring and evaluation, and formal academic research - must be conducted ethically. While there is broad consensus on fundamental principles codified in research ethics guidelines, these do not address the ethical specificities of conducting mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) research with adults in emergencies...
February 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167747/integrated-collaborative-care-teams-to-enhance-service-delivery-to-youth-with-mental-health-and-substance-use-challenges-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Joanna L Henderson, Amy Cheung, Kristin Cleverley, Gloria Chaim, Myla E Moretti, Claire de Oliveira, Lisa D Hawke, Andrew R Willan, David O'Brien, Olivia Heffernan, Tyson Herzog, Lynn Courey, Heather McDonald, Enid Grant, Peter Szatmari
INTRODUCTION: Among youth, the prevalence of mental health and addiction (MHA) disorders is roughly 20%, yet youth are challenged to access evidence-based services in a timely fashion. To address MHA system gaps, this study tests the benefits of an Integrated Collaborative Care Team (ICCT) model for youth with MHA challenges. A rapid, stepped-care approach geared to need in a youth-friendly environment is expected to result in better youth MHA outcomes. Moreover, the ICCT approach is expected to decrease service wait-times, be more youth-friendly and family-friendly, and be more cost-effective, providing substantial public health benefits...
February 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153933/reducing-falls-after-hospital-discharge-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-an-individualised-multimodal-falls-education-programme-for-older-adults
#7
Anne-Marie Hill, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Steven M McPhail, Meg E Morris, Leon Flicker, Ronald Shorr, Max Bulsara, Den-Ching Lee, Jacqueline Francis-Coad, Nicholas Waldron, Amanda Boudville, Terry Haines
INTRODUCTION: Older adults frequently fall after discharge from hospital. Older people may have low self-perceived risk of falls and poor knowledge about falls prevention. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of providing tailored falls prevention education in addition to usual care on falls rates in older people after discharge from hospital compared to providing a social intervention in addition to usual care. METHODS AND ANALYSES: The 'Back to My Best' study is a multisite, single blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment and intention-to-treat analysis, adhering to CONSORT guidelines...
February 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134008/prioritising-patient-care
#8
Helge Skirbekk, Marit Helene Hem, Per Nortvedt
BACKGROUND: There is little research comparing clinicians' and managers' views on priority settings in the healthcare services. During research on two different qualitative research projects on healthcare prioritisations, we found a striking difference on how hospital executive managers and clinical healthcare professionals talked about and understood prioritisations. AIM: The purpose of this study is to explore how healthcare professionals in mental healthcare and somatic medicine prioritise their care, to compare different ways of setting priorities among managers and clinicians and to explore how moral dilemmas are balanced and reconciled...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130949/how-appropriate-is-all-this-data-sharing-building-consensus-around-what-we-need-to-know-about-shared-electronic-health-records-in-extended-circles-of-care
#9
Josephine McMurray, Kelly A Grindrod, Catherine Burns
BACKGROUND: The bulk of healthcare spending is on individuals who have complex needs related to age, income, chronic disease and mental illness. Care involves many different professions, and interoperable electronic health records (EHRs) are increasingly essential. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a nominal group technique (NGT) to develop a stakeholder-centred research agenda for clinical interoperability in extended circles of care that include social supports...
2017: Healthcare Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119388/impairments-activity-limitations-and-participation-restrictions-experienced-in-the-first-year-following-a-critical-illness-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#10
Patricia J Ohtake, Jacqueline Coffey Scott, Rana S Hinman, Alan Chong Lee, James M Smith
INTRODUCTION: Critical illness requiring intensive care unit (ICU) management is a life-altering event with ∼25% of ICU survivors experiencing persistent reductions in physical functioning, impairments in mental health, cognitive dysfunction and decreased quality of life. This constellation of problems is known as 'postintensive care syndrome' (PICS) and may persist for months and/or years. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the scope and magnitude of physical problems associated with PICS during the first year after discharge from ICU, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to elucidate the impairments of body functions and structures, activity limitations and participation restrictions...
January 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107161/art-therapy-exhibitions-exploitation-or-advocacy
#11
Terri Davis
Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107159/caring-for-the-trafficked-patient-ethical-challenges-and-recommendations-for-health-care-professionals
#12
Wendy L Macias-Konstantopoulos
Human trafficking is an egregious human rights violation with profound negative physical and psychological consequences, including communicable diseases, substance use disorders, and mental illnesses. The health needs of this population are multiple, complex, and influenced by past and present experiences of abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Effective health care services for trafficked patients require clinicians to consider individual patients' needs, wishes, goals, priorities, risks, and vulnerabilities as well as public health implications and even resource allocation...
January 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104710/protocol-of-a-feasibility-study-for-cognitive-assessment-of-an-ageing-cohort-within-the-southeast-asia-community-observatory-seaco-malaysia
#13
Devi Mohan, Blossom C M Stephan, Pascale Allotey, Carol Jagger, Mark Pearce, Mario Siervo, Daniel D Reidpath
INTRODUCTION: There is a growing proportion of population aged 65 years and older in low-income and middle-income countries. In Malaysia, this proportion is predicted to increase from 5.1% in 2010 to more than 15.4% by 2050. Cognitive ageing and dementia are global health priorities. However, risk factors and disease associations in a multiethnic, middle-income country like Malaysia may not be consistent with those reported in other world regions. Knowing the burden of cognitive impairment and its risk factors in Malaysia is necessary for the development of management strategies and would provide valuable information for other transitional economies...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100114/borderline-personality-disorder-and-the-ethics-of-risk-management
#14
Dan Warrender
Patients with borderline personality disorder are frequent users of inpatient mental health units, with inpatient crisis intervention often used based on the risk of suicide. However, this can present an ethical dilemma for nursing and medical staff, with these clinician responses shifting between the moral principles of beneficence and non-maleficence, dependent on the outcomes of the actions of containing or tolerating risk. This article examines the use of crisis intervention through moral duties, intentions and consequences, culminating in an action/consequence model of risk management, used to explore potential outcomes...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096898/characteristics-of-adolescents-frequently-restrained-in-acute-psychiatric-units-in-norway-a-nationwide-study
#15
Astrid Furre, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Leiv Sandvik, Svein Friis, Maria Knutzen, Ketil Hanssen-Bauer
BACKGROUND: The use of restraints in adolescent psychiatric settings requires particular professional, ethical, and legal considerations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the number of restraint episodes per patient was related to any of several characteristics of the adolescents. METHODS: In this nationwide study, we included all adolescents restrained during the period 2008-2010 (N = 267) in Norwegian adolescent acute psychiatric inpatient units...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096255/sheppheartcabg-trial-comprehensive-early-rehabilitation-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-protocol-for-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#16
Ida Elisabeth Højskov, Philip Moons, Niels Viggo Hansen, Søren La Cour, Peter Skov Olsen, Christian Gluud, Per Winkel, Jane Lindschou, Lau Caspar Thygesen, Ingrid Egerod, Selina Kikkenborg Berg
INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery often experience a range of symptoms. Studies indicate that non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise training and psychoeducation have a positive physiological and psychological effect in early outpatient rehabilitation. The SheppHeartCABG trial will investigate the effect of early comprehensive rehabilitation in early phase rehabilitation versus usual care. The aim of this paper is to present the protocol for the SheppHeartCABG trial...
January 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086784/health-related-quality-of-life-assessment-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-the-effectiveness-of-early-phase-i-cardiac-rehabilitation
#17
Lawrence Anchah, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Melissa Siaw Han Lim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Kui Hian Sim, Tiong Kiam Ong
BACKGROUND: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is one of the most burdensome cardiovascular diseases in terms of the cost of interventions. The Cardiac Rehabilitation Programme (CRP) is well-established in improving clinical outcomes but the assessment of actual clinical improvement is challenging, especially when considering pharmaceutical care (PC) values in phase I CRP during admission and upon discharge from hospital and phase II outpatient interventions. This study explores the impact of pharmacists' interventions in the early stages of CRP on humanistic outcomes and follow-up at a referral hospital in Malaysia...
January 13, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072645/psychotherapy-parity-and-ethical-utilization-management
#18
Eric M Plakun
Managed care has long functioned with the assumption of a split in clinical and ethical responsibility for treatment. The insurance company clinician has been seen as owing a primary obligation to the insurance company and its utilization management standards, while the treating clinician is seen as holding primary clinical and ethical responsibility for the patient and the treatment. This article explores the potential impact of mental health parity mandates and recent clarifications of the American Psychiatric Association's ethical code on this split for psychiatrists and other clinicians who develop utilization management standards or serve as utilization reviewers...
January 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068875/online-counseling-an-exploratory-survey-of-italian-psychologists-attitudes-towards-new-ways-of-interaction
#19
Sabrina Cipolletta, Damiano Mocellin
OBJECTIVE: Online counseling may be defined as an interaction between users and mental health professionals that takes place through computer mediated communication technology. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes of Italian psychologists towards different aspects of online counseling provided via email, chat, forums, and videoconference. METHOD: An online questionnaire was administered to a sample of 289 licensed psychologists in the Veneto Region (Italy) in order to collect opinions, preferences, and intentions to use online modalities, along with prior knowledge and practice experiences...
January 9, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060434/participatory-bioethics-research-and-its-social-impact-the-case-of-coercion-reduction-in-psychiatry
#20
Tineke A Abma, Yolande Voskes, Guy Widdershoven
In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage...
February 2017: Bioethics
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